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3 1833 00877 8315 






Newton Bateman, LL. D. Paul Selbv, A. M. 


™^-^^- jS^^ 



Richard V. Carpentef 

Volume 11 



M U .\ S E L L P U B L I S II 1 \ G C O M P A X V 

>rding to act of Congress in the ye 

iSu4, is.jj and r.oo. by 




EETXOLDS, John, Justice of Supreme Court 
and fourth Governor of Illinois, was born of Irish 
ancestrj% in Montgomery County, Pa., Feb. 26, 
1789, and brought by his parents to Kaskaskia, 
111. , in 1800, spending the iirst nine years of his 
life in Illinois on a farm. After receiving a com- 
mon school education, and a two years' course of 
study in a college at Knoxville, Tenn., he studied 
law and began practice. In 1813-13 he served as 
a scout in the campaigns against the Indians, 
winning for himself the title, in after life, of "The 
Old Ranger." Afterwards he removed to 
Cahokia. where he began the practice of 
law, and, in 1818, became Associate Justice of the 
first Supreme Court of the new State. Retiring 
from the bench in 1825, he served two terms in 
the Legislature, and was elected Governor in 
1830, in 1832 personally commanding the State 
volunteers called for service in the Black Hawk 
War. Two weeks before the expiration of his 
term (1834), he resigned to accept a seat in Con- 
gress, to which he had been elected as the suc- 
cessor of Charles Slade, who had died in office, 
and was again elected in 1838, always as a Demo- 
crat. He also served as Representative in the 
Fifteenth General Assembly, and again in the 
Eighteenth (1852-54), being chosen Speaker of the 
latter. In 1858 he was the administration (or 
Buchanan) Democratic candidate for State Su- 
perintendent of Public Instruction, as opposed to 
the Republican and regular (or Douglas) Demo- 
cratic candidates. For some years he edited a 
daily paper called "The Eagle," which was pub- 
lished at Belleville. While Governor Reynolds 
acquired .some reputation as a "classical scholar," 
from the time spent in a Tennessee College at 
that early day, this was not sustained by either 
his colloquial or written style. lie was an 
ardent champion of slavery, and, in the early 
days of the Rebellion, gained unfavorable notori- 
ety in consequence of a letter written to Jefferson 
Davis expressing sympathy with the cause of 
"secession." Nevertheless, in spite of intense 
prejudice and bitter partisanship on some ques- 
tions, he possessed many amiable qualities, as 
shown by his devotion to temperance, and his 
popularity among persons of opposite political 
opinions. Although at times crude in style, and 
not alwaj's reliable in his statement of historical 
facts and events, Governor Rej-nolds has rendered 
a valuable service to posterity by his writings 
relating to the early history of the State, espe- 
cially those connected with his own times. His 
best known works are: "Pioneer History of Illi- 
nois" (Belleville, 1848); "A Glance at the Crystal 

Palace, and Sketches of Travel" (1854); and "3Iy 
Life and Times" (1855). His death occurred at 
Belleville, May 8, 1865. 

REYXOLDS, John Parker, Secretary and 
President of State Board of Agriculture, was born 
at Lebanon, Ohio, March 1, 1820, and graduated 
from the Miami University at the age of 18. In 
1840 he graduated from the Cincinnati Law 
School, and soon afterward began practice. He 
removed to Illinois in 1854, settling first in Win- 
nebago County, later, successively in Marion 
County, in Springfield and in Chicago. From 
1860 to 1870 he was Secretary of the State Agri- 
cultural Society, and, upon the creation of the 
State Board of Agriculture in 1871, was elected 
its President, filling that position until 1888, 
when he resigned. He has also occupied numer- 
ous other posts of honor and of trust of a public 
or semi-public character, having been President 
of the Illinois State Sanitary Commission during 
the War of the Rebellion, a Commissioner to the 
Paris Exposition of 1867, Chief Grain Inspector 
from 1878 to 1882, and Secretary of the Inter- 
State Industrial Exposition Company of Chicago, 
from the date of its organization (1873) until its 
final dissolution. His most important public 
service, in recent years, was rendered asDirector- 
in-Chief of the Illinois esliibit in the World's 
Columbian Exposition of 1893. 

REYNOLDS, Joseph Smith, soldier and legis- 
lator, was born at New Lenox, 111., Dec. 3, 1839; 
at 17 years of age went to Chicago, was educated 
in the high school there, within a month after 
graduation enlisting as a private in the Sixty- 
fourth Illinois Volunteers. From the ranks he 
rose to a colonelcy through the gi'adations of 
Second-Lieutenant and Captain, and, in July, 
1865, was brevetted Brigadier-General. He was 
a gallant soldier, and was thrice wounded. On 
his return home after nearly four years' service, 
he entered the law department of the Chicago 
University, graduating therefrom and beginning 
practice in 1866. General Reynolds has been 
prominent in public life, having served as a 
member of both branches of the General Assem- 
bly, and having been a State Commissioner to the 
Vienna Exposition of 1873. He is a member of 
the G. A. R., and, in 1875. was elected Senior 
Vice-Commander of the order for the United 

REYNOLDS, WilUam Morton, clergyman, was 
born in Fayette County, Pa. , March 4, 1813 ; after 
graduating at Jefferson College, Pa., in 1832, was 
connected with various institutions in that State, 
as well as President of Capital University at 


Columbus, Ohio,; then, coming to Illinois, was 
President of the Illinois State University at 
Springfielil, IS.'iT-GO, after which he became Prin- 
cipal of a female seminary in Chicago. Previ- 
ously a Lutheran, he took orders in the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in 1864, and served several 
parishes until his death. In his early life he 
founded, and, for a time, conducted several reli- 
gious publications at Gettysburg, Pa., besides 
issuing a number of printed addresses and other 
published works. Died at Oak Park, near Chi- 
cago, Sept. 5, 1876. 

RHOADS, (Col.) Franklin Lawrence, soldier 
and steamboat captain, was born in Ilarrisburg, 
Pa.. Oct. 11, 1824; brought to Pekin, Tazewell 
County, 111., in 1836, where he learned the print- 
er's trade, and, on the breaking out of the 
Jlexican War, enlisted, serving to the close. 
Returning home he engaged in the river trade, 
and, for fifteen years, commanded steamboats on 
the Illinois, Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. In 
April, 1861. he was commissioned Captain of a 
company of three months' men attached to the 
Eighth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, and, on the 
reorganization of the regiment for the three- 
years' service, was commissioned Lieutenant- 
Colonel, soon after being promoted to the colo- 
nelcy, as successor to Col. Richard J. Oglesby, who 
had been promoted Brigadier-General. After 
serving through the spring campaign of 1863 in 
Western Kentucky and Tennessee, he was com- 
pelled by rapidly declining health to resign, when 
he located in Shawneetown, retiring in 1874 to 
his farm near that city. During the latter years 
of his life he was a confirmed invalid, dying at 
Shawneetown. Jan. 6, 1879. 

RHOADS, Joshua, M.D., A.M., physician and 
educator, was born in Pliiladelphia, Sept. 14, 
1806; studied medicine and graduated at the 
University of Pennsylvania with the degree of 
M.D., also receiving the degree of A.M., from 
Princeton ; after several years spent in practice 
as a physician, and as Principal in some of the 
public schools of Philadelphia, in 1839 he was 
elected Principal of the Pennsylvania Institution 
for the Blind, and, in 1850, took charge of the 
State Institution for the Blind at Jacksonville, 
111., then in its infancy. Here he remained until 
1874, when he retired. Died, February 1, 1876. 
RICE, Edward T., lawyer and jurist, born in 
Logan County, Ky., Feb. 8, 1820, was educated in 
the common schools and at Shurtleff College, 
after which he read law with John M. Palmer at 
Carlinville, and was admitted to practice, in 1845, 
at Hillsboro; in 1847 was elected County Recorder 

of Montgomery County, and, in 1848, to the Six- 
teenth General Assembly, .serving one term. 
Later he was elected County Judge of Montgom- 
ery County, was Master in Chancery from 1853 to 
1857, and the Latter year was elected Judge of the 
Eighteenth Circuit, being re-elected in 1861 and 
again in 1867. He was also a member of the 
Constitutional Convention of 1869-70, and, at the 
election of the latter year, was chosen Repre- 
sentative in the Forty -second Congress as a 
Democrat. Died, April 16, 1883. 

RICE, Jolin B., theatrical manager. Mayor of 
Chicago, and Congressman, was born at Easton, 
Md., in 1809. By profession he was an actor, 
and, coming to Chicago in 1847, built and opened 
there the first theater. In 1857 he retired from 
the stage, and, in 1865, was elected Mayor of 
Chicago, the city of his adoption, and re-elected 
in 1867. He was also prominent in the early 
stages of the Civil War in the measures taken to 
raise troops in Chicago. In 1872 he was elected 
to the Forty-third Congress as a Republican, but, 
before the expiration of his term, died, at Nor- 
folk, Va., on Deo. 6, 1874. At a special election 
to fill the vacancy, Bernard G. Caulfield was 
chosen to succeed him. 

RICHARDSON, William A., lawyer and poli- 
tician, bom in Fayette County, Ky., Oct. 11, 
1811, was educated at Transylvania LTniversity, 
came to the bar at 19, and settled in Schuyler 
County, 111., becoming State's Attorney in 1835; 
was elected to the lower branch of the Legislature 
in 1836. to the Senate in 1838, and to the House 
again in 1844, from Adams County — the latter 
year being also chosen Presidential Elector on 
the Polk and Dallas ticket, and, at the succeeding 
session of the General Assembh-, serving as 
Speaker of the House. He entered the Jlexican 
War as Captain, and won a Majority through 
gallantry at Buena Vista. From 1847 to 1856 
(when he resigned to become a candidate for 
Governor), he was a Democratic Representative 
in Congress from the Quincy District ; re-entered 
Congress in 1861, and, in 1863, was chosen 
LTnited States Senator to fill the unexpired term 
of Stephen A. Douglas. He was a delegate to the 
National Democratic Convention of 1868, but 
after that retired to private life, acting, for a 
short time, as editor of "The Quincy Herald." 
Died, at Quincy, Dec. 27, 1875. 

RICHLAND COUNTY, situated in the south- 
east quarter of the State, and has an area of 361 
square miles. It was organized from Edwards 
County in 1841. Among the early pioneers may 
be mentioned the Evans brothers. Thaddeus 



Morehouse, Hugh Calhoun and son, Thomas 
Gardner, James Parker, Cornelius De Long, 
James Gilmore and Elijah Nelson. In 1820 
there were but thirtj' families in the district. 
The first frame houses — tlie Nelson and More- 
house homesteads — were built in 1821, and, some 
years later, James Laws erected the first brick 
house. The pioneers traded at Vincennes, but, 
in 1825, a store was opened at Stringtown by- 
Jacob May ; and the same year the first school was 
opened at Watertown, taught by Isaac Chaun- 
cey. The first church was erected by tlie Bap- 
tists in 1832, and services were conducted by 
William Martin, a Kentuckian. For a long time 
the mails were carried on liorseback by Louis 
and James Beard, but, in 1824, Mills and Whet- 
sell established a line of four-horse stages. The 
principal road, known as the "trace road," lead- 
ing from Louisville to Cahokia, followed a 
buffalo and Indian trail about where the main 
street of Olney now is. Olne}' was selected as 
the county-seat upon the organization of the 
county, and a Mr. Lilly built the first house 
there. The chief branches of industry followed 
by the inhabitants are agriculture and fruit- 
growing. Population (1880), 13,545; (1890), 
15,019; (1900), 1G,391. 

RIDGE FARM, a village of Vermillion County, 
at junction of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago 
& St. Louis and the Toledo, St. Louis & Western 
Railroads, 174 miles northeast of St. Louis; has 
electric light plant, planing mill, elevators, bank 
and two papers. Pop. (1900), 933; (1904), 1,300. 

RIDGELY, a manufacturing and mining sub- 
urb of the city of Springfield. An extensive 
rolling mill is located there, and there are several 
coal-shafts in the vicinity. Population(1900), 1,169. 

RIDGELY, Charles, manufacturer and capi- 
talist, born in Springfield, 111. , Jan. 17, 1836 ; was 
educated in private schools and at Illinois Col- 
lege; after leaving college spent some time as a 
clerk in his father's bank at Springfield, finally 
becoming a member of the firm and successively 
Cashier and Vice-President. In 1870 he was 
Democratic candidate for State Treasurer, but 
later has affiliated with the Republican party. 
About 1872 he became identified with the Spring- 
field Iron Company, of which he has been Presi- 
dent for many years : has also been President of 
the Consolidated Coal Company of St. Louis and, 
for some time, was a Director of the Wabash Rail- 
road. Mr. Ridgely is also one of the Trustees of 
Illinois College. 

RIDGELY, Nicholas H., early banker, was 
born in Baltimore, Md., April 27, 1800; after 

leaving school was engaged, for a time, in the 
dry-goods trade, but, in 1829, came to St. Louis 
to assume a clerkship in the branch of the 
United States Bank just organized there. In 
1835 a branch of the State Bank of Illinois was 
established at Springfield, and Mr. Ridgely 
became its cashier, and. when it went into liqui- 
dation, was appointed one of the trustees to wind 
up its affairs. He subsequently became Presi- 
dent of the Clark's Exchange Bank in that city, 
but this liaving gone into liquidation a few years 
later, he went into the private banking business 
as head of the "Ridgely Bank," which, in 1866, 
became the "Ridgely National Bank," one of the 
strongest financial institutions in the State out- 
side of Chicago. After the collapse of the inter- 
nal improvement scheme, Mr. Ridgely became 
one of the purchasers of the "Northern Cross 
Railroad" (now that part of the Wabash system 
extending from the Illinois river to Springfield), 
when it was sold by the State in 1847, paying 
therefor §21,100. He was also one of the Spring- 
field bankers to tender a loan to the State at the 
beginning of the war in 1861. He was one of the 
builders and principal owner of the Springfield 
gas-light system. His business career was an 
eminently successful one, leaving an estate at 
his death, Jan. 31, 1888, valued at over §2,000,000. 

RIDGWAY, a village of Gallatin County, on the 
Shawneetown Division of the Baltimore & Ohio 
Southwestei-n Railway, 12 miles northwest of 
Shawneetown ; has a bank and one newspaper. 
Pop. (1890), ,523; (1900), 839; (1903, est), 1,000. 

RIDGWAY, Thomas S., merchant, banker and 
politician, was born at Carmi, 111., August 30, 
1826. His father having died when he was but 4 
years old and his mother when he was 14, his 
education was largely acquired through contact 
with the world, apart from such as he received 
from his mother and during a year's attendance 
at a private school. When he was 6 years of age 
the family removed to Shawneetown, where lie 
ever afterwards made his home. In 1845 lie em- 
barked in business as a merchant, and the firm 
of Peeples & Ridgway soon became one of the 
most prominent in Southern Illinois. In 1865 the 
partners closed out their business and organized 
the first National Bank of Shawneetown, of 
which, after the death of Mr. Peeples in 1875, 
Mr. Ridgway was President. He was one of 
the projectors of the Springfield & Illinois South- 
eastern Railway, now a part of the Baltimore & 
Ohio Southwestern system, and, from 1867 to 
1874, served as its President. He was an ardent 
and active Republican, and served as a delegate 



to everv State caiul National Convention of his 
party from 1S(kS to 1S96. In 1874 lie was v^lected 
State Treasurer, the candidate for Superintendent 
of Public Instruction on the same ticket being 
defeated. In 1870 and 1880 he was an unsuccess- 
ful candidate for his party's nomination for Gov- 
ernor. Tliree times he consented to lead the 
forlorn hojie of the Republicans as a candidate 
for Congress from an impregnably Democratic 
stronghold. For several years lie was a Director 
of the McCorniick Theological Seminary, at Chi- 
cago, and. for nineteen years, was a Trustee of the 
Southern Illinois Normal University at Carbon- 
dale, resigning in 1893. Died, at Shawneetown, 
Nov. 17, 1897. 

RUiGS, James M., ex-Congressman, was born 
in Scott County, 111., April 17, 1839, where he 
received a common school education, supple- 
mented by a partial collegiate course. He is a 
practicing lawyer of Winchester. In 1864 he was 
elected Slieriff. serving two years. In 1871-72 he 
rej)resented Scott County in the lower house of 
the Twenty-seventh General Assembly, and was 
State's Attorney from 1873 to 1876. In 1882, and 
again in 1884, he was the successful Democratic 
candidate for Congress in the Twelfth Illinois 

KIGUS, Scott, pioneer, was born in North 
Carolina about 1790; removed to Crawford 
County, 111, early in 1815, and represented that 
county in the First General As.sembly (1818-20). 
In 182.J he removed to Scott County, where he 
continueil to reside until his death, Feb. 24, 1872. 
HIX'AKER, John I., lawyer and Congressman, 
born in Baltimore, Md., Nov. 18. 1830. Left an 
or|ihan at an early age. he came to Illinois in 
1S3G, and, for several years, lived on farms in 
Sangamon and Jlorgan Counties; was educated 
at Illinois and McKendree Colleges, graduating 
from tlie latter in 18,51 ; in 1852 began reading 
law with John JI. Palmer at Carlinville, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1854. In August, 1862, he 
recruited the One Hundred and Twenty-.seconu 
Illinois Volunteers, of whiclx he was commis- 
sioned Colonel. Four months later he was 
wounded in battle, but served with his regiment 
through the war, and was brevetted Brigadier- 
General at its close. Returning from the war he 
resumed the practice of his profession at Carlin- 
ville. Since 18.58 he has been an active Repub- 
lican; has twice (1872 and "70) .served his party 
as a Presidential Elector — the latter year for the 
Stateat-large — and. in 1874, accepted a nomina- 
tion for Congress against William R. Morrison. 
largely reducing the normal Democratic major- 

ity. At the State Kepulilican Convention of 1880 
he was a prominent, but unsuccessful, candidatf 
for the Republican nomination for Governor. I' 
1894 he made the race as the Republican candi- 
date for Congress in the Sixteenth District a.nd, 
although his opponent was awarded the certifi- 
cate of election, on a bare majority of 60 votes on 
the face of tlie returns, a re-count, ordered by the 
Fifty-fourth Congress, showed a majority for 
General Rinaker, and he was seated near the 
close of the first session. He was a candidate 
for re-election in 1896, but defeated in a strongh' 
Democratic District. 

RIPLEY, Edward Payson, Railway President, 
was born in Dorchester (now a part of Boston), 
Mass., Oct. 30, 1845, being related, on his mother's 
side, to the distinguished author. Dr. Edward 
Payson. After receiving his education in the 
high school of his native place, at the age of 17 
he entered upon a commercial life, as clerk in a 
wholesale dry-goods establishment in Boston 
About the time he became of age, he entered into 
the service of the Pennsylvania Railroad as a 
clerk in the freight department in the Boston 
oflSce, but. a few years later, assumed a responsible 
position in connection with the Chicago. Burling- 
ton & Quincy line, finally becoming General 
Agent for the business of ' that road east of 
Buffalo, though retaining his headquarters at 
Boston. In 1878 he removed to Chicago to accept 
the position of General Freight Agent of the Chi- 
cago, Burlington & Quincy System, with which 
he remained twelve years, serving successively as 
General Traffic Manager and General ^Manager, 
until June 1, 1890, when he resigned to become 
Third Vice-President of the Chicago, Milwaukee 
& St. Paul line. This relation was continued 
until Jan. 1, 1896, when Mr. Ripley accepted 
the Presidency of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa 
Fe Railroad, wliich (1899) he now holds. Mr. 
Ripley was a prominent factor in securing the 
location of the World's Columbian Exposition at 
Chicago, and, in April, 1891, was chosen one of 
the Directors of tlie Exposition, serving on tlie 
Executive Committee and tlie Committee of 
Ways and Means and Transportation, being Chair- 
man of tlie latter. 

RIVERSIDE, a suburban town on the Des 
Plaines River and the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy Railway, 11 miles west of Chicago: has 
handsome parks, several churches, a bank, 
two local papers and numerous fine residences. 
Population (1890), 1,000; (1900), 1,551 

RIVERTON, a village in Clear Creek Town- 
ship, Sangamon County, at the crossing of thfi 



Wabash Railroad over the Sangamon River, 6;^ 
miles east-northeast of Springfield. It has four 
churches, a nursery, and two coal mines Popu- 
lation (1880), 705; (1890), 1,127, (1900), 1 511 ; (1903, 
est.), about'-, 000. 

RITES, John Cook, early banker and journal- 
ist, was born in Franklin County, Va., Jlay 24, 
1795; in 1806 removed to Kentuckj-, where he 
grew up under care of an uncle, Samuel Casey. 
He received a good education and was a man of 
high character and attractive manners. In his 
early manhood he came to Illinois, and was con- 
nected, for a time, with the Branch State Bank 
at Edwardsville, but, about 1824, removed to 
Shawneetown and held a position in the bank 
there; also studied law and was admitted to 
practice. Finally, having accepted a clerksliip 
in the Fourth Auditor's Office in Washington, 
he removed to that city, and, in 1830, became 
associated with Francis P. Blair, Sr., in the 
establishment of "The Congressional Globe" (the 
predecessor of "The Congressional Record"), of 
which he finally became sole proprietor, so 
remaining until 1864. Like his partner, Blair, 
although a native of Virginia and a life-long 
Democrat, he was intensely loyal, and contrib- 
uted liberally of his means for the equipment of 
soldiers from the District of Columbia, and for 
the support of their families, during the Civil 
War, His expenditures for these objects have 
been estimated at some §30,000. Died, in Prince 
George's County, Md., April 10, 1864. 

RO.i'N'OKE, a village of Woodford County, on 
the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, 26 
miles northeast of Peoria; is in a coal district; 
has two banks, a coal mine, and one newspaper 
Population (1880), 3.55; (1890), 831; (1900), 966. 

ROBB, Thomas Patten, Sanitary Agent, was 
born in Bath, Maine, in 1819; came to Cook 
County, 111., in 1838, and, after arriving at man- 
hood, established the first exclusive wholesale 
grocery house in Chicago, remaining in the busi- 
ness until 1850. He then went to California, 
establishing himself in mercantile business at 
Sacramento, where he remained seven years. 
meanwhile being elected Maj'or of Tliat city. 
Returning to Chicago on the breaking out of the 
war, he was appointed on the staff of Governor 
Yates with the rank of Major, and, while serv- 
ing in this capacity, was instrumental in giving 
General Grant the first dut}- he performed in the 
office of the Adjutant-General after his arrival 
from Galena. Later, he was assigned to duty as 
Inspector-General of Illinois troops with the rank 
of Colonel, having general charge of sanitary 

affairs until the close of the war, when he was 
appointed Cotton Agent for the State of Georgia, 
and, still later. President of the Board of Tax 
Commissioners for that State. Other positions 
held by him were those of Postmaster and Col- 
lector of Customs at Savannah, Ga. ; he was also 
one of the publishers of "The New Era," a 
Republican paper at Atlanta, and a prominent 
actor in reconstruction affairs. Resigning the 
Collectorship, he was appointed by the President 
United States Commissioner to investigate Mexi- 
can outrages on the Rio Grande border ; was sub- 
sequently identified with Texas railroad interests 
as the President of the Corpus Christi & Rio 
Grande Railroad, and one of the projectors of the 
Chicago, Texas & Mexican Central Railway, being 
thus engaged until 1872. Later he returned to 
California, dying near Glenwood, in that State, 
April 10, 1895, aged 75 years and 10 months. 

ROBERTS, William Charles, clergyman and 
educator, was born in a small village of Wales, 
England., Sept. 23, 1832; received his primary 
education in that country, but, removing to 
America during his minority, graduated from 
Princeton College in 1855, and from Princeton 
Theological Seminary in 1858. After filling vari- 
ous pastorates in Delaware, New Jersey and Ohio, 
in 1881 he was elected Corresponding Secretary 
of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, 
the next year being offered the Presidency of 
Rutgers College, which he declined. In 1887 he 
accepted the presidency of Lake Forest Univer- 
sity, which he still retains. From 1859 to 1863 
he was a Trustee of Lafayette College, and, in 
1866, was elected to a trusteeship of his Alma 
Mater. He has traveled extensively in the 
Orient, and was a member of the first and third 
councils of tlie Reformed Churches, held at Edin- 
burgh and Belfast. Besides occasional sermons 
and frequent contributions to English, Ameri- 
can, German and Welsh periodicals. Dr. Roberts 
has published a Welsh translation of the West- 
minster shorter catechism and a collection of 
letters on the great preachers of Wales, which 
appeared in Utica, 1868. He received the de.gree 
of D,D., from Union College in 1872. and that of 
LL.D,, from Princeton, in 1887, 

ROBISSOX, an incorporated city and the 
county-seat of Crawford Courty, 25 miles north- 
west of Vincennes, Ind., and 44 miles south of 
Paris, 111. ; is on two lines of railroad and in the 
heart of a fruit and agricultural region The 
city has water-works, electric lights, two banks 
and three weekly newspapers Population (1890) 
1,387; (1900), 1,683; (1904), about 2.000. 



ROBINSON, James C, lawyer and former 
Congressman, was born in Edgar County, 111., in 
1823, read law and was admitted to the bar in 
1850. He served as a private during the Mexican 
■War, and, in IsriS, was elected to Congress as a 
Democrat, as he was again in 1860, "OO, "70 and 
'72. In 1864 he was the Democratic nominee for 
Governor. He was a fluent speaker, and attained 
considerable distinction as an advocate in crimi- 
nal practice. Died, at Springfield, Nov. 3, 18SG. 
ROBINSO', John M., United States Senator, 
Iwrn in Kentucky in 1793, was liberally educated 
and became a lawyer by profession. In early life 
he -settled at Carmi, 111., where he married. He 
was of fine physique, of engaging manners, and 
personally popular. Through his association 
with the State militia he earned the title of 
"General." In 1830 he was elected to the United 
States Senate, to fill the unexpired term of John 
McLean. His immediate predecessor was David 
Jewett Baker, appointed by Governor Edwards, 
who served one month but failed of election bj' 
the Legislature. In 1834 Mr. Robinson was re- 
elected for a full term, which expired in 1841. 
In 1843 he was elected to a seat upon the Illinois 
Supreme bench, but died at Ottawa, April 27, of 
the same year, within three months after his 

ROCHELLE, a city of Ogle County and an 
intersecting point of the Chicago & Northwestern 
and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railways. 
It is 7.5 miles west of Chicago, 27 miles south of 
Rockford, and 23 miles east by north of Dixon. 
It is in a rich agricultural and stock-raising 
region, rendering Rochelle an important ship- 
ping point. Among its industrial establish- 
ments are water- works, electric lights, a flouring 
mill and silk-underwear factory The city has 
three banks, five clnirches and three newspapers. 
Pop. (1890). 1,789; (1900), 2,073; (1903), 2.500. 

ROCHESTER, a village and early settlement 
in Sangamon County, laid out in 1819; in rich 
agricultural district, on the Baltimore & Ohio 
Southwe.stern Railroad, T/z miles southeast of 
Springfield; has a bank, two churches, one school, 
and a newspaper. Population (1900) 36.5 

ROCK FALLS, a city in Whiteside County, on 
Rock River and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
Railroad; has excellent water-power, a good 
public scliool system with a high school, banks 
anil a weekly new.spaper. Agricultural imple- 
ments, barbed wire, furniture, flour and pajier are 
its chief manufactures. Water for the navigable 
feeder of the Hennepin Canal is taken from Rock 
River at this point. Pop. (1900). 2,176. 

BOCKFORD, a flourishing manufacturing 
city, the county -seat of Winnebago County ; lies 
on both sides of the Rock River, 92 miles west of 
Chicago. Four trunk lines of railroad — the Chi- 
cago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago & North- 
western, the Illinois Central and the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul— intersect here. Excellent 
water-power is secured by a dam across the river, 
and communication between the two divisions of 
the city is facilitated by three railway and three 
highway bridges. Water is provided from five 
artesian wells, a reserve main leading to the 
river. The city is wealthy, prosperous and pro- 
gressive. The assessed valuation of property, in 
1893, was §6^531,235. Churches are numerous and 
schools, both public and private, are abundant 
and well conducted. The census of 1890 showed 
$7,71.5,069 capital invested in 246 manufacturing 
establishments, which employed 5,223 persons and 
turned out an annual product valued at §8,888,- 
904. The principal industries are the manufac- 
ture of agricultural implements and furniture, 
though watches, silver-plated ware, paper, flour 
and grape sugar are among the other products. 
Pop. (1880), 13,129; (1890), 23,584; (1900), 31,051. 
ROCKFORD COLLEGE, located at Rockford, 
111., incorporated in 1847; in 1898 had a faculty 
of 21 instructors with 161 pupils. The branches 
taught include the classics, music and fine arts. 
It has a library of 6,150 volumes, funds and en- 
dowment aggregating §50.880 and property 
valued at §240,880, of which §150,000 is real 

ROCK ISLAND, the principal city and county- 
seat of Rock Island County, on the Mississippi 
River, 182 miles west by south from Chicago; is 
the converging point of five lines of railroad, and 
the western terminus of the Hennepin Canal. 
The name is derived from an island in the Missis- 
sippi River, opposite the city, 3 miles long, which 
belongs to the United States Government and 
contains an arsenal and armory. The river 
channel north of the island is navigable, the 
southern channel having been dammed by the 
Government, thereby giving great water power 
to Rock Island and Moline. A combined railway 
and highway bridge spans the river from Rock 
Island to Davenport, Iowa, crossing the island, 
while a railway bridge connects the cities a mile 
below. The island was the site of Fort Arm- 
strong during the Black Hawk War, and was also 
a place for the confinement of Confederate prison- 
ers during the Civil War. Rock Island is in a re- 
gion of much picturesque scenery and has exten- 
sive manufactures of lumber, agricultural imple- 



ments, iron, carriages and wagons and oilcloth ; 
also five banks and three newspapers, two issuing 
daily editions. Pop. (1890). 13,634: (1900), 19,493. 

ROCK ISLAA'D COUXTY, in the northwestern 
section of the State bordering upon the Missis- 
sippi River (which constitutes its northvrestern 
boundary for more than 60 miles), and having an 
area of 440 square miles. In 1816 the Govern- 
ment erected a fort on Rock Island (an island in 
the Mississippi, 3 miles long and one-half to 
three-quarters of a mile wide), naming it Fort 
Armstrong. It has always remained a militarj- 
post, and is now the seat of an extensive arsenal 
and work-shops. In the spring of 1828, settle- 
ments were made near Port Byron by John and 
Thomas Kinney, Archibald Allen and George 
Harlan. Other early settlers, near Rock Island 
and Rapids City, were J. W. Spencer, J. W. Bar- 
riels, Benjamin F. Pike and Conrad Leak; and 
among the pioneers were Wells and Jlichael Bart- 
lett, Joel Thompson, the Simms brothers and 
George Davenport. The country was full of 
Indians, this being the headquarters of Black 
Hawk and the initial point of the Black Hawk 
War. (See Black Hawk, and Black Hawk War.) 
By 1829 settlers were increased in number and 
county organization was effected in 1835, Rock 
Island (then called Stephenson) being made the 
county-seat. Joseph Conway was the first 
County Clerk, and Joel Wells, Sr., the first Treas- 
urer. The first court was held at the residence 
of John W. Barriels, in Farnhamsburg. The 
county is irregular in shape, and the soil and 
scenery greatly varied. Coal is abundant, the 
water-power inexhaustible, and the county's 
mining and manufacturing interests are very 
extensive. Several lines of railway cross the 
county, afi'ording admirable transportation facili- 
ties to both eastern and western markets. Rock 
Island and Moline (which see) are the two prin- 
cipal cities in the county, though there are 
several other important points. Coal Valley is 
the center of large mining interests, and Milan is 
also a manufacturing center. Port Byron is one 
of the oldest towns in the county, and has con- 
siderable lime and lumber interests, while Water- 
town is the seat of the Western Hospital for the 
Insane. Population of the county (1880), 38,302; 
(1890), 41,917; (1900), .5.5.249. 

standard-guage road, laid with steel rails, extend- 
ing from Rock Island to Peoria, 91 miles. It is 
lessee of the Rock Island & Mercer County Rail- 
road, running from Milan to Cable, 111. , giving it 
a total length of 118 miles — with Peoria Terminal, 

121.10 miles.— (History.) The company is a 
reorganization (Oct. 9, 1877) of the Peoria & 
Rock Island Railroad Company, whose road was 
sold under foreclosure, April 4, 1877. The latter 
Road was the result of the consolidation, in 1869, 
of two corporations — the Rock Island & Peoria 
and the Peoria & Rock Island Railroad Compa- 
nies — the new organization taking the latter 
name. The road was opened through its entire 
length, Jan. 1, 1872, its sale under foreclosure and 
reorganization under its present name taking 
place, as already stated, in 1877. The Cable 
Branch was organized in 1876, as the Rock Island 
& Mercer County Railroad, and opened in De- 
cember of the same year, sold under foreclosure in 
1877, and leased to the Rook Island & Peoria Rail- 
road, July 1, 188.5, for 999 years, the rental for 
the entire period being commuted at 8450,000. — 
(Financial.) The cost of the entire road and 
equipment was 53,6.54,487. The capital stock 
(1898) is §1,500,000; funded debt, §600.000; other 
forms of indebtedness increasing the total capital 
invested to §3,181,066. 

ROCK RIVER, a stream which rises in Wash- 
ington County, Wis., and flows generally in a 
southerly direction, a part of its course being very 
sinuous. After crossing the northern boundar}' 
of Illinois, it runs southwestward, intersecting 
the counties of Winnebago. Ogle, Lee, Whiteside 
and Rock Island, and entering the Mississippi 
three miles below the city of Rock Island. 
It is about 375 miles long, but its navigation is 
partly obstructed by rapids, which, however, 
furnish abundant water-power. The principal 
towns on its banks are Rockford, Dixon and 
Sterling. Its valley is wide, and noted for its 
beauty and fertility. 

ROCKTON, a village in Winnebago County, at 
tlie junction of two branches of the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad, on Rock River, 
13 miles north of Rockford ; has manufactures of 
paper and agricultural implements, a feed mill, 
and local paper. Pop. (1890), 892; (1900), 936. 

ROE, Edward Reynolds, A.B., M.D., physician, 
soldier and author, was born at Lebanon, Ohio, 
June 22, 1813; removed with his father, in 1819, 
to Cincinnati, and graduated at Louisville Med- 
ical Institute in 1843 ; began practice at Anderson, 
Ind., but soon removed to Shawneetown, 111., 
where he gave much attention to geological 
research and made some extensive natural his- 
tory collections. From 1848 to "53 he resided at 
Jacksonville, lectured extensively on his favorite 
science, wrote for the press and, for two years 
(1850-53), edited "The Jacksonville Journal," still 



later eiiiting the iiewlv estiiblished •Constitu- 
tionalist" for a few months. During a part of 
this {Hjriod he was lecturer on natural science at 
Shurtleff College ; also delivered a lecture before 
the State Legislature on the geology of Illinois, 
which was immediately followed by the passage 
of tlie act establishing the State Geological 
Department. A majority of both houses joined 
in a request for his appointment as State Geolo- 
gist, but it was rejected on partisan grounds — 
he, then, being a Whig. Removing to Blooming- 
ton in 18.")2, Dr. Roe became prominent in educa- 
tional matters, being the first Professor of Natural 
Science in the State Xormal University, and also 
a Tru.stee of the Illinois Wesleyan University. 
Having identified himself with the Democratic 
party at this time, he became its nominee for 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction in 
1860, but, on the inception of the war in 1801, he 
promptly espoused the cause of the Union, raised 
three companies (mostly Xormal students) which 
were attached to the Thirty -third Illinois (Nor- 
mal) Regiment ; was elected Captain and succes- 
sively promoted to Major and Lieutenant-Colonel. 
Having been dangerously wounded in the assault 
at Vicksburg, on May 22, 1863, and compelled to 
return home, he was elected Circuit Clerk by the 
combined vote of both parties, was re-elected 
four years later, became editor of "Tiie Bloom- 
ington Pantagraph" and, in 1870, was elected to 
the Twenty-seventh General Assembly, where 
he won distinction by a somewhat notable 
humorous speech in opposition to removing the 
State Capital to Peoria. In 1871 he was ap- 
pointed Marshal for the Southern District of Illi- 
nois, serving nine years. Dr. Roe was a somewhat 
prolific author, having produced more than a 
dozen works which have appeared in book form. 
One of these, "Virginia Rose: a Tale of Illinois 
in Early Days," first appeared as a prize serial in 
"The Alton Courier" in 18.")2. Others of his more 
noteworthy productions are : "The Gray and the 
Blue"; "Brought to Bay": "From the Beaten 
Path": "G. A. R. ; or How She Married His 
Double": "Dr. Caldwell: or the Trail of the 
Serpent" ; and "Prairie-Land and Other Poems." 
He died in Chicago, Nov 6. 1893. 

ROGERS, (ieorge Clarke, soldier, was born in 
Grafton County, N II., Nov. 22, 1.S38; but was 
educated in Vermont and Illinois, having re- 
moved to the latter State early in life. While 
leaching he studied law and was admitted to tlie 
bar in 1860: w:is the first, in 1861, to raise a com- 
pany in Lake County for the war, wliich was 
m1 into the Fifteenth Illinois Volunteers; 

was chosen Second-Lieutenant and later Captain ; 
was wounded four times at Shiloh, but refu.sed to 
leave the field, and led his regiment in the final 
charge : was promoted Lieutenant-Colonel and 
soon after commissioned Colonel for gallantry at 
Hatchie. At Champion Hills he received three 
wounds, from one of which he never fully re- 
covered : took a prominent part in the operations 
at Allatoona and commanded a brigade nearly 
two years, including the Atlanta campaign, 
retiring with the rank of brevet Brigadier-Gen- 
eral. Since the war has practiced law in lUinois 
and in Kansas. 

ROGERS, Henry Wade, educator, lawyer and 
author, was born in Central New York in 1853 ; 
entered Hamilton College, but the following 
year became a student in Michigan University, 
graduating there in 1874, also receiving the 
degree of A.M., from the same institution, in 
1877. In 1883 he was elected to a professorship 
in the Ann Arbor Law School, and, in 1883, was 
made Dean of the Faculty, succeeding Judge 
Cooley, at the age of 32. Five years later he was 
tendered, and accepted, the Presidency of the 
Northwestern University, at Evanston, being the 
first layman chosen to the position, and succeed- 
ing a long line of Bishops and divines. The same 
year (1890). Wesleyan University conferred upon 
him the honorary degree of LL.D. He is a mem- 
ber of the American Bar Association, has served 
for a number of years on its Committee on Legal 
Education and Admi.ssion to the Bar, and was 
the first Chairman of the Section on Legal Edu- 
cation. President Rogers was the General Chair- 
man of the Conference on the Future Foreign 
Policy of the United States, held at Saratoga 
Springs, N. Y., in August, 1898. At the Con- 
gress held in 1893. as auxiliary to the Columbian 
Exposition, he was chosen Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Law Reform and Jurisprudence, and 
was for a time associate editor of "The American 
Law Register," of Philadelphia. He is also the 
author of a treatise on "Expert Testimony," 
whicli has passed through two editions, and has 
edited a work entitled "Illinois Citations," 
besides doing mucli other valuable literary work 
of a similar character. 

ROGERS, John Gorin, jurist, was born at 
Glasgow, Ky.. Dec. 28, 1818, of English and early 
Virginian ancestry ; was educated at Center Col- 
lege, Danville, Ky., and at Transylvania Univer- 
sity, graduating from the latter institution in 
1841, with the degree of Bachelor of Laws. For 
sixteen years he practiced in his native town, 
and, in 1857, removed to Chicago, where he soon 



attained professional prominence. In 1870 he 
was elected a Judge of the Cook County Circuit 
Court, continuing on the bench, through repeated 
re-elections, until his death, which occurred 
suddenly, Jan. 10, 1887, four years before the 
expiration of the term for which he had been 

ROGERS PARK, a village and suburb 9 miles 
north of Chicago, on Lake Michigan and the 
Chicago & Northwestern and the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul Railways ; has a bank and two 
weekly newspapers ; is reached by electric street- 
car line from Chicago, and is a popular residence 
suburb. Annexed to City of Chicago, 1893. 

ROLL, John E., pioneer, was born in Green 
Village, N. J., June 4, 1814; came to Illinois in 
1830, and settled in Sangamon County. He 
assisted Abraham Lincoln in the construction of 
the flat-boat with which the latter descended the 
Mississippi River to New Orleans, in 1831. Mr. 
Roll, who was a mechanic and contractor, built 
a number of houses in Springfield, where he has 
since continued to reside. 

Christians to establish places of worship in Illi- 
nois were priests of the Catholic faith. Early 
Catholic missionaries were explorers and histori- 
ans as well as preachers. (See Allouez; Bergier; 
Early Missionaries; Gravier; Marquette.) The 
church went hand in hand witli the represent- 
atives of the French Government, carrying in 
one hand the cross and in tlie other the flag of 
France, simultaneously disseminating the doc- 
trines of Christianity and inculcating loyalty to 
the House of Bourbon. For nearly a hundred 
years, the self-sacrificing and devoted Catholic 
clergy of tlie seventeenth and eigliteenth cen- 
turies ministered to the spiritual wants of the 
early French settlers and the natives. They were 
not without factional jealousies, however, and a 
severe blow was dealt to a branch of them in the 
order for the banishment of the Jesuits and the 
confiscation of their property. (See Early Mis- 
sionaries.) The suksequent occupation of the 
country by the English, with the contemporane- 
ous emigration of a considerable portion of the 
French west of the Mississippi, dissipated many 
congregations. Up to 1830 Illinois was included 
in the diocese of ^lissouri ; but at that time it was 
constituted a separate diocese, under the episco- 
pal control of Rt. Rev. Joseph Rosatti. At that 
date there were few, if any, priests in Illinois. 
But Bishop Rosatti was a man of earnest purpose 
and rare administrative ability. New parishes 
were organized as rapidly as circumstances 

would permit, and the growth of the church has 
been steady. By 1840 there were thirty-one 
parishes and twenty priests. In 1896 there are 
reported 698 parishes, 764 clergymen and a 
Catholic population exceeding 850,000. (See also 
Religious Denominations. ) 

ROODHOUSE, a city in Greene County, 21 
miles south of Jacksonville, and at junction of 
three divisions of the Chicago it Alton Railroad; 
is in fertile agricultural and coal-mining region; 
city contains a flouring mill, grain-elevatoi-, stock- 
yards, railway shops, water-works, electric light 
plant, two private banks, fine opera house, good 
school buildings, one daily and two weekly 
papers. Pop. (1890), 2,360; (1900), 2,351. 

ROODHOUSE, John, farmer and founder of 
the town of Roodhouse, in Greene County, 111., 
was born in Yorkshire, England, brought to 
America in childhood, his father settling in 
Greene County, 111., in 1831. In his early man- 
hood he opened a farm in Tazewell County, but 
finally returned to the paternal home in Greene 
County, where, on the location of the Jackson- 
ville Division of the Chicago & Alton Railroad, 
he laid out the town of Roodhouse, at the junc- 
tion of the Louisiana and Kansas City branch 
with the main line. 

ROOT, George Frederick, musical composer 
and author, was born at Sheffield, Mass. , August 
30, 1820. He was a natural musician, and, while 
employed on his father's farm, learned to play on 
various instruments. In 1838 he removed to Bos- 
ton, where he began his life-work. Besides 
teaching music in the public schools, he was 
employed to direct the musical service in two 
churches. From Boston he removed to New 
York, and, in 1850, went to Paris for purposes of 
musical study. In 1853 he made his first public 
essay as a composer in the song, " Hazel Dell, ' " 
which became popular at once. From this time 
forward his success as a song-writer was assured. 
His music, while not of a high artistic character, 
captivated the popular ear and appealed strongly 
to the heart. In 1860 he took up his residence in 
Chicago, where he conducted a musical journal 
and wrote those "war songs" which created and 
perpetuated liis fame. Among the best known 
are "Rally Round the Flag"; "Just Before the 
Battle, Mother"; and "Tramp, Tramp, Tramp." 
Other popular songs by him are "Rosalie, the 
Prairie Flower"; "A Hundred Years Ago" ; and 
"The Old Folks are Gone." Besides songs he 
composed several cantatas and much sacred 
music, also publishing many books of instruction 
and numerous collections of vocal and instru- 



mental music. In 1872 the University of Chicago 
coufcnccl i<n him the degree of Mus. Doc. Died, 
near Pnrtlainl, Maine. August 6, 18M. 

ROOTS, Bcnajah (Juernsey, civil engineer, 
and educator, was born in Onondaga County 
N. Y.. April 20, 1811, and educated in the schools 
and academies of Central Xew York; began 
teaching in 1827, and, after spending a year at 
sea for the benefit of liis health, took a course in 
law and civil engineering. He was employed as 
a civil engineer on the Western Railroad of 
Massachusetts until 1838, when he came to Illi- 
nois and obtained employment on the railroad 
projected from Alton to Shawneetown, under 
the "internal improvement system" of 1837. 
When that was suspended in 1839, he settled on 
a farm near the present site of Tamaroa, Perry 
County, and .soon after opened a boarding school, 
continuing its management until 1856, when he 
became Principal of a seminary at Sparta. In 
1851 he went into the sers-ice of the Illinois Cen- 
tral Railroad, first as resident engineer in 
charge of surveys and construction, later as land 
agent and attorney. He was prominent in the 
introduction of the graded school system in Illi- 
nois and in the establishment of the State Nor- 
mal School at Bloomington and the University of 
Illinois at Champaign; was a member of the 
State Board of Education from its organization, 
and served as delegate to the National Repub- 
lican Convention of 1868. Died, at his home in 
Perry County, 111., May 9, 1888.— Philander Keep 
(Roots), son of the preceding, born in Tolland 
County, Conn., June 4, 1838, brought to Illinois 
the same year and educated in his father's school, 
and in an academy at CarroUton and the Wes- 
leyan University at Bloomington : at the age of 
17 belonged to a corps of engineers emploj'ed on 
a Southern railroad, and, during the war, served 
as a civil engineer in the construction and repair 
of military roads. Later, he was Deputy Sur- 
veyor-General of Nebraska; in 1871 became Chief 
Engineer on the Cairo & Fulton (now a part of 
the Iron Mountain) Railway; then engaged in 
the banking business in Arkansas, first as cashier 
of a bank at Fort Smith and afterwards of the 
Merchants' National Bank at Little Rock, of 
which his brother, Logan H., was President.— 
Lo^an H. (Roots), another son. born near Tama- 
roa. Perry County, 111., March 22. 1841. was edu- 
cated at home and at the State Normal at 
Bloomington, meanwhile serving as principal 
of a high school at Duquoin ; in 18')2 enlisted in 
the Eighty-first Illinois Volunteers, serving 
tlirough the war and acting as Chief Commissary 

for General Sherman on the "March to the Sea," 
and participating in the great review in Wash- 
ington, in May, 186.5. After the conclusion of 
the war he was appointed Collector of Internal 
Revenue for the First Arkansas District, was 
elected from that State to the Fortieth and 
Forty-first Congresses (1868 and 1870)— being, at 
the time, the youngest member in that body — and 
was appointed United States Marshal by Presi- 
dent Grant. He finally became President of the 
Merchants" National Bank at Little Rock, with 
wliich he remained nearly twenty years. Died, 
suddenly, of congestion of the brain. May 30, 
1893, leaving an e.state valued at nearly one and 
a half millions, of which he gave a large share to 
charitable purposes and to the city of Little 
Rock, for the benefit of its hospitals and the im- 
provement of its parks. 

ROSE, James A,, Secretary of State, was born 
at Golconda, Pope County, 111., Oct. 13, 18.50. 
The foundation of his education was secured in 
the public schools of his native place, and, after 
a term in the Normal University' at Normal, 111., 
at the age of 18 he took charge of a country 
school. Soon he was chosen Principal of the 
Golconda graded schools, was later made County 
Superintendent of Schools, and re-elected for a 
second term. During his second term he was 
admitted to the bar, and, resigning the office of 
Superintendent, was elected State's Attorney 
without opposition, being re-elected for another 
term. In 1889, by appointment of Governor 
Fifer, he became one of the Trustees of the 
Pontiac Reformatory, serving until the next 
year, when he was transferred to the Board of 
Commissioners of tlie Southern Illinois Peniten- 
tiary at Chester, which position he continued to 
occupy until 1893. In 1896 he was elected Secre- 
tary of State on the Republican ticket, his term 
extending to January, 1901. 

ROSEYILLE, a village in Warren County, on 
the Rock Island Division of the Chicago, Burling- 
ton A: Quincy Railroad, 17 miles northwest of 
Bushnell; has water and electric-light plants, two 
banks, public library and one newspaper Region 
agricultural and coal-mining. Pop. (1900), 1.014. 

ROSS, Leonard Fulton, soldier, born in Fulton 
County, 111., July 18, 1823; was educated in the 
common schools and at Illinois College, Jackson- 
ville, studied law and admitted to the bar in 1840 ; 
the following year enlisted in the Fourth Illinois 
Volunteers for the ilexican War, became First 
Lieutenant and was commended for services at 
Vera Cruz and Cerro Gordo ; also performed im- 
portant service as bearer of dispatches for Gen- 



eral Taylor. After the war he served six years 
as Probate Judge. In May, 1861, he enlisted in 
the war for the Union, and was chosen Colonel 
of the Seventeenth Illinois Volunteers, serving 
with it in Missouri and Kentucky : was commis- 
sioned Brigadier-General a few weeks after the 
capture of Fort Donelson, and, after the evacu- 
ation of Corinth, was assigned to the command 
of a division with headquarters at Bolivar, Tenn. 
He resigned in July, 1863, and, in 1867, was 
appointed by President Johnson Collector of 
Internal Revenue for tlie Ninth District ; has 
been three times a delegate to National Repub- 
lican Conventions and twice defeated as a candi- 
'date for Congress in a Democratic District. 
Since the war he has devoted his attention 
largely to stock-raising, having a large stock- 
faim in Iowa. In his later years was President 
of a bank at Lewistown, lU. Died Jan. 17, 1901. 
ROSS, (Col.) William, pioneer, was born at 
Monson, Hampden County, Mass., April 24, 1792; 
removed with his father's family, in 180.5, to 
Pittsfield, Mass., where he remained until his 
twentieth year, when he was commissioned an 
Ensign in the Twenty-first Regiment United 
States Infantry, serving through the War of 
1813-14, and participating in the battle of Sack- 
ett's Harbor. During the latter part of his serv- 
ice he acted as drill-master at various points. 
Then, returning to Pittsfield, he carried on the 
business of blacksmithing as an employer, mean- 
while filling some local offices. In 1830, a com- 
pany consisting of himself and four brothers, 
with their families and a few others, started for 
the West, intending to settle in Illinois. Reach- 
ing the head-waters of the Allegheny overland, 
they transferred their wagons, teams and other 
property to flat-boats, descending that stream 
and the Ohio to Shawneetown, 111. Here they 
disembarked and, crossing the State, reached 
Upper Alton, where they found only one house, 
that of Maj. Charles W. Hunter. Leaving their 
families at Upper Alton, the brothers proceeded 
north, crossing the Illinois River near its mouth, 
until they reached a point in the western part of 
the present county of Pike, where the town of 
Atlas was afterwards located. Here they 
erected four rough log-cabins, on a beautiful 
prairie not far from the Mississippi, removing 
their families thither a few weeks later. They 
suffered the iLsual privations incident to life in a 
new country, not excepting sickness and death 
of some of their number. At the next session of 
the Legislature (1830-31) Pike County was estab- 
lislied, embracing all that part of the State west 

and north of the Illinois, and including the 
present cities of Galena and Chicago. The Ross 
settlement became the nucleus of the town of 
Atlas, laid out by Colonel Ross and his associates 
in 1833, at an early day the rival of Quincy, and 
becoming the second county-seat of Pike County, 
so remaining from 1834 to 1833, when the seat of 
justice was removed to Pittsfield. During this 
period Colonel Ross was one of the most promi- 
nent citizens of the county, holding, simultane- 
ously or successively, the offices of Probate 
Judge, Circuit and County Clerk, Justice of the 
Peace, and others of a subordinate character. 
As Colonel of Militia, in 1833, he was ordered by 
Governor Reynolds to raise a company for the 
Black Hawk War, and, in four days, reported at 
Beardstown with twice the number of men 
called for. In 1834 he was elected to the lower 
branch of the General Assembly, also serving in 
the Senate during the three following sessions, a 
part of the time as President pro tem. of the last- 
named body. While in the General Assembly he 
was instrumental in securing legislation of great 
importance relating to Military Tract lands. 
The }-ear following the establishment of the 
county-seat at Pittsfield (1834) he became a citi- 
zen of that place, which he had the privilege of 
naming for his early home. He was a member 
of the Republican State Convention of 18.56, and a 
delegate to the National Republican Convention 
of 1860, which nominated Mr. Lincoln for Presi- 
dent the first time. Beginning life poor he 
acquired considerable property ; was liberal, pub- 
lic-spirited and patriotic, making a handsome 
donation to the first company organized in Pike 
County, for the suppression of the Rebellion. 
Died, at Pittsfield, May 31, 1873. 

ROSSVILLE, a village of Vermillion County, 
on the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad, 19 
miles north of Danville; has electric-light plant, 
water-works, tile and brick-works, two banks and 
two newspapers. Pop. (1890), 879; (1900), 1,435. 

ROUNDS, Sterling Parker, public printer, 
was born in Berkshire, Vt., June 27, 1838; about 
1840 began learning the printer's trade at Ken- 
osha, Wis. , and, in 184.5. was foreman of the State 
printing office at Madison, afterward working in 
offices in Milwaukee. Racine and Buifalo, going 
to Chicago in 1851. Here he finally established 
a printer's warehouse, to which he later added an 
electrotype foundry and the manufacture of 
presses, also commencing the issue of "Round's 
Printers' Cabinet," a trade-paper, which was 
continued during his life. In 1881 he was ap- 
pointed by President Garfield Public Printer at 

:i(AL kncvcloI'k: 


WasliinKton, serving until 1H«S"<. wlieu he removed 
to Omalia. Neb., and was identified with "The 
Republican,"' of that city, until his death, Dec. 
17. IHHT. 

ROl'XTREE, Hiram, County Judge, born in 
Kutherford County, N. C, Dec. 22, 1T94; was 
hrought to Kentucky in infancy, where he grew 
to manhood and served as an Ensign in the War 
of 1812 under General Shelby. In 1817 he re- 
moved to Illinois Territory, first locating in 
Madison County, where he taught school for two 
years near Edwardsville, but removed to Faj-ette 
County alx)ut the time of the removal of the 
State capital to Vandalia. On the organization 
of Montgomery County, in 1821, he was appointed 
to office there and ever afterwards resided at 
Hillslxiro. For a number of years in the early 
history of the county, he held (at the same time) 
the offices of Clerk of the County Commissioners 
Court, Clerk of the Circuit Court, County 
Recorder, Justice of the Peace, Notary Public, 
Master in Chancery and Judge of Probate, besides 
that of Postmaster for the town of HilLsboro. In 
1826 he was elected Enrolling and Engrossing 
Clerk of the Senate and rerelected in 1830; served 
as Delegate in the Constitutional Convention of 
1847, and the next year was elected to the State 
Senate, serving in the Sixteenth and Seven- 
teenth General Assemblies. On retiring from 
the Senate (1852), he was elected Count}' Judge 
without opposition, was re-elected to the same 
office in 18(51, and again, in 186.5, as the nominee 
of the Republicans. Judge Rountree was noted 
for his .sound judgment and sterling integrity. 
Died, at Hillsboro. March 4, 1873. 

KOUTT, John L., soldier and Governor, wa,s 
born at Eddyville, Ky., April 25, 1826. brought 
to Illinois in infancy and educated in the com- 
mon schools. Soon after coming of age he was 
elected and served one term as Sheriff of McLean 
County ; in 1862 enlisted and became Captain of 
Company E, Ninety -fourth Illinois Volunteers. 
After the war he engaged in bu.siness in Bloom- 
ington, and was api)ointed by President Grant, 
successively, United States Marshal for the 
Southern District of Illinois, Second Assistant 
Postmaster-General and Territorial Governor of 
Colorado. On the admission of Colorado as a 
State, he was elected the first Governor under the 
State Government, and re-elected in 1890 — serv- 
ing, in all, three years. His home is in Denver. 
He has lieen exten.sively and successfully identi- 
fied with mining enterprises in Colorado. 

ROWELL, Jonathan H., ex-Congressman, was 
born at Haverhill, N. H., Feb. 10, 1833. He is a 

graduate of Eureka College and of the Law 
Department of the Chicago University. During 
the War of the Rebellion he served three years as 
company officer in the Seventeenth Illinois 
Infantry. In 1868 he was elected State's Attor- 
ney for the Eighth Judicial Circuit, and, in 1880. 
was a Presidential Elector on the Republican 
ticket. In 1882 he was elected to Congress from 
the Fourteenth Illinois District and three times 
reelected, serving until March, 1891. His home 
is at Bloomington. 

ROWETT, Richard, soldier, was born in Corn- 
wall, England, in 1830, came to the United 
States in 1851, finally settling on a farm near 
Carlinville, 111., and becoming a breeder of" 
thorough-bred horses. In 1861 he entered the 
service as a Captain in the Seventh Illinois 
Volunteers and was successively promoted 
Major, Lieutenant-Colonel and Colonel : was 
wounded in the battles of Shiloh, Corinth and 
AUatoona, especially distinguishing himself at the 
latter and being brevetted Brigadier-General for 
gallantry. After the war he returned to his 
stock farm, but later held the positions of Canal 
Commissioner, Penitentiary Commissioner, Rep- 
resentative in the Thirtieth General Assem- 
bly and Collector of Internal Revenue for the 
Fourth (Quincy) District, until its consolidation 
with the Eighth District by President Cleveland. 
Died, in Chicago. July 13, 1887. 

RUSH MEDICAL COLLEGE, located in Chi- 
cago; incorporated by act of March 2, 1837, the 
charter having been prepared the previous year 
by Drs. Daniel Brainard and Josiah C. Goodhue. 
The extreme financial depression of the following 
year prevented the organization of a faculty 
until 1843. The institution was named in honor 
of Dr. Benjamin Rush, the eminent practitioner, 
medical author and teacher of Philadelphia in the 
latter half of the eighteenth century. The first 
faculty consisted of four professors, and the first 
term opened on Dec. 4, 1843, with a class of 
twenty -two students. Three years' study was 
required for graduation, but only two annual 
terms of sixteen weeks each need be attended at 
the college itself. Instruction was given in a 
few rooms temporarily opened for that purpose. 
The next year a small building, costing between 
§3,000 and §4,000, was erected. This was re-ar- 
ranged and enlarged in 1855 at a cost of $15,000. 
The constant and rapid growth of the college 
necessitated the erection of a new building in 
1867, the cost of which was §70,000. This was 
destroyed in the fire of 1871, and another, costing 
$54,000, was erected in 1876 and a free dispensary 



added. In 18-44 the Presbyterian Hospital was 
located on a portion of the college lot, and the 
two institutions connected, thus insuiing abun- 
dant and stable facilities for clinical instruction. 
Shortly afterwards, Rush College became the 
medical department of Lake Forest University. 
The present faculty (1898) consists of 95 profes- 
sors, adjunct professors, lecturers and instructors 
of all grades, and over 600 students in attend- 
ance. The length of the annual terms is six 
months, and four years of study are required for 
graduation, attendance upon at least three col- 
lege terms being compulsory. 

RUSHVILLE, the county-seat of Schuyler 
County, 50 miles northeast of Quincy and 11 
miles northwest of Beardstown ; is the southern 
terminus of the Buda and Rushville branch of the 
Chicago, Biu-lington & Quincy Railroad. The 
town was selected as the county-seat in 1826, 
the seat of justice being removed from a place 
called Beardstown, about five miles eastward 
(not the present Beardstown in Cass County), 
where it had been located at the time of the 
organization of Schuyler County, a year previous. 
At first the new seat of justice was called Rush- 
ton, in honor of Dr. Benjamin Rush, but after- 
wards took its present name. It is a coal-mining, 
grain and fruit-growing region, and contains 
several manufactories, including flour-mills, brick 
and tile works; also has two banks (State and 
private) and a public library. Four periodicals 
(one daily) are published here. Population 
(1880), 1,662; (1890), 3,031; (1900), 2,293. 

RUSSELL, John, pioneer teacher and author, 
was born at Cavendish, Vt., July 31, 1793, and 
educated in the common schools of his native 
State and at Middlebury College, where he gradu- 
ated in 1818 — having obtained means to support 
himself, during his college course, by teaching 
and by the publication, before he had reached his 
30th year, of a volume entitled "The Authentic 
History of Vermont State Prison. " After gradu- 
ation he taught for a short time in Georgia ; but, 
early in the following year, joined his father on 
the way to Missouri. The next five years he 
spent in teaching in the "Bonhommie Bottom" 
on the Missouri River. During this period he 
published, anonymously, in "The St. Charles Mis- 
sourian," a temperance allegory entitled "The 
Venomous Worm" (or "The Worm of the Still"), 
which gained a wide popularity and was early 
recognized by the compilers of school-readers as 
a sort of classic. Leaving this locality he taught 
a year in St. Louis, when he removed to Vandalia 
(then the capital of Illinois), after which he spent 

two years teaching in the Seminary at Upper 
Alton, which afterwards became Shurtleff College. 
In 1828 he removed to Greene Countj-, locating 
at a point near the Illinois River to which he 
gave the name of Bluffdale. Here he was li- 
censed as a Baptist preacher, officiating in this ca- 
pacity only occasionally, while pursuing his 
calling as a teacher or writer for the press, to 
which he was an almost constant contributor 
during the last twenty-five years of his life. 
About 1837 or 1838 he was editor of a paper called 
"The Backwoodsman" at Grafton — then a part 
of Greene County, but now in Jersey County — to 
which he afterwards continued to be a contribu- 
tor some time longer, and, in 1841-43, was editor 
of "The Advertiser, ' at Louisville, Ky. He was 
also, for several years. Principal of the Spring 
Hill Academy in East Feliciana Parish, La., 
meanwhile serving for a portion of the time as 
Superintendent of Public Schools. He was the 
author of a number of stories and sketches, some 
of which went through several editions, and, at 
the time of his death, had in preparation a his- 
tory of "The Black Hawk War," "Evidences of 
Christianity" and a "History of Illinois." He 
was an accomplished linguist, being able to read 
with fluency Greek, Latin, French, Spanish and 
Italian, besides having considerable familiarity 
with several other modern languages. In 1863 
he received from the University of Chicago the 
degree of LL.D. Died, Jan. 2, 1863, and was 
buried on the old homestead at Bluffdale. 

RUSSELL, Martin J., politician and journal- 
ist, born in Chicago, Dec. 20, 1845. He was a 
nephew of Col. James A. Mulligan (see Mulligan, 
James A. ) and served with credit as Adjutant- 
General on the staff of the latter in the Civil 
War. In 1870 he became a reporter on "The 
Chicago Evening Post," and was advanced to 
the position of city editor. Subsequently he was 
connected with "The Times," and "The Tele- 
gram" ; was also a member of the Board of Edu- 
cation of Hyde Park before the annexation of 
that village to Chicago, and has been one of the 
South Park Commissioners of the city last named. 
After the purchase of "Tlie Chicago Times" by 
Carter H. Harrison he remained for a time on 
the editorial staff. In 1894 President Cleveland 
appointed him Collector of the Port of Chicago. 
At the expiration of his term of office he resumed 
editorial work as editor-in-chief of "The Chron- 
icle," the organ of the Democratic party in 
Chicago. Died June 25, 1900. 

RUTHERFORD, Friend S., lawyer and sol- 
dier, was born in Schenectady, N. Y., Sept. 25, 



1820; studied law in Troy and removed to Illi- 
nois, settlinf? at Edwardsville, and finally at 
Alton; was a Republican candidate for Presi- 
dential KU-ctor in IWG, and, in IHIMI. a member of 
lb.- National Republican Convention at Chicago, 
wliicb nominated Mr. Lincoln for the Presidency. 
In September. 18G3. he was commissioned Colonel 
of the Ninety-seventli Illinois Volunteers, and 
participated in the capture of Port Gibson and in 
the operations about Vicksburg— also leading in 
the attack on Arkans;is Post, and subsequently 
.serving in Louisiana, but died as the result of 
fatigue and exposure in the service, June 20, 
isr.4. one week before his promotion to the rank 
of Brigadier-General.— Reuben C. (Rutherford), 
brother of the preceding, was born at Troy, N. Y., 
Sept. 29, 1823, but grew up in Vermont and New 
Hampshire ; received a degree in law when quite 
young, but afterwards fitted himself as a lec- 
turer on pliysiology and hygiene, upon wliich he 
lectured extensively in Michigan, Illinois and 
other States after coming west in 1849. During 
185-1-55, in co-operation with Prof. J. B. Turner 
and others, he canvassed and lectured extensively 
throughout Illinois in support of the movement 
which resulted in the donation of public lands, 
by Congress, for the establishment of "Industrial 
Colleges" in the several States. The establish- 
ment of the University of lUinois, at Champaign, 
was the outgrowth of this movement. In 1856 he 
IcK'ated at Qvuncy. where he resided some thirty 
years; in 18G1, .served for several months as the 
fii-st Commissary of Subsistence at Cairo; was 
later associated with the State Quartermaster's 
Department, finally entering the secret service of 
the War Department, in which he remained until 
1807, retiring with the rank of brevet Brigadier- 
General. In 188(>, General Rutherford removed 
to New York City, where he died, June 24. 1895.— 
(icorge Y. (Rutherford), another brother, was 
born at Rutland, Vt., 1830; was first admitted to 
the bar. but afterwards took charge of the con- 
struction of telegraiih lines in some of the South- 
ern States; at the beginning of the Civil War 
became Assistant Quartermaster-General of the 
State of Illinois, at Springfield, under ex-Gov. 
John Wood, but sub.sequently " entered the 
Quartermaster's service of the General Govern- 
ment in Wiishington. retiring after the war with 
tlie rank of Brigadier-General. He then returned 
to Quincy, 111., wliere he resided until 1872, when 
lie engaged in manufacturing business at North 
ampton., but finally removed to California 
for the benefit of bis failing health. Die.l, at St. 
Helena, Cal., August 28, 1872. 

RUTLAXD, a village of La Salle County, on 
the Illinois Central Railroad. 25 miles south of La 
Salle; has a bank, five churclies, school, and a 
newspaper, with coal mines in the vicinity. Pop. 
(1890), 509; (1900), 893; (1903), 1,093. 

RUTLEDGE, (Rev.) William J., clergyman, 
Army Chaplain, born in Augusta County, Va., 
June 24, 1820; was converted at the age of 13 
years and, at 21, became a member of the Illinois 
Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
serving various churches in the central and west- 
ern parts of the State— also acting, for a time, as 
Agent of the Illinois Conference Female College 
at Jacksonville. From 1861 to 1863 be was Chap- 
lain of the Fourteenth Regiment Illinois Volun- 
teers. Returning from the war, he served as 
pastor of churches at Jacksonville, Bloomington, 
Quincy, Rushville, Springfield, Griggsville and 
other points; from 1881 to '84 was Chaplain of 
the Illinois State Penitentiary at Joliet. Mr. 
Rutledge was one of the founders of the Grand 
Army of the Republic, and served for many years 
as Chaplain of the order for the Department of 
Illinois. In connection with the ministry, he 
has occupied a supernumerary relation since 
1885. Died in Jacksonville, April 14, 1900. 

RUTZ, Edward, State Treasurer, was born in 
a village in the Duchy of Baden, Germany, May 
5, 1829 ; came to America in 1848, locating on a 
farm in St. Clair County, 111. ; went to California 
in 1857, and, early in 1801, enlisted in the Third 
United States Artillery at San Francisco, serving 
with the Army of the Potomac until his discharge 
in 1864, and taking part in every battle in wliich 
his command was engaged. After his return in 
1865, he located in St. Clair County, and was 
elected County Surveyor, served three consecu- 
tive terms as County Treasurer, and was elected 
State Treasurer three times — 1872, '76 and '80. 
About 1892 he removed to California, where he 
now resides. 

RTA>', Edward G., early editor and jurist, 
born at Newcastle House, County Meatb, Ireland, 
Nov. 13, 1810; was educated for the priesthood, 
but turned his attention to law, and, in 1830, 
came to New York and engaged in teaching 
while prosecuting his legal studies; in 1836 re- 
moved to Chicago, where he was admitted to the 
bar and was, for a time, associated in practice 
with Hugh T. Dickey. In April, 1840, Mr. Ryan 
assumed the editorship of a weekly paper in Chi- 
cago called "The Illinois Tribune," wliich lie 
conducted for over a year, and which is remem • 
bered chiefly on account of its bitter assaults on 
Judge John Pearson of Danville, who had 



aroused the hostility of some members of the 
Chicago bar by his rulings upon the bench. 
About 1843 Ryan removed to Milwaukee, "Wis., 
where he was, for a time, a partner of Matthew 
H. Carpenter (afterwards United States Senator), 
and was connected with a number of celebrated 
trials before the courts of that State, including 
the Barstow-Bashford case, which ended with 
Bashford becoming the first Republican Governor 
of WiscDnsin. In 18T4 he was appointed Chief 
Justice of "Wisconsin, serving until his death, 
which occurred at Madison, Oct. 19, 1880. He 
was a strong partisan, and, during the Civil War, 
was an intense opponent of the war policy of the 
Government. In spite of infirmities of temper, 
he appears to have been a man of much learning 
and recognized legal ability. 

RYAN, James, Roman Catholic Bishop, born 
in Ireland in 1848 and emigrated to America in 
childhood ; was educated for the priesthood in 
Kentucky, and, after ordination, was made a pro- 
fessor in St. Joseph's Seminary, at Bardstown, 
Ky. In 1878 he removed to Illinois, attaching 
himself to the diocese of Peoria, and having 
charge of parishes at "Wataga and Danville. In 
1881 he became rector of the Ottawa parish, 
within the episcopal jurisdiction of the Arch- 
bishop of Chicago. In 1888 he was made Bishop 
of the see of Alton, the prior incumbent (Bishop 
Baltes) having died in 1886. 

SACS AND FOXES, two confederated Indian 
tribes, who were among the most warlike and 
powerful of the aborigines of the Illinois Country. 
The Foxes called themselves the Musk-wah-ha- 
kee, a name compounded of two words, signify- 
ing "those of red earth." The French called 
them Ou-ta-ga-mies, that being their spelling of 
the name given them by other tribes, the mean- 
ing of which was "Foxes," and which was 
bestowed upon them because their totem (or 
armorial device, as it may be called) was a fox. 
They seem to have been driven westward from 
the northern shore of Lake Ontario, by way of 
Niagara and Mackinac, to the region around 
Green Bay, "VVis. — Concerning their aUied breth- 
ren, the Sacs, less is known. The name is vari- 
ously spelled in the Indian dialects — Ou-sa-kies, 
Sauks, etc. — and the term Sacs is unquestionably 
an abbreviated corruption. Black Hawk be- 
longed to this tribe. The Foxes and Sacs formed 
a confederation according to aboriginal tradition, 
on what is now known as the Sac River, near 
Green Bay, but the date of tlie alliance cannot 
be determined. The origin of the Sacs is equally 

uncertain. Black Hawk claimed that his tribe 
originally dwelt around Quebec, but, as to the 
authenticity of this claim, historical authorities 
differ widely. Subsequent to 1670 the history of 
the allied tribes is tolerably well defined. Their 
characteristics, location and habits are described 
at some length by Father Allouez, who visited 
them in 1666-67. He says that they were numer- 
ous and warlike, but depicts them as ' 'penurious, 
avaricious, thievish and quarrelsome." That 
they were cordially detested by their neighbors 
is certain, and Judge James Hall calls them "the 
Ishmaelites of the lakes. " They were unfriendly 
to the French, who attached to themselves other 
tribes, and, through the aid of tlie latter, had 
well-nigh exterminated them, when the Sacs and 
Foxes sued for peace, which was granted on 
terms most humiliating to the vanquished. By 
1718, however, they were virtually in possession 
of the region around Rock River in IlUnois, and, 
four years later, through the aid of the Jlascou- 
tins and Kickapoos, they had expelled tlie Illinois, 
driving the last of that ill-fated tribe across the 
Illinois River. They abstained from taking part 
in the border wars that marked the close of the 
Revolutionary "War. and therefore did not par- 
ticipate in the treaty of Greenville in 179.j. At 
that date, according to Judge Hall, tliey claimed 
the country as far west as Council Bluffs, Iowa, 
and as far north as Prairie du Chien. They 
oflfered to co-operate with the United States 
Government in the "War of 1813, but this offer 
was dechned, and a portion of the tribe, under 
the leadership of Black Hawk, enlisted on the 
side of the British. The Black Hawk War proved 
their political ruin. By the treaty of Rock Island 
they ceded vast tracts of land, including a large 
part of the eastern half of Iowa and a large body 
of land east of the Mississippi. (See Black Haivk 
War; Indian Treaties.) In 1843 the Government 
divided the nation into two bands, removing both 
to reservations in the farther "West. One was 
located on the Osage River and the other on the 
south side of the Nee-ma-ha River, near the 
northwest corner of Kansas. From these reser- 
vations, there is Uttle doubt, many of them have 
silently emigrated toward the Rocky Mountains, 
where the hoe might be laid aside for the rifle, 
the net and the spear of the hunter. A few 
years ago a part of these confederated tribes 
were located in the eastern part of Oklahoma. 

SAILOR SPRINGS, a village and health resort 
in Clay County, 5 miles north of Clay City, has 
an academy and a local jaaper. Population (1900), 
419; (1903, est.), 550. 



SALEM, an incorporated city, tlie cnunty-spat 
of Marion County, on tlie Baltimore iV: Ohio Soutli- 
western the Chicago & Eastern Illinoi.s and tlie 
Illinois Southern Railroads, 71 miles east of St. 
Louis, and 10 miles northeast of Centralia; in 
agricultural and coal district. A leading indus- 
try is the culture, evaporation and sliipment of 
fruit. Tlie city has flour-milLs, two banks and 
three weekly newspapers. Pop. (1890), 1,493; 
(1900), 1.642. 

SALINE COUNTY, a southeastern county, 
organized in 1847, having an area of 380 square 
miles. It derives its name from the salt springs 
which are found in every part of the county. 
The northern portion is rolling and yields an 
abundance of coal of a quality suitable for smith- 
ing. The bottoms are swampy, but heavily 
timbered, and saw-mills abound. Oak, hickory, 
sweet guru, mulberry, locust and sassafras are 
the prevailing varieties. Fruit and tobacco are 
e.vtensively cultivated. The cUmate is mild and 
humid, and the vegetation varied. The soil of 
tlie low lands is rich, and, vrhen drained, makes 
excellent farming lands. In some localities a 
good gray sandstone, soft enough to be worked, 
is quarried, and millstone grit is frequently found. 
In the .southern half of the county are the Eagle 
Mountains, a line of hills having an altitude of 
.some 4.10 to .500 feet above the level of the Mis- 
sissippi at Cairo, and believed by geologists to 
have been a part of the upheaval that gave birth 
to the Ozark Mountains in Jlissouri and Arkan- 
sas. The highest land in the county is 864 feet 
above sea-level. Tradition says that these hills 
are rich in silver ore, but it has not been found 
in paying quantities. Springs strongly impreg- 
nated with sulphur are found on the slopes. The 
county-seat was originally located at Raleigh, 
which was platted in 1848, but it was subse- 
quently removed to Harrisburg, which was laid 
out in 18.59. Population of the county (1880), 
1.5,940; (1890), 19,342; (1900), 21,085. 

SALINE RIVER, a stream formed by the con- 
fluence of two branches, both of which flow 
through portions of Saline County, uniting in 
GalLatin County. The North Fork rises in Hamil- 
ton County and runs nearly south, while the 
South Fork drains part of Williamson County, 
and runs east through Saline. The river (which 
is little more than a creek), thus formed, runs 
southeast, entering the Ohio ten miles below 
Shawnee town. 

SALT MANUFACTURE. There is evidence 
going to show that the .saline springs, in Gallatin 
County, were utilized by the aboriginal inhabit- 

ants in the making of salt long before the advent 
of white settlers. There have been discovered, at 
various points, what appear to be the remains of 
evaporating kettles, composed of hardened clay 
and pounded shells, varying in diameter from 
three to four feet. In 1812, with a view to en- 
couraging the manufacture of salt from these 
springs, Congress granted to Illinois the use of 
36 square miles, the fee still remaining in the 
United States. These lands were leased by the 
State to private parties, but the income derived 
from them was comparatively small and fre- 
quently difficult of collection. The workmen 
were mostly slaves from Kentucky and Tennes- 
see, who are especially referred to in Article VI., 
Section 2, of the Constitution of 1818. The salt 
made brought S-5 per 100 pounds, and was shipped 
in keel-boats to various points on the Ohio, Mis- 
sissippi, Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers, while 
many purchasers came hundreds of miles on 
horseback and carried it away on pack animals. 
In 1827. the State treasury being empty and the 
General Assembly having decided to erect a peni- 
tentiary at Alton, Congress was petitioned to 
donate these lands to the State in fee, and per- 
mission was granted "to sell 30,000 acres of the 
Ohio Salines in GaUatin County, and apply the 
proceeds to such purposes as the Legislature 
might by law direct." The sale was made, one- 
half of the proceeds set apart for the building of 
the penitentiary, and one-half to the improve- 
ment of roads and rivers in the eastern part of 
the State. The manufactm-e of salt was carried 
on, however — for a time by lessees and subse- 
quently by owners — until 1873, about which time 
it was abandoned, chiefly because it had ceased 
to be profitable on account of competition with 
other districts possessing superior facilities. 
Some salt was manufactured in Vermilion County 
about 1834. The manufacture has been success- 
fully carried on in recent years, from the product 
of artesian wells, at St. John, in Perry County. 

SANDOVAL, a village of Marion County, at 
the crossing of the western branch of the Illinois 
Central Railroad, and the Baltimore & Ohio 
Southwestern, 6 miles north of Centralia. The 
town has coal mines and some manufactures, 
with banks and one newspaper. Population 
(1880), .56-4; (1890). 8.34; (1900), 1,258. 

SANDSTONE. The quantity of sandstone quar- 
ried in Illinois is comparatively insignificant, its 
value being less than one-fifth of one per cent of 
the value of the output of the entire country. 
In 1890 the State ranked twenty-fifth in the list 
of States producing this mineral, the total value 



of the stone quarried being but 617,896, repre- 
senting 141,605 cubic feet, taken from ten quar- 
ries, which emplo3'ed forty-six hands, and had an 
aggregate capital invested of §49,400. 

SANDWICH, a city in De Kalb County, incor- 
porated in 187;!, on the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy Railroad, 58 miles southwest of Chicago. 
Tlie principal industries are the manufacture of 
agricultural implements, hay-presses, corn-shell- 
ers, pumps and wind-mills. Sandwich has two 
private banks, two weekly and one semi-weekly 
papers. Pop. (1890), 3,516; (1900), 2,530: (1903), 

SANGAMOIV COUNTY, a central county, 
organized under act of June 30, 1821, from parts 
of Bond and Madison Counties, and embracing 
the present counties of Sangamon, Cass, Menard, 
Mason, Tazewell. Logan, and parts of Morgan, 
McLean, Woodford, Marshall and Putnam. It 
was named for the river flowing through it. 
Though reduced in area somewhat, four years 
later, it extended to the Illinois River, but was 
reduced to its present limits by the setting apart 
of Menard, Logan and Dane (now Christian) 
Counties, in 1839. Henry Funderburk is believed 
to have been the first white settler, arriving 
there in 1817 and locating in what is now Cotton 
Ilill Township, being followed, the next year, by 
William Drennan, Joseph Dodds, James McCoy, 
Robert Pulliam and others. John Kelly located 
on the present site of the city of Springfield in 
1818, and was there at the time of the selection 
of that place as the temporary seat of justice in 
1821. Other settlements were made at Auburn, 
Island Grove, and elsewhere, and population 
began to flow in rapidly. Remnants of the Potta- 
watomie and Kickapoo Indians were still there, 
but soon moved north or west. County organi- 
zation was effected in 1831, the first Board of 
County Commissioners being composed of Wil- 
liam Drennan, Zachariah Peter and Samuel Lee. 
John Reynolds (afterwards Governor) held the 
first term of Circuit Court, with John Taylor, 
Sheriff; Henry Starr, Prosecuting Attorney, and 
Charles R. Matheny, Circuit Clerk. A United 
States Land Office was established at Springfield 
in 1833, with Pascal P. Enos as Receiver, the 
first sale of lands taking place the same year. 
The soil of Sangamon County is exuberantly fer- 
tile, with rich underlying deposits of bituminous 
coal, which is mined in large quantities. The 
chief towns are Springfield, Auburn, Riverton, 
lUiopolis and Pleasant Plains. The area of the 
county is 800 square miles. Population (1880), 
52,894; (1890), 61,195; (1900), 71,593. 

SAMUMON RIVER, formed by the union of 
the North and South Forks, of which the former 
is the longer, or main branch. The North Fork 
rises in the northern part of Champaign County, 
whence it runs southwest to the city of Decatur, 
thence westward tlirougli Sangamon County, 
forming the north boundary of Christian County, 
and emptying into the Illinois River about 9 miles 
above Beardstown. The Sangamon is nearly 340 
miles long, including the North Fork. The 
South Fork flows througli Christian County, and 
joins the North Fork about 6 miles east of 
Springfield. In the early history of the State the 
Sangamon was regarded as a navigable stream, 
and its improvement was one of the measures 
advocated by Abraham Lincoln in 1833, when lie 
was for the first time a candidate (though unsuc- 
cessfully) for the Legislature. In the spring of 
1833 a small steamer from Cincinnati, caUed the 
"Talisman," ascended the river to a point near 
Springfield. Tlie event was celebrated with 
great rejoicing by the people, but the vessel 
encountered so much difficulty in getting out of 
the river that the experiment was never 

Wabash Railroad.) 

SANGER, Lorenzo P., railway and canal con- 
tractor, was born at Littleton, N. H., March 3, 
1809 ; brought in childhood to Livingston County. 
N. Y., where his father became a contractor on 
the Erie Canal, the son also being employed upon 
the same work. The latter subsequently became 
a contractor on tlie Pennsylvania Canal on his 
own account, being known as "the boy contract- 
or." Then, after a brief experience in mercantile 
business, and a year spent in the construction of a 
canal in Indiana, in 1836 he came to Illinois, and 
soon after became an extensive contractor on the 
Illinois & Michigan Canal, having charge of rock 
excavation at Lockport. He was also connected 
with the Rock River improvement scheme, and 
interested in a line of stages between Chicago 
and Galena, which, having been consolidated 
with the line managed by the firm of Fink & 
Walker, finally became the Northwestern Stage 
Company, extending its operations throughout 
Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa 
and Missouri— Mr. Sanger having charge of the 
Western Division, for a time, with headquarters 
at St. Louis. In 1851 he became the head of the 
firm of Sanger, Camp & Co. , contractors for the 
construction of the Western (or Illinois) Division 
of the Ohio & Mississippi (now the Baltimore & 
Ohio Southwestern) Railway, upon which he 



was omployed for several years. Other works 
with which he was connected were the North 
Mis.souri Railroad and the construction of the 
State Penitentiary at Joliet, as member of the 
firm of Sanger & Casey, for a time, also lessees of 
convict labor. In 1863 Mr. Sanger received from 
Governor Yates, by request of President Lincoln, 
a commission as Colonel, and was assigned to 
staff duty in Kentucky and Tennessee. After 
the war he became largelj' interested in stone 
quarries ad jacent to Joliet; also had an e.xtensive 
contract, from the City of Chicago, for deepening 
the Illinois & Michigan Canal. Died, at Oakland, 
Cal., March 23, 187."), whitlier he had gone for the 
benefit of his health.— James Youn^ (Sanger), 
brother of the preceding, was born at Sutton, 
Vt., March 14, 1814; in boyhood spent some time 
in a large mercantile establishment at Pittsburg, 
Pa., later being associated with his father and 
elder brother in contracts on the Erie Canal and 
similar works in Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indi- 
ana. At the age of 22 he came with liis father's 
family to St. Joseph, Mich., where they estab- 
lislied a large supply store, and engaged in 
bridge-building and similar enterprises. At a 
later period, in connection with his father and 
his brotlier, L. P. Sanger, he was prominently 
connected with the construction of the Illinois & 
Michigan Canal — the aqueduct at Ottawa and 
the locks at Peru being constructed by them. 
About 18.50 the Construction Company, of which 
he anil his brother, L. P. Sanger, were leading 
niemlicrs, undertook the construction of the Ohio 
& Mississippi (now Baltimore & Ohio Southwest- 
ern) Riiilroad, from St. Louis to Vincennes, Ind., 
and were prominently identified with other rail- 
road enterprises in Southern Illinois, Missouri and 
California. Died, July 3, 1867. when consum- 
mating arrangements for the performance of a 
large contract on the Union Pacific Railroad. 

SAXIT.VRY COMMISSION. (See niinois San- 

Chicdni) Drainagi' Canal.) 

SAUGAXASH, the Indian name of a half-breed 
known as Capt. Billy Caldwell, the son of a 
British oflScer and a Pottawatomie woman, born 
in Canada about 1780; received an education 
from the Jesuits at Detroit, and was able to 
speak and write English and French, besides 
several Indian dialects; was a friend of Tecura- 
seh"s and, during the latter part of liis life, a 
devoted friend of the whites. He took up his 
residence in Chicago about 1820, and, in 1826, 
was a .lustice of the Peace, while nominally a 

subject of Great Britain and a Chief of the Otta- 
was and Pottawatomies. In 1828 the Govern- 
ment, in consideration of his services, built for 
him the first frame house ever erected in Chicago, 
which he occupied until his departure with his 
tribe for Council Bluffs in 1836. By a treaty, 
made Jan. 2, 1830, reservations were granted by 
the Government to Sauganash, Shabona and 
other friendly Indians (see Shabona). and 1,240 
acres on the North Branch of Chicago River set 
apart for Caldwell, which he sold before leaving 
the country. Dieil, at Council Bluffs, Iowa, 
Sept. 28, 1841. 

SAVAGE, Georsre S. F., D.D., clergyman, was 
born at Cromwell, Conn., Jan. 29, 1817; gradu- 
ated at Yale College in 1844; studied theology at 
Andover and New Haven, graduating in 1847; 
was ordained a home missionary the same year 
and spent twelve years as pastor at St. Charles, 
111., for four years being corresponding editor of 
"The Prairie Herald" and "The Congregational 
Herald." For ten years he was in the service of 
the American Tract Society, and. during the Civil 
War, was engaged in sanitary and religious work 
in the army. In 1870 he was appointed Western 
Secretary of the Congregational Publishing 
Society, remaining two years, after which he be- 
came Financial Secretary of the Chicago Theo- 
logical Seminary. He has also been a Director 
of the institution since 1854, a Trustee of Beloit 
College since 1850, and, for several years, editor 
and publisher of "The Congregational Review." 

SAVANNA, a city in Carroll County, situated 
on the Mississippi River and the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Northern and the Chicago, Milwaukee 
& St. Paul Railways; is 10 miles west of Mount 
Carroll and about 20 miles north of Clinton, 
Iowa. It is an important shipping-point and con- 
tains several manufactories of machinery, lumber, 
flour, etc. It has two State banks, a public 
library, churches, two graded schools, township 
high school, and two daily and weekly news- 
papers. Pop. (1890), 3,097; (1900), 3.325. 

SAYBROOK, a village of McLean County, on 
the Lake Erie & Western Railroad, 26 miles east 
of Bloomington; district agricultural; ccunty 
fairs lield here; the town has two banks and two 
newspapers. Pop. (1890), 851; (1900), 879. 

SCATES, Walter Bennett, jurist and soldier, 
was born at South Boston, Halifax County, Va. , 
Jan. 18, 1808; was taken in infancy to Hopkins- 
ville, Ky., where he resided until 1831, having 
meanwhile learned the printer's trade at Nash- 
ville and studied law at Louisville. In 1831 he 
removed to Frankfort, Franklin County, lU., 



where, for a time, he was County Surveyor. In 
1836, having been appointed Attorney-General, 
he removed to Vandalia, then the seat of govern- 
ment, but resigned at the close of the same year 
to accept the judgeship of the Tliird Judicial 
Circuit, and tool;; up his residence at Shawnee- 
town. In 1841 he was one of five new Judges 
added to the Supreme Court bench, the others 
being Sidney Breese, Stephen A. Douglas, 
Thomas Ford and Samuel H. Treat. In that 
year he removed to Mount "Vernon, Jefferson 
County, and, in January, 1847, resigned his seat 
upon the bench to resume practice. The same 
year he was a member of the Constitutional Con- 
vention and Cliairman of the Committee on 
Judiciary. In June, 1854. he again took a seat 
upon the Supreme Court bench, being chosen to 
succeed Lyman Trumbull, but resigned in May, 
18.57, and resumed practice in Chicago. In 
1863 lie volunteered in defense of the Union, 
received a Major's commission and was assigned 
to duty on the staff of General McClernand ; was 
made, Assistant Adjutant-General and mustered 
out in January, 1866. In Jul}', 1866, President 
Johnson appointed him Collector of Customs at 
Chicago, which position he filled until July 1, 
1869, when he was removed by President Grant, 
during the same period, being ex-oflScio custodian 
of United States funds, the office of Assistant 
Treasurer not having been then created. Died, 
at Evanston, Oct. 26, 1886. 

SCAMMON, Jonathan Youn^, lawyer and 
banker, was born at Whitefield, Maine, July 27, 
1812; after graduating at Waterville (now Colby) 
University in 1831, he studied law and was 
admitted to the bar at Hallowell, in 1835 remov- 
ing to Chicago, where he spent the remainder of 
his life. After a year spent as deputy in the 
office of the Circuit Clerk of Cook County, during 
which he prepared a revision of the Ilhnois stat- 
utes, he was appointed attorney for the State 
Bank of Illinois in 1837, and, in 1839, became 
reporter of the Supreme Court, which office he 
lield until 1845. In the meantime, he was associ- 
ated with several prominent lawyers, his first 
legal firm being that of Scammon, McCagg & 
Fuller, which was continued up to the fire of 
1871. A large operator in real estate and identi- 
fied with many enterprises of a public or benevo- 
lent character, his most important financial 
venture was in connection with the Chicago 
Marine & Fire Insurance Company, which con- 
ducted an extensive banking business for many 
years, and of which he was the President and 
leading spirit. As a citizen he was progressive, 

public-spirited and hberal. He was one of the 
main promoters and organizers of the old Galena 
& Chicago Union Railway, the first railroad tc 
run west from Lake Michigan ; was also promi- 
nently identified %vith the founding of the Chi- 
cago public school system, a Trustee of the (old) 
Chicago University, and one of the founders of 
the Chicago Historical Society, of the Cliicago 
Academy of Sciences and the Chicago Astro- 
nomical Society — being the first President 
of the latter body. He erected, at a cost of 
830,000, the Fort Dearborn Observatory, in 
which he caused to be placed the most power- 
ful telescope which had at that time been brought 
to the West. He also maintained the observatory 
at his own expense. He was the pioneer of 
Swedenborgianism in Chicago, and, in politics, a 
staunch Wliig, and, later, an ardent Republican. 
In 1844 he was one of the founders of "The Chi- 
cago American." a paper designed to advance 
the candidacy of Henry Clay for the Presidency ; 
and, in 1872, when "The Chicago Tribune" 
espoused the Liberal Republican cause, he started 
"The Inter-Ocean" as a Republican organ, being, 
for some time, its sole proprietor and editor-in- 
chief. He was one of the first to encourage the 
adoption of the homeopathic system of medicine 
in Chicago, and was prominently connected with 
the founding of the Hahnemann Medical College 
and the Halmemann Hospital, being a Trustee in 
both for many years. As a member of the Gen- 
eral Assembly he secured the passage of many 
important measures, among them being legisla- 
tion looking toward the bettering of the currency 
and the banking system. He accumulated a 
large fortune, but lost most of it by the fire of 
1871 and the panic of 1873. Died, in Chicago, 
March 17, 1890. 

SCARRITT, Nathan, pioneer, was born in Con- 
necticut, came to Edwardsville, 111. , in 1820, and, 
in 1821, located in Scarritfs Prairie, Madison 
County. His sons afterward became influential 
in business and Methodist church circles. Died. 
Dec. 13, 1847. 

SCENERY, NATURAL. Notwithstanding the 
uniformity of surface which characterizes a 
country containing no mountain ranges, but 
which is made up largely of natural prairies, 
there are a number of locaHties in Illinois where 
scenery of a picturesque, and even bold and 
rugged character, may be found. One of the 
most striking of these features is produced by a 
spur or low range of hills from the Ozark Moun- 
tains of Missouri, projected across the southern 
part of the State from the vicinity of Grand 



To«-er in Jat-kson CVmiity, llinjugli the northern 
part of Union, anJ througli jwrtions of 'William- 
son, Johnson, Saline. Pope ami Hardin Counties. 
CranJ Tower, the initial i)oint in the western 
part of the State, is an isolated clilT of limestone, 
standing out in the channel of the Mississippi, 
and forming an island nearly 100 feet above low- 
water level. It has heen a conspicuous landmark 
for navigators ever since the discovery of the 
Missi.ssippi. "Fountain Bluff." a few miles 
above Grand Tower, is another conspicuous point 
immediately on the river bank, formed by some 
i.-xilated hills about three miles long by a mile 
and a lialf wide, which iiave withstood the forces 
that excavated the valley now occupied by the 
Mississippi. About half a mile from the lower 
end of tills hill, with a low valley between them, 
is a smaller eminence known as the ''Devil's 
Bake Oven.'' The main chain of bluffs, known 
as the "Back Bone," is about five miles from the 
river, and rises to a height of nearh' 700 feet 
above low-tide in the Gulf of Jlexico, or more 
than 400 feet above the level of the river at 
Cairo. "Bald Knob" is a very prominent inland 
bluff promontory near Alta Pass on the line of 
the Mobile & Ohio Railroatl, in the northern part 
of Union County, with an elevation above tide- 
water of fW.") feet. The highest point in this 
range of hills is reached in the northeastern part 
of Pope County — the elevation at that point (as 
ascertained by Prof. Rolfe of the State University 
at Champaign) being 1.04G feet. — There is some 
striking scenery in the neighborhood of Grafton 
between Alton and the moutli of the Illinois, as 
well as some distance up the latter stream — 
though the landscape along the middle section of 
the Illinois is generally monotonous or only 
gently undulating, except at Peoria and a few 
otlier jKjints, where bluffs rise to a considerable 
height. On the Upper Illinois, beginning at 
Peru, the scenery again becomes picturesque, 
including the celebrated "Starved Rock," the 
site of La Salle's Fort St. Louis (which see). 
This Tock rises to a perpendicular height of 
about 1'25 feet from the surface of the river at the 
ordinary stage. On the opposite side of the river, 
about four miles below Ottawa, is "Buffalo 
Rock," an isolated ridge of rock about two miles 
long by forty to sixty rods wide, evidentlj- once 
an island at a period when the Illinois River 
occupied the whole valley. Additional interest 
is given to both these localities by their associ- 
ation with early hi.story. Deer Park, on the Ver- 
milion River— some two miles from where it 
empties into the Illinois, just below "Starved 

Hock" — is a peculiar grotto-like formation, caused 
by a ravine which enters the Vermilion at this 
point. Ascending this ravine from its mouth, 
for a quarter of a mile, between almost perpen 
dicular walls, the road terminates abruptly at a 
dome-like overhanging rock which widens at this 
point to about 150 feet in diameter at the base, 
with a height of about 75 feet. A clear spring 
of water gushes from the base of the cliff, and, at 
certain seasons of the year, a beautiul water-fall 
pours from the cliffs into a little lake at the bot- 
tom of the chasm. There is much other striking 
scenery higher up. on both the Illinois and Fox 
Rivers. — A point which arrested the attention of 
the earliest explorers in this region was Moimt 
Joliet. near the city of that name. It is first 
mentioned by St. Cosme in 1698, and has been 
variouslj- known as Mon jolly, Mont JoUe, Mount 
Juliet, and Mount Joliet. It had an elevation, in 
early times, of about 30 feet with a level top 
1,300 by 225 feet. Prof. O. H. Marshall, in "The 
American Antiquarian," expresses the opinion 
that, originally, it was an island in the river, 
which, at a remote period, swept down the valley 
of the Des Plaines. Mount Joliet was a favorite 
rallying point of Illinois Indians, who were 
accustomed to hold their councils at its base. — 
The scenery along Rock River is not striking 
from its boldness, but it attracted the attention 
of early explorers by the picturesque beauty of 
its groves, tindulating plains and sheets of water. 
The highest and most abrupt elevations are met 
with in Jo Daviess County, near the Wisconsin 
State line. Pilot Knob, a natural mound about 
three miles south of Galena and two miles from 
the Mississippi, has been' a landmark well known 
to tourists and river men ever since the Upper 
Jlississippi began to be navigated. Towering 
above the surrounding bluffs, it reaches an alti- 
tude of some 430 feet above the ordinary level of 
Fever River. A chain of some half dozen of these 
mounds extends some four or five miles in a north- 
easterly direction from Pilot Knob, "Waddel's and 
Jackson's Mounds being conspicuous among 
them. There are also some castellated rocks 
around the city of Galena which are very strik- 
ing. Charles Mound, belonging to the system 
already referred to, is believed to be the highest 
elevation in the State. It stands near the Wis 
consin State line, and, according to Prof. Rolfe, 
has an altitude of 314 feet above the Illinois Cen- 
tral Railroad at Scales' Mound Station, and, 1,257 
feet above the Gulf of Mexico. 

SCHAUMBERG, a village in Schaumberg 
Township, Cook County. Population. 573 



SCHXEIDER, George, journalist and banker, 
was born at Pirmasens, Bavaria, Dec. 13, 1833. 
Being sentenced to death for his participation in 
the attempted rebellion of 1848. he escaped to 
America in 1849, going from New York to Cleve- 
land, and afterwards to St. Louis. There, in con- 
nection with his brother, he established a German 
daily — "The >few Era" — which was intensely 
anti-slavery and exerted a decided political influ- 
ence, especially among persons of German birth. 
In 1851 he removed to Chicago, where he became 
editor of "The Staats Zeitung," in which he 
vigorously opposed the Kansas-Nebraska bill on 
its introduction by Senator Douglas. His attitude 
and articles gave such offense to the partisan 
friends of this measure, that "The Zeitung" was 
threatened with destruction by a mob in 18.5.5. 
He early took advanced ground in opposition to 
slavery, and was a member of the convention of 
Anti-Nebraska editors, held at Decatur in 1856, 
and of the first Republican State Convention, held 
at Bloomington the same year, as well as of the 
National Republican Conventions of 1856 and 
1860, participating in the nomination of both 
Jolm C. Fremont and Abraham Lincoln for the 
Presidency. In 1861 he was a member of the 
Chicago Union Defense Committee, and was 
appointed, by Mr. Lincoln, Consul-Geueral at 
Elsinore, Denmark. Returning to America in 
1863, he disposed of his interest in "Tlie Staats 
Zeitung" and was appointed the first Collector of 
Internal Revenue for the Chicago District. On 
retiring from this office he engaged in banking, 
subsequently becoming President of the National 
Bank of Illinois, with which he was associated 
for a quarter of a century. In 1877 President 
Hayes tendered him the ministry to Switzerland, 
which he declined. In 1880 he was chosen Presi- 
dential Elector for the State-at-large, also serving 
for a number of years as a member of the Repub- 
lican State Central Committee. 

SCHOFIELD, John McAlUster, Major-General, 
was born in Chautauqua County, N. Y., Sept 29, 
1831; brought to Bristol, Kendall County, 111., in 
1843, and, two years later, removed to Freeport ; 
graduated from the United States Military Acad- 
emy, in 1853, as classmate of Generals McPherson 
and Sheridan ; was assigned to the artillery ser- 
vice and served two years in Florida, after which 
he spent five years' (1855-60) as an instructor at 
West Point. At the beginning of the Civil War 
he was on leave of absence, acting as Professor 
of Physics in Washington University at St. 
Louis, but, waiving his leave, he at once returned 
to duty and was appointed mustering officer; 

then, by permission of the War Department, 
entered the First Missouri Volunteers as Major, 
serving as Chief of Staff to General Lyon in the 
early battles in Missom-i, including Wilson's 
Creek. His subsequent career included the 
organization of the Missoui-i State Militia (1863), 
command of the Army of the Frontier in South- 
west Missouri, command of the Department of 
the Missouri and Oliio, participation in the 
Atlanta campaign and co-operation with Sher- 
man in the capture of the rebel Gen. Joseph E. 
Johnston in North Carolina — his army having 
been transferred for this purpose, from Tennessee 
by way of Washington. After the close of the 
war he went on a special mission to Mexico 
to investigate the French occupation of that 
country ; was commander of the Department of 
the Potomac, and served as Secretary of War, by 
appointment of President Johnson, from June, 
1868, to March, 1869. On retiring from the Cabi- 
net he was commissioned a full Major-General 
and held various Division and Department com- 
mands until 1886, when, on the death of General 
Sherman, he succeeded to the command of the 
Army, with headquarters at Washington. 
He was retired under the age limit, Sept. 39, 
1895. His present home is in Washington. 

SCHOLFIELD, John, jurist, was born in Clark 
County, 111. , in 1834 ; acquired the rudiments of 
an education in the common schools during boy- 
hood, meanwhile gaining some knowledge of the 
higher branches through toilsome application to 
text-books without a preceptor. At the age of 
20 he entered the law school at Louisville, Ky., 
graduating two years later, and beginning prac- 
tice at ^Marshall, 111. He defrayed his expenses 
at the law school from the proceeds of the sale of 
a small piece of land to which he had fallen heir. 
In 1856 he was elected State's Attorney, and, in 
1860, was chosen to represent his county in the 
Legislature. After serving one term he returned 
to his professional career and succeeded in build- 
ing up a profitable practice. In 1869-70 he repre- 
sented Clark and Cumberland Counties in the 
Constitutional Convention, and, in 1870, became 
Solicitor for the Vandalia Railroad. In 1873 he 
was elected to fill the vacancy on the bench of the 
Supreme Court of the State for the Jliddle Grand 
Division, caused bj' the resignation of Judge 
Anthony Thornton, and re-elected without oppo- 
sition in 1879 and 1888. Died, in office, Feb. 13, 
1893. It has been claimed that President Cleve- 
land would have tendered him the Chief Justice- 
ship of the United States Supreme Court, had he 
not insistently declined to accept the honor. 


SCHOOL-HOrSES, EARLY. The primitive 
scluKil-liouses of Illinois were built of logs, and 
were extremely rude, as regards both structure 
and furnishing. Indeed, the earliest pioneers 
rarely erecited a special building to be used as a 
sc'hool-house. An old smoke-house, an abandoned 
dwelling, an old block-house, or the loft or one 
end of a settler's cabin not unf recjuently answered 
the jiurpose, and the church and the court-house 
were often made to accommodate the school. 
When a school-house, as such, was to be built, the 
men of the district gathered at the site selected, 
bringing their axes and a few other tools, with 
their ox-teams, and devoted four or five days to 
constructing a house into which, perhaps, not a 
nail was driven. Trees were cut from the public 
lands, and, without hewing, fashioned into a 
cabin. Sixteen feet square was usually con- 
sidered the proper dimensions. In the walls 
were cut two holes, one for a door to admit light 
and air, and the other for the open fireplace, from 
which rose a chimney, usually built of sticks and 
mud, on the outside. Danger of fire was averted 
by thickly lining the inside of the chimney with 
clay mortar. Sometimes, but only with great 
labor, stone was substituted for mortar made 
from the clay soil. The chimneys were always 
wide, seldom less than six feet, and sometimes 
extending across one entire end of the building. 
The fuel used was wood cut directly from the 
forest, frequentlj- in its green state, dragged to 
the six)t in the form of logs or entire trees to be 
cut by the older pupils in lengths suited to the 
width of the chimney. Occasionally there was 
no chimney, the fire, in some of the most primi- 
tive structures, bemg built on the earth and the 
smoke escaping through a hole in the roof. In 
such houses a long board was set up on the wind- 
wanl side, and shifted from side to side as the 
wind varied. Stones or logs answered for 
andirons, clapboards served as shovels, and no 
one complained of the lack of tongs. Roofs were 
made of roughly split clapboards, held in place 
by "weight poles'" laid on the boards, and by sup- 
ports .starting from "eaves poles." The space 
Iwtween the logs, which constituted the walls of 
the building, wa-s filled in with blocks of wood 
or "chinking," and the crevices, both exterior 
and interior, daubed over with clay mortar, in 
which straw was sometimes mixed to increase its 
adhesiveness. On one side of the structure one 
or two logs were sometimes cut out to allow the 
admission of light ; and, as .class could not always 
be j)rocured, rain and snow were excluded and 
light admitted by the ase of greased paper. Over 

this space a board, attached to the outer wall by 
leather hinges, was sometimes suspended to keep 
out the storms. The placing of a glass window 
in a country school-house at Edwardsville, in 
1824, was considered an important event. Ordi- 
narily the floor was of the natural earth, although 
this was sometimes covered with a layer of clay, 
firmly packed down. Only the more pretentious 
school- houses had "puncheon floors"; i. e., floors 
made of split logs roughly hewn. Few had 
"oeilings" (so-called), the latter being usually- 
made of clapboards, sometimes of bark, on which 
was spread earth, to keep out the cold. The 
seats were also of puncheons (without backs) 
supported on four legs made of pieces of poles 
inserted through augur holes. No one had a desk, 
except the advanced pupils who were learning to 
write. For their convenience a broader and 
smoother puncheon was fastened into the wall 
by wooden pins, in such a way that it would 
slope downward toward the pupil, the front being 
supported by a brace extending from the wall. 
When a pupil was writing he faced the wall. 
When he had finished this task, he "reversed him- 
self" and faced the teacher and his schoolmates. 
These adjuncts completed the furnishings, with 
the exception of a split-bottomed chair for the 
teacher (who seldom had a desk) and a pail, or 
"piggin," of water, with a gourd for a drinking 
cup. Rough and imcouth as these structures 
were, they were evidences of public spirit and of 
appreciation of the advantages of education. 
They were built and maintained by mutual aid 
and sacrifice, and, in them, some of the great men 
of the State and Nation obtained that primary 
training which formed the foundation of their 
subsequent careers. (See Education.) 

SCHUYLER COUNTY, located in the western 
portion of the State, has an area of 430 square 
miles, and was named for Gen. Philip Schuj-ler. 
The first American settlers arrived in 1823, and, 
among the earliest pioneers, were Calvin Hobart, 
William H. Taylor and Orris :McCartney. The 
courity was organized from a portion of Pike 
County, in 182.5, the first Commissioners being 
Thomas Blair, Thomas ilcKee and Samuel Hor- 
ney. The Commissioners appointed to locate the 
county-scat, selected a site in the eastern part of 
the county about one mile west of the present 
village of Pleasant View, to which the name of 
Beardstown was given, and where the earliest 
court was held, Judge John York Sawyer presid- 
ing, with Hart Fellows as Clerk, and Orris Mc- 
Cartney, Sheriff. This location, however, proving 
unsatisfactory, new Commissioners were ap- 



pointed, who, in the early part of 1826, selected 
the present site of the city of Rushville, some 
five miles west of the point originally chosen. 
The new seat of justice was first called Rushton, 
in honor of Dr. Benjamin Rush, but the name 
was afterwards changed to Rushville. Ephraim 
Eggleston was the pioneer of Rushville. The 
surface of the county is rolling, and the region 
contains excellent farming land, which is well 
watered by the Illinois River and numerous 
creeks. Population (1890), 16,013; (1900), 16,129. 

SCHWATKA, Frederick, Arctic explorer, was 
born at Galena, 111., Sept. 29, 1849; graduated 
from the United States Military Academy in 1871, 
and was commissioned Second Lieutenant in the 
Third Cavalry, serving on the frontier until 1877, 
meantime studying law and medicine, being 
admitted to the bar in 1875, and graduating in 
medicine in 1876. Having his interest excited by 
reports of traces of Sir John Franklin's expedi- 
tion, found by the Esquimaux, he obtained leave 
of absence in 1878. and, with Wm. H. Gilder as 
second in command, sailed from New York in the 
"Eothen," June 19, for King William's Land. 
The party returned, Sept. 22, 1880, having found 
and buried the skeletons of many of Franklin's 
party, besides discovering relics which tended to 
clear up the mystery of their fate. During this 
period he made a sledge journey of 3,251 miles. 
Again, in 1883, he headed an exploring expedition 
up the Yukon River. After a brief return to 
army duty he tendered his resignation in 1885, 
and the next year led a special expedition to 
Alaska, under the auspices of "The New York 
Times," later making a voyage of discovery 
among the Aleutian Islands. In 1889 he con- 
ducted an expedition to Northern Mexico, where 
he found many interesting relics of Aztec civili- 
zation and of the cliff and cave-dwellers. He 
received the Roquette Arctic Medal from the 
Geographical Society of Paris, and a medal from 
the Imperial Geographical Society of Russia ; also 
published several volumes relating to his re- 
searches, under the titles, "Along Alaska's 
Great River"; "The Franklin Search Under 
Lieutenant Schwatka" ; "Ximrod of the North" ; 
and "Children of the Cold." Died, at Portland, 
Ore., Nov. 2, 1892. 

SCOTT, James; W., journalist, was born in 
Walworth County, Wis., June 26, 1849, the son 
of a printer, editor and publisher. While a boy 
he accompanied his father to Galena, where the 
latter established a newspaper, and where he 
learned the printer's trade. After graduating 
from the Galena high school, he entered Beloit 

College, but left at the end of his sophomore year. 
Going to New York, he became interested in flori- 
culture, at the same time contributing short 
articles to horticultural periodicals. Later he 
was a compositor in Washington. His first news- 
paper venture was the publication of a weekly 
newspaper in Maryland in 1872. Returning to 
Illinois, conjointly with his father he started 
"The Industrial Press" at Galena, but. in 1875, 
removed to Chicago. There he purchased "The 
Daily National Hotel Reporter," from which he 
withdrew a few years later. In May, 1881, in 
conjunction with others, he organized The Chi- 
cago Herald Company, in which he ultimately 
secured a controlling interest. His journalistic 
and executive capability soon brought additional 
responsibilities. He was chosen President of the 
American Newspaper Publishers' Association, of 
the Chicago Press Club, and of the United Press 
— the latter being an organization for the collec- 
tion and dissemination of telegraphic news to 
journals throughout the United States and Can- 
ada. He was also conspicuously connected with 
the preliminary organization of the World's 
Columbian Exposition, and Chairman of the 
Press Committee. In 1893 he started an evening 
paper at Chicago, which he named "The Post." 
Early in 1895 he purchased "The Chicago Times," 
intending to consolidate it with "The Herald," 
but before the final consummation of his plans, 
he died suddenly, while on a business visit in 
New York, April 14, 1895. 

SCOTT, John M., lawyer and jurist, was born 
in St. Clair County, 111., August 1, 1824; his 
father being of Scotch-Irish descent and his 
mother a "Virginian. His attendance upon dis- 
trict schools was supplemented by private tuition, 
and his early education was the best that the 
comparatively new country afforded. He read 
law at Belleville, was admitted to the - bar in 
1848, removed to McLean County, which con- 
tinued to be his home for nearly fifty years. He 
served as County School Commissioner from 1849 
to 1852, and, in the latter year, waselected County 
Judge. In 1856 he was an unsuccessful Repub- 
lican candidate for the State Senate, frequently 
speaking from the same platform with Abraham 
Lincoln. In 1862 he was elected Judge of the 
Circuit Court of the Eighth Judicial Circuit, to 
succeed David Davis on the elevation of the 
latter to the bench of the United States Supreme 
Court, and was re-elected in 1867. In 1870, a 
new judicial election being rendered necessary 
by the adoption of the new Constitution. Judge 
Scott was chosen Justice of the Supreme Court 



for a term of nine years; was re-eleoted in 18T9, 
but declined a renomination in 1888. The latter 
years of his life were devoted to liis private 
affairs. Died, at Bloomington, Jan. 21. 1898. 
Shortly before liis death Judge Scott published a 
volume containing a History of the Illinois 
Supreme Court, including brief sketches of the 
eiirly occupants of the Supreme Court bench and 
early lawyers of the State. 

SCOTT, Matthew Thompson, agriculturist 
and real-estate operator, was born at Lexington, 
Ky.. Feb. 24, 1828; graduated at Centre College 
in 1840, then spent several years looking after his 
father's landed interests in Ohio, when he came 
to Illinois and invested largely in lands for him- 
self and others. He laid out the town of Chenoa 
in 1836; lived in Springfield in 1870-72. when he 
removed to Bloomington, where he organized the 
McLean County Coal Company, remaining as its 
head until his death; was also the founder of 
■■The Bloomington Bulletin,"" in 1878. Died, at 
Bloomington, May 21, 1891. 

SCOTT, Owen, journalist and ex-Congressman, 
was born in Jackson Township, Effingham 
Coimty, 111., July 6, 1848, reared on a farm, and, 
after receiving a thorough common-school edu- 
cation, became a teacher, and was, for eight 
years. Superintendent of Schools for his native 
county. In January, 1874, he was admitted to 
the bar, but abandoned practice, ten years later, 
to engage in newspaper work. His first publi- 
cation was "The Effingham Democrat,"" which he 
left to become proprietor and manager of "The 
Bloomington Bulletin."" He was also publisher 
of "'The Illinois Freemason."" a monthly periodi- 
cal. Before removing to Bloomington he filled 
the offices of City Attorney and Ma}-or of Effing- 
ham, and also served as Deputy Collector of 
Internal Revenue. In 1890 he was elected as a 
Democrat from the Fourteenth Illinois District 
to the Fifty-second Congress. In 1892 he was a 
candidate for re election, but was defeated by his 
Republican opponent, Benjamin F. Funk. Dur- 
ing till' p;ist ffw years, Mr. Scott has been editor 
of ■■Till- Uln.Hiiiiigton Leader." 

SCOTT COl'.XTY, lies in the western part of 
the State adjoining the Illinois River, and has an 
area of 248 square miles. The region was origi- 
nally owned by the Kickapoo Indians, who 
ceded it to the Government by the treaty of 
Edwardsville, July 30. 1819. Six months later 
(in January, 1820) a party of Kentuckians .settled 
near Lynnville (now in Morgan County), their 
names l)eing Thomas Stevens, James Scott, 
Alfred Miller, Thomas Allen, John Scott and 

Adam Miller. Allen erected the first house in the 
county, John Scott the second and Adam Miller 
the third. About the same time came Stephen 
M. Umpstead. whose wife was the first white 
woman in the county. Other pioneers were 
Jedediah Webster, Stephen Pierce, Joseph Dens- 
more, Jesse Roberts, and Samuel Bogard. The 
country was rough and the conveniences of civi- 
lization few and remote. Settlers took their corn 
to Edwardsville to be ground, and went to Alton 
for their mail. Turbulence early showed itself, 
and, in 1822. a band of ■'Regulators"' was organized 
from the best citizens, who meted out a rough 
and ready sort of justice, until 1830, occasionally 
shooting a desperado at his cabin door. Scott 
County was cut off from Morgan and organized 
in 1839. It contains good farming land, much of 
it being originally timbered, and it is well 
watered by the Illinois River and numerous 
small streams. Winchester is the county-seat. 
Population of the county (.1880), 10,741; (1890), 
10,304; (1900), 10,455. 

SCRIPPS, John L., journalist, was born near 
Cape Girardeau, Mo., Feb. 18, 1818; was taken to 
Rushville. 111., in childhood, and educated at 
McKendree College; studied law and came to 
Chicago in 1847, with the intention of practicing, 
but, a year or so later, bought a third interest in 
"The Chicago Tribime," which had been estab- 
lished during the previous year. In 1852 he 
withdrew from "The Tribune,"" and, in conjunc- 
tion with William Bross (afterwards Lieuten- 
ant-Governor), established "The Daily Demo- 
cratic Press," which was consolidated with "The 
Tribune"' in July, 1858, under the name of "The 
Press and Tribune," Mr. Scripps remaining one 
of the editors of the new concern. In 1861 he 
was appointed, by Mr. Lincoln, Postmaster of the 
city of Chicago, serving until 1865, when, having 
sold his interest in "The Tribune," he engaged in 
the banking as a member of the firm of 
Scripps, Preston & Kean. His health, however, 
soon showed signs of failure, and he died. Sept. 
21, 1866, at Minneapolis, Minn., whither he had 
gone in hopes of restoration. Mr. Scripps was a 
finished and able writer who did much to elevate 
the standard of Chicago journalism. 

SCROGGS, George, journalist, was born at 
Wilmington, Clinton, County, Ohio, Oct. 7, 1842 
— the son of Dr. John W. Scroggs, who came to 
Champaign County, 111., in 1851, and, in 1858, 
took charge of "The Central Illinois Gazette." In 
1860-67 Dr. Scroggs was active in securing the 
location of the State University at Champaign, 
afterwards serving as a member of the first Board 



of Trustees of that institution. The son, at the 
age of 15, became an apprentice in his father's 
printing office, continuing until 1862, when he 
enlisted as a private in the One Hundred and 
Twenty -fifth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, being 
promoted through the positions of Sergeant-ilajor 
and Second Lieutenant, and finally serving on 
the staffs of Gen. Jeff. C. Davis and Gen. James 
D. Morgan, but declining a commission as Adju- 
tant of the Sixtieth Illinois. He participated in 
the battles of Perryville, Chickamauga, Mission 
Ridge and the march with Sherman to the sea, in 
the latter being severely wounded at Bentonville, 
N. C. He remained in the service until July, 
1865; when he resigned; then entered the Uni- 
versity at Champaign, later studied law, mean- 
while writing for "The Champaign Gazette and 
Union, " of which he finally became sole propri- 
etor. In 18T7 he was appointed an Aid-de-Camp 
on tlie staff of Governor Cullom, and, the follow- 
ing year, was elected to the Thirty-first General 
Assembly, but, before the close of the session 
(1879), received the appointment of United States 
Consul to Hamburg, Germany. He was com- 
pelled to surrender this position, a year later, on 
account of ill-health, and, returning home, died, 
Oct. 15, 1880. 

SEATOAVILLE, a village in Hall Township, 
Bureau County. Population (1900*, 909. 

SECRETARIES OF STATE. The following is 
a list of the Secretaries of State of Illinois from 
its admission into the Union down to the present 
time (1899), with the date and duration of the 
term of each incumbent: Elias Kent Kane, 
1818-22; Samuel D. Lockwood, 1822-23; David 
Blackwell, 1823-24; Morris Birkbeck, October, 
1824 to January, 1825 (failed of confirmation by 
the Senate) , George Forquer, 1825-28 ; Alexander 
Pope Field, 1828-40; Stephen A. Douglas, 1840-41 
(served three months — resigned to take a seat on 
the Supreme bench); Lyman Trumbull, 1841-43; 
Thompson Campbell, 1843-46; Horace S. Cooley, 
1846-50; David L. Gregg, 1850-53; Alexander 
Starne, 1853-57; Ozias M. Hatch, 1857-G5; Sharon 
Tyndale. 1865-69; Edward Rummel, 1869-73; 
George H. Harlow, 1873-81; Henry D. Dement, 
1881-89; Isaac N. Pearson, 1889-93; William. H. 

Hinrichsen, 1893-97; James A. Rose, 1897 . 

Nathaniel Pope and Joseph Phillips were the only 
Secretaries of Illinois during the Territorial 
period, the former serving from 1809 to 1816, and 
the latter from 1816 to 1818. Under the first Con- 
stitution (1818) the office of the Secretary of 
State was filled by appointment by the Governor, 
by and with the advice and consent of the 

Senate, but without limitation as to term of 
office. By the Constitution of 1848, and again by 
that of 1870, that officer was made elective by 
the people at the same time as the Governor, for 
a term of four years. 

in the War of the Rebellion there sprang up, at 
various points in the Northwest, organizations of 
persons disaffected toward the National Govern- 
ment. They were most numerous in Ohio, Indi- 
ana, Illinois, Kentucky and Missouri. At first 
they were known by such titles as "Circles of 
Honor," "Mutual Protective Associations," etc. 
But they had kindred aims and their members 
were soon united in one organization, styled 
"Knights of the Golden Circle." Its 
having been partially disclosed, this body 
to exist — or, it would be more correct to say, 
changed its name — being soon succeeded (1863) 
by an organization of similar character, caUed 
the "American Knights." These societies, as 
first formed, were rather political than military. 
The "American Knights" had more forcible 
aims, but this, in turn, was also exposed, and the 
order was re-organized under the name of "Sons 
of Liberty." The last named order started in 
Indiana, and, owing to its more perfect organi- 
zation, rapidly spread over the Northwest, 
acquiring much more strength and influence than 
its predecessors had done. The ultimate author- 
ity of the organization was vested in a Supreme 
Council, whose officers were a "supreme com- 
mander," "secretary of state," and "treasurer." 
Each State represented formed a division, under a 
"deputy grand commander. " States were divided 
into militarj' districts, under "major-generals." 
County lodges were termed "temples." The 
order was virtually an officered army, and its 
aims were aggressive. It had its commander-in- 
chief, its brigades and its regiments. Three 
degrees were recognized, and the oaths of secrecy 
taken at each initiation surpassed, in binding 
force, either the oath of allegiance or an oath 
taken in a court of justice. The maintenance of 
slavery, and forcible opposition to a coercive 
policy by the Government in dealing with seces- 
sion, were the pivotal doctrines of the order. Its 
methods and purposes were to discourage enlist- 
ments and resist a draft; to aid and protect 
deserters; to disseminate treasonable literature; 
to aid the Confederates in destroying Government 
property. Clement L. Vallandigham, the expat- 
riated traitor, was at its head, and, in 1864, 
claimed that it had a numerical .strength of 400,- 
000, of whom 65,000 were in Illinois Manv overt 



acts were committed, but the organization, hav- 
ing been exposed and defeated in its objects, dis- 
banded in 1S65. (See Camj) Douglas Conspiracy. ) 
SELBY, Paul, editor, was born in Pickaway 
County, Ohio, July 20, 1S2.J; removed with his 
parents, in 1837, to Van Buren County, Iowa, but, 
at the age of 19, went to Southern Illinois, where 
he spent four years teaching, chiefly in Madison 
County. In 1848 he entered the preparatory 
department of Illinois College at Jacksonville, 
but left the institution during his junior year to 
a.ssume the editorship of '-Tlie Morgan Journal," 
at Jacksonville, with which he remained until 
the fall of 18.j8, covering the period of the 
organization of the Republican pafty, in which 
"The Journal" took an active part. He was a 
member of the Anti-Nebraska (afterwards known 
as Republican) State Convention, which met at 
Springfield, in October, 18.54 (the first ever held in 
the State), and, on Feb. 22, 18.56, attended and 
presided over a conference of Anti-Nebraska 
editors of the State at Decatur, called to devise a 
line of policy for the newly organizing Repub- 
lican party. (See Anti-Nebraska Editorial 
Convention. ) This body appointed the first 
Republican State Central Committee and desig- 
nated the date of the Bloomington Convention 
of May 29, following, which put in nomination 
the first Republican State ticket ever named in 
Illinois, which ticket was elected in the following 
November (See Bloomington Convention.) In 
18.59 he prepared a pamphlet giving a history of 
the celebrated Canal scrip fraud, which was 
widely circulated. (See Canal Scrij} Fraud.) 
Going South in the fall of 1859. he was engaged 
in teaching in the State of Louisiana until the 
last of June, 1801. Just two weeks before the 
fall of Fort Sumter he was denounced to his 
Southern neighbors as an "abolitionist" and 
falsely charged with having been connected with 
the "underground railroad," in letters from 
secession sympathizers in the North, whose per- 
sonal and political enmity he had incurred while 
conducting a Republican paper in Illinois, some 
of whom referred to Jefferson Davis, Senator 
Slidell, of Louisiana, and other Southern leaders 
as vouchers for their characters. He at once 
invited an investigation by the Board of Trus- 
tees of the institution, of which he was the 
Principal, when tliat body — although composed, 
for the most part, of Southern men — on the basis 
of testimonials from prominent citizens of Jack- 
sonville, and other eviilence, adopted resolutions 
declaring the charges prompted by personal hos- 
tilitv, and delivered the letters of his accusers into 

his hands. Returning North with his family in 
July, 1861, he spent some nine months in the com- 
missary and transportation branches of the ser- 
vice at Cairo and at Paducah, Ky. In July, 1862, 
he became associate editor of "The Illinois State 
Journal" at Springfield, remaining until Novem- 
ber, 1865. The next six months were spent as 
Assistant Deputy Collector in the Custom House 
at New Orleans, but, returning North in June, 
1866, lie soon after became identified with the 
Chicago press, serving, first upon the staff of "The 
Evening Journal" and, later, on "The Repub- 
lican." In May, 1868, he assumed the editorship 
of "The Quincy Whig," ultimately becoming 
part proprietor of that paper, but, in January, 
1874, resumed his old place on "The State Jour- 
nal," four years later becoming one of its propri- 
etors. In 1880 he was appointed by President 
Hayes Postmaster of Springfield, was reappointed 
by Arthur in 1884, but resigned in 1886. Mean- 
while he had sold his interest in "The Journal," 
but the following year organized a new company 
for its purchase, when he resumed his former 
position as editor. In 1889 he disposed of his 
holding in "The Journal," finally removing to 
Chicago, where he has been employed in literary 
work. In all he has been engaged in editorial 
work over thirty-five years, of which eighteen 
were spent upon "The State Journal." In 1860 
Mr. Selby was complimented by his Alma llater 
with the honorary degree of A. M. He has been 
twice married, first to Miss Erra Post, of Spring- 
field, who died in November, 1865, leaving two 
daughters, and, in 1870, to Mrs. Mary J. Hitch- 
cock, of Quincy, by whom he had two children, 
both of whom died in infancy. 

SEMPLE, James, United States Senator, was 
born in Green County. Ky. , Jan. 5, 1798, of Scotch 
descent ; after learning the tanner's trade, studied 
law and emigrated to Illinois in 1818, removing 
to Missouri four years later, where he was ad- 
mitted to the bar. Returning to Illinois in 1828, 
he began practice at Edwardsville. but later 
became a citizen of Alton. During the Black 
Hawk War he served as Brigadier-General. He 
was thrice elected to the lower house of the 
Legislature (1832, "34 and "36), and was Speaker 
during the last two terms. In 1833 he was 
elected Attorney-General by the Legislature, but 
served only until the following year, and, in 
1837, was appointed Minister to Granada, South 
America. In 1843 he was appointed, and after- 
wards elected. United States Senator to fill the 
unexpired term of Samuel McRoberts, at the 
expiration of his term (1847) retiring to private 



life. He laid out the town of Elsah, in Jersey 
County, just south of which he owned a large 
estate on the Mississippi bliiffs, where he died. 
Dec. 20, 1866. 

SENECA (formerly Crotty), a village of La 
Salle County, situated on the Illinois River, the 
Illinois & Michigan Canal and the Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific and the Cleveland, Cincinnati, 
Chicago & St. Louis Railways, 13 miles east of 
Ottawa. It has a graded school, several 
churches, a bank, some manufactures, grain 
warehouses, coal mines, telephone system and 
one newspaper. Pop, (1890), 1,190; (1900), 1,036. 

SENX, (Dr.) Nicholas, physican and surgeon, 
was born in the Canton of St. Gaul, Switzerland, 
Oct. 31, 1844; was brought to America at 8 years 
of age, his parents settling at Washington, Wis. 
He received a grammar school education at Fond 
du Lac, and. in 1864, began the study of medi- 
cine, graduating at the Chicago Medical College 
in 1868. After some eighteen months spent as 
resident physician in the Cook County Hospital, 
he began practice at Ashford, Wis., but removed 
to Milwaukee in 1874, where he became attending 
physician of the Milwaukee Hospital. In 1877 he 
visited Europe, graduated the following year from 
the University of Munich, and, on his return, 
became Professor of the Principles of Surgery 
and Surgical Pathology in Rush Medical College 
in Chicago — also has held the chair of the Prac- 
tice of Surgery in the same institution. Dr. 
Senn has achieved great success and won an 
international reputation in the treatment of 
difficult cases of abdominal surgery. He is the 
author of a number of volumes on different 
branches of surgery which are recognized as 
standard authorities. A few years ago he pur- 
chased the extensive library of the late Dr. Will- 
iam Baum, Professor of Surgery in the University 
of Gottingen, which he presented to the New- 
berry Library of Chicago. In 1893, Dr. Senn was 
appointed Surgeon-General of the Illinois 
National Guard, and has also been President of 
the Association of Military Surgeons of the 
National Guard of the United States, besides 
being identified with various other medical 
bodies. Soon after the beginning of tlie Spanish- 
American War. he was appointed, by President 
McKinley, a Surgeon of Volunteers with the rank 
of Colonel, and rendered most efficient aid in the 
military branch of the service at Camp Chicka- 
mauga and in the Santiago campaign. 

SEXTON, (Col.) James A., Commander-in- 
Chief of Grand Army of the Republic, was born 
in the city of Chicago, Jan. 5, 1844 ; in April, 

1861, being then only a little over 17, enlisted as a 
private soldier under the first call for troops 
issued by President Lincoln; at the close of his 
term was appointed a Sergeant, with authority to 
recruit a company which afterwards was attached 
to the Fifty-first Volunteer Infantry. Later, he 
was transferred to the Sixty-seventh with the 
rank of Lieutenant, and, a few months after, to 
the Seventy-second with a commission as Captain 
of Company D, which he had recruited. As com- 
mander of his regiment, then constituting a part 
of the Seventeenth Army Corps, he participated 
in the battles of Columbia. Duck Creek, Spring 
Hill, Franklin and Nashville, and in the Nash- 
ville campaign. Both at Nashville and Franklin 
he was wounded, and again, at Spanish Fort, by a 
piece of shell which broke his leg. His regiment 
took part in seven battles and eleven skirmishes, 
and, while it went out 967 strong in officers and 
men, it returned with only 332, all told, although 
it had been recruited by 234 men. He was known 
as ''The boy Captain," being only 18 years old 
when he received his first commission, and 21 
when, after participating in the Mobile cam- 
paign, he was mustered out with the rank of 
Lieutenant-Colonel. After the close of the war 
he engaged in planting in the South, purchasing 
a plantation in Lowndes County, Ala., but, in 
1867, returned to Chicago, where he became a 
member of the firm of Cribhen, Sexton & Co., 
stove manufacturers, from which he retired in 
1898. In 1884 he served as Presidential Elector 
on the Republican ticket for the Fourth District, 
and, in 1889, was appointed , by President Harrison, 
Postmaster of the city of Chicago, serving over 
five years. In 1888 he was chosen Department 
Commander of the Grand Army of the Republic 
for the State of Illinois, and, ten years later, to 
the position of Commander-in-Chief of the order, 
which he held at the time of his death. He had 
also been, for a number of years, one of the Trus- 
tees of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Home at Quincy, 
and, during most of the time. President of the 
Board. Towards the close of the year 1898, he 
was appointed by President McKinley a member 
of the Commission to investigate the conduct of 
the Spanish- American War, but. before the Com- 
mission had concluded its labors, was taken with 
"the grip," which develojied into pneumonia, 
from which he died in Washington, Feb, .5, 1899. 
SEYMOUR, (xeorge Franklin, Protestant Epis- 
copal Bishop, was born in New York City, Jan. .5. 
1829; graduated from Columbia College in 1850, 
and from the General Theological Seminary 
(New York) in 1854. He received both minor 



and major orders at the hands of Bishop Potter, 
being made deacon in 1854 and ordained priest in 
1855. For several years he was engaged in mis- 
sionary work. Duiing this period he was promi- 
nently identified with the founding of St. 
Stephen's College. After serving as rector in 
various parishes, in 1865 he was made Professor 
of Ecclesiastical History in the New York Semi- 
nary, anil, ten years later, was chosen Dean of 
the institution, still retaining his professorship. 
Racine College conferred upon him the degree of 
S.T.O., in 1807, and Columbia that of LL.D. in 
18T8. In 1874 he was elected Bishop of Illinois, 
but failed of confirmation in the House of Depu- 
ties. Upon the erection of the new diocese of 
Springfield (1877) he accepted and was conse- 
crated Bishop at Trinity Church, N. Y., June 11, 
1878. He was a prominent member of the Third 
Pan-Anglican Council (London, 1885), and has 
done much to foster the growth and extend the 
influence of his church in his diocese. 

SHABBOXA, a village of De Kalb County, on 
the Iowa Division of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy Railroad, 25 miles west of Aurora. 
Population (1890), 502; (1900;, 587. 

SHABOXA (or Shabbona), an Ottawa Chief, 
was born near the JIaumee River, in Ohio, about 
1775. and served under Tecumseh from 1807 to 
the battle of the Thames in 1813. In 1810 he 
accompanied Tecumseh and Capt. Billy Caldwell 
(see Saugamisli) to the homes of the Pottawato- 
mies and other tribes within the present limits of 
Illinois and Wisconsin, to secure their co-oper- 
ation in driving the white settlers out of the 
country. At the battle of the Thames, he was by 
the side of Tecumseh when he fell, and both he 
and Caldwell, losing faith in their British allies, 
soon after submitted to the United States through 
General Cass at Detroit. Shabona was opposed 
to Black Hawk in 1832. and did much to thwart 
the plans of the latter and aid the whites. Hav- 
ing married a daughter of a Pottawatomie chief, 
who had a village on the Illinois River east of 
the present city of Ottawa, he lived there for 
some time, but finally removed 25 miles north to 
Shabona's Grove in De Kalb County. Here he 
remained till 1837, when he removed to Western 
Missouri. Black Hawk's followers having a 
reservation near by. hostilities began between 
them, in which a son and nephew of Shabona 
were killed. He finally returned to his old home 
in Illinois, but found it occupied by whites, who 
drove him from the grove that bore his name. 
Some friends then bought for him twenty acres 
of land on Mazon Creek, near Morris, where he 

died, July 27, 1859. He is described as a noble 
specimen of his race. A life of him has been 
published by N. Matson (Chicago, 1878). 

SHANNON, a village of Carroll County, on the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, 18 miles 
southwest of Freeport. It is an important trade 
center, has a bank and one newspaper. Popu- 
lation (1890), 591; (1900), 678. 

SHAW, Aaron, former Congressman, born in 
Orange County, N. Y., in 1811; was educated at 
the Montgomery Academy, studied law and was 
admitted to the bar at Goshen in that State. In 
1833 he removed to Lawrence County, 111. He 
has held various important public offices. He 
was a member of the first Internal Improvement 
Convention of the State; was chosen State's 
Attorney by the Legislature, in which body he 
served two terms ; served four years as Judge of 
the Twenty-fifth Judicial Circuit; was elected to 
the Thirty-fifth Congress in 1856, and to the 
Forty -eighth in 1882, as a Democrat. 

SHAW, James, lawyer, jurist, was born in Ire- 
land, May 3, 1832, brought to tliis country in in- 
fancy and grew up on a farm in Cass County, lU, ; 
graduated from Illinois College in 1857, and, after 
admission to the bar, began practice at Mount 
Carroll. In 1870 he was elected to the lower 
house of the General Assembly, being reelected 
in 1872, '76 and '78. He was Speaker of the 
House during the session of 1877, and one of the 
Republican leaders on the floor during the suc- 
ceeding session. In 1872 he was chosen a Presi- 
dential Elector, and, in 1891, to a seat on the 
Circuit bench from the Thirteenth Circuit, 
and. in 1897 was re-elected for the Fifteenth 

SHAWXEETOWX, a city and the county-seat 
of Gallatin County, on the Ohio River 120 miles 
from its mouth and at the terminus of the Sliaw- 
neetown Divisions of the Baltimore & Ohio South- 
western and the Louisville & Nashville Railroads; 
is one of the oldest towns in the State, having 
been laid out in 1808, and noted for the number 
of prominent men who resided there at an early 
day. Coal is extensively mined in that section, 
and Shawneetown is one of the largest shipping 
points for lumber, coal and farm products 
between Cairo and Louisville, navigation being 
open the year round. Some manufacturing is 
done here; the city has several mills, a foundry 
and machine shop, two or three banks, several 
churches, good schools and two weekly papers. 
Since the disastrous floods of 1884 and 1898, Shaw- 
neetown has reconstructed its levee system on a 
substantial scale, which is now believed to furnish 



ample protection against the recurrence of similar 
disaster. Pop. (1900), 1,698; (1903, est.), 3,300. 

SHEAHAN, James W., journalist, was born in 
Baltimore. Md.. spent his early life, after reaching 
manhood, in Washington City as a Congressional 
Reporter, and, in 1847, reported the proceedings 
of the Illinois State Constitutional Convention at 
Springfield. Through the influence of Senator 
Douglas he was induced, in 1854, to accept the 
editorship of "The Young America" newspaper 
at Chicago, which was soon after changed to 
"The Chicago Times." Here he remained until 
the fall of 1860, when, "The Times" having been 
sold and consolidated with "The Herald," a 
Buchanan-Breckenridge organ, he established a 
new paper called "The Morning Post." This he 
made representative of the views of the "War 
Democrats" as against "The Times," which was 
opposed to the war. In May, 1865, he sold the 
plant of "The Post" and it became "The Chicago 
Republican" — now "Inter Ocean." A few 
months later. Mr. Sheahan accepted a position as 
chief writer on the editorial staff of "The Chicago 
Tribune," which he retained until his death, 
June 17, 1883. 

SHEFFIELD, a prosperous village of Bureau 
County, on the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific 
Railroad, 44 miles east of Rook Island; has valu- 
able coal mines, a bank and one newspaper. 
Population (1890), 993; (1900), 1,365. 

SHELBY COUNTY, lies south of the center of 
the State, and contains an area of 776 square 
miles. The tide of immigration to this county 
was at first from Kentucky, Tennessee and North 
Carolina, although later it began to set in from 
the Northern States. The first cabin in the 
county was built by Simeon Wakefield on what is 
now the site of Williamsburg, first called Cold 
Spring. Joseph Daniel was the earliest settler in 
what is now Shelbyville, pre-empting ten acres, 
which he soon afterward sold to Joseph Oliver, 
the pioneer merchant of the county, and father 
of the first white child born within its limits. 
Other pioneers were Shimei Wakefield, Levi 
Casey and Samuel Hall. In lieu of hats the early 
settlers wore caps made of squirrel or coon skin, 
with the tails dangling at the backs, and he was 
regarded as well dressed who boasted a fringed 
buckskin shirt and trousers, with moccasins. 
The county was formed in 1837, and Shelbyville 
made the county-seat. Both county and town 
are named in honor of Governor Shelby, of Ken- 
tucky. County Judge Joseph Oliver held the 
first court in the cabin of Barnett Bone, and 
Judge Theophilus W. Smith presided over the 

first Circuit Court in 1838. Coal is abundant, 
and limestone and sandstone are also found. The 
surface is somewhat rolling and well wooded. 
The Little Wabash and Kaskaskia Rivers flow 
through the central and southeastern portions. 
The county lies in the very heart of the great 
corn belt of the State, and has excellent transpor- 
tation facilities, being penetrated by four lines of 
railway. Population (1880), 30,370; (1890), 31,- 
191; (1900), 32,126. 

SHELBYVILLE, the county-seat and an incor- 
porated city of Shelby County, on the Kaskaskia 
River and two lines of railway, 33 miles southeast 
of Decatur. Agriculture is carried on exten- 
sively, and there is considerable coal mining in 
the immediate vicinity. The city has two flour- 
ing mills, a handle factory, a creamery, one 
National and one State bank, one daily and four 
weekly papers and one monthly periodical, an 
Orphans' Home, ten churches, two graded 
schools, and a public library. Population (1890), 
3,163; (1900), 3,546. 

SHELDON, a village of Iroquois County, at the 
intersection of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago 
& St. Louis and the Toledo, Peoria & Western 
Rail ways, 9 miles east of Watseka ; has two banks 
and a newspaper. The region is agricultural. 
Pop. (1890), 910; (1900), 1,103. 

SHELDON, Benjamin R., jurist, was born in 
Massachusetts in 1813, graduated from Williams 
College in 1831, studied law at the Yale Law 
School, and was admitted to practice in 1836. 
Emigrating to Illinois, he located temporarily at 
Hennepin, Putnam County, but soon removed to 
Galena, and finally to Rockford. In 1848 he was 
elected Circuit Judge of the Sixth Circuit, which 
afterwards being divided, he was assigned to the 
Fourteenth Circuit, remaining until 1870, when 
he was elected a Justice of the Supreme Court, 
presiding as Chief Justice in 1877. He was re- 
elected in 1879, but retired in 1888, being suc- 
ceeded by the late Justice Bailey. Died, April 
13, 1897. 

SHEPPARD, Nathan, author and lecturer, was 
born in Baltimore, Md., Nov. 9, 1834; graduated 
at Rochester Theological Seminary in 1859; dur- 
ing the Civil War was special correspondent of 
"The New York World" and "The Chicago Jour- 
nal" and "Tribune," and, during the Franco- 
German War, of "The Cincinnati Gazette;" also 
served as special American correspondent of 
"The London Times, " and was a contributor to 
"Frazer's Magazine" and "Temple Bar." In 1873 
he became a lecturer on Modern English Liter- 
ature and Rhetoric in Chicago University and. 


four years later, accepted a similar position in 
Allegheny College; also spent four years in 
Europe, lecturing in the principal towns of Great 
Britain and Ireland. In 1884 he founded the 
"Athenaeum" at Saratoga Springs, N. Y., of 
which he was President until his death, early in 
1888. "The Dickens Reader," "Character Read- 
ings from George Eliot" and "Essays of George 
Eliot" were among the volumes issued by him 
between 1881 and 1887. Died in New York City, 
Jan. 24. 188S. 

SHERMAN, Alson Smith, early Chicago Mayor, 
was born at Barre. Vt.. April 21, 1811, remaining 
there until 1836, when he came to Chicago and 
began business as a contractor and builder. Sev- 
eral years later he opened the first stone quarries 
at Lemont, III. Jlr. Sherman spent many years 
in the service of Chicago as a public official. 
From 1840 to 1842 he was Captain of a company 
of militia; for two years served as Chief of the 
Fire Department, and was elected Alderman in 
1842, serving again in 1846. In 1844, he was 
chosen Mayor, his administration being marked 
by the first extensive public improvements made 
in Chicago. After his term as Mayor he did 
much to secure a better water supply for the 
city. He was especially interested in promoting 
common school education, being for several years 
a member of the City School Board. He was 
Vice-President of the first Board of Trustees of 
Northwestern University. Retired from active 
pursuits, Mr. Sherman is now (18!)9) spending a 
serene old age at Waukegan, 111. — Oren (Sherman) 
brother of the preceding and early Cliicago mer- 
chant, was born at Barre, Vt., March 5, 1816. 
After spending several years in a mercantile 
house in Montpelier, Vt., at the age of twenty he 
came west, first to New Buffalo, Mich., and, in 
1836, to Chicago, opening a dry -goods store there 
the next spring. With various partners Mr. 
Sherman continued in a general mercantile busi- 
ness until 18.")3, at the same time being extensively 
engaged in the provision trade, one-half the entire 
transactions in pork in tlie city passing through 
his hands. Next he engaged in developing stone 
quarries at Lemont, 111. ; also became extensively 
interested in the marble business, continuing in 
this until a few years after the panic of 1873, 
when he retired in consequence of a shock of 
paralyses. Died, in Chicago, Deo. l.^i, 1898. 

SHEUMAN, Elijah B., lawyer, was born at 
Fairlield, Vt., June 18, 1832— his family being 
distantly related to Roger Sherman, a signer of 
the Declaration of Independence, and the late 
Gjn. W. T. Sherman; gained his education in the 

common schools and at Middlebury College, 
where he graduated in 1860 ; began teaching, but 
soon after enlisted as a private in the war for the 
Union ; received a Lieutenant's commission, and 
served until captured on the eve of the battle at 
Antietam, when he was paroled and sent to Camp 
Douglas, Chicago, awaiting exchange. During 
this period he commenced reading law and, hav 
ing resigned his commission, graduated from the 
law department of Chicago University in 1864 
In 1876 he was elected Representative in the 
General Assembly from Cook County, and re- 
elected in 1878, and the following year appointed 
Master in Chancery of the United States District 
Court, a position which he still occupies He has 
repeatedly been called upon to deliver addresses 
on political, literary and patriotic occasions, one 
of these being before the alumni of his alma 
mater, in 1884, when he was complimented with 
the degree of LL.D. 

SHIELDS, James, soldier and United States 
Senator, was born in Ireland in 1810, emigrated 
to the United States at the age of sixteen, and 
began the practice of law at Kaskaskia in 1833. 
He was elected to the Legislature in 1836, and 
State Auditor in 1839. In 1843 he became a 
Judge of the Supreme Court of the State, and, in 
184.'), was made Commissioner of the General 
Land Office. In July, 1846, he was commissioned 
Brigadier-General in the Mexican War gaining 
the brevet of Major-General at Cerro-Gordo, 
where he was severely wounded. He was again 
wounded at Chaijultepec, and mustered out in 
1848. The same year be was appointed Governor 
of Oregon Territory. In 1849 the Democrats in 
the Illinois Legislature elected him Senator, and 
he resigned his office in Oregon. In 1856 he 
removed to Minnesota, and, in 18o8, was chosen 
United States Senator from that State, his term 
expiring in 18.59, when he established a residence 
in California. At the outbreak of the Civil War 
(1861) he was superintending a mine in Mexico, 
but at once hastened to Washington to tender his 
services to the Governmnet. He was commis- 
sioned Brigadier-General, and served with dis- 
tinction until 5Iarch, 1863, when the effect of 
numerous wounds caused him to resign. He sub- 
sequently removed to Missouri, practicing law at 
CarroUton and serving in the Legislature of that 
State in 1874 and 1879. In the latter year he was 
elected United States Senator to fill out the unex- 
pired term of Senator Bogy, who had died in 
office — serving only six weeks, but being the only 
man in the history ot the country who filled the 
office of United States Senator from three differ- 



ent states. Died, at Ottumwa, Iowa, June 1, 

SHIPMAN, a town of Macoupin County, on the 
Chicago & Alton Railway, 19 miles north-north- 
east of Alton and 14 miles southwest of Carlin- 
ville. Population (1890), 410; (1900). 390. 

SHIPMAX, George E., M.D., physician and 
philanthropist, born in New York City, March 4, 
1830 ; graduated at the University of New York 
in 1839, and took a course in the College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons; practiced for a time at 
Peoria, 111. , but, in 1840, located in Chicago, where 
he assisted in organizing the first Homeopathic 
Hospital in that city, and, in 1855, was one of the 
first Trustees of Hahnemann College. In 1871 he 
established, in Chicago, the Foundlings' Home at 
his own expense, giving to it the latter years of 
his life. Died. Jan. 20. 1893. 

SHOREY, Daniel Lewis, lawyer and philan- 
thropist, was born at Jonesborough, Washington 
County, Maine, Jan. 31, 1824; educated at Phil- 
lips Academy, Andover, Mass. , and at Dartmouth 
College, graduating from the latter in 1851 ; 
taught two years in Washington City, meanwhile 
reading law, afterwards taking a course at Dane 
Law School, Cambridge ; was admitted to the bar 
in Boston in 1854, the next year locating at 
Davenport, Iowa, where he remained ten years. 
In 1865 he removed to Chicago, where he prose- 
cuted his profession until 1890, when he retired. 
Mr. Shorey was prominent in the establishment 
of the Chicago Public Library, and a member of 
the first Library Board; was also a prominent 
member of the Chicago Literary Club, and was a 
Director in the new University of Chicago and 
deeply interested in its prosperity. Died, in Chi- 
cago, March 4, 1899. 

SHORT, (Rev.) William F., clergyman and 
educator, was born in Ohio in 1829, brought to 
Morgan County, 111., in childhood, and lived upon 
a farm until 20 years of age, when he entered 
McKendree College, spending his senior year, 
however, at Wesleyan University, Bloomington, 
where he graduated in 1854. He had meanvs'hile 
accepted a call to the Missouri Conference Semi- 
nary at Jackson. Mo. ; where he remained three 
years, when he returned to Illinois, serving 
churches at Jacksonville and elsewhere, for a 
part of the time being Presiding Elder of the 
Jacksonville District. In 1875 he was elected 
President of Illinois Female College at Jackson- 
ville, continuing in that position until 1893, when 
he was appointed Superintendent of the Ilhnois 
State Institution for the Blind at the same place, 
but resigned early in 1897. Dr. Short received 

the degree of D.D., conferred upon him by Ohio 
Wesleyan University. 

SHOUP, George L., United States Senator, 
was born at Kittanning, Pa., June 15, 1836; came 
to Illinois in 1852, his father locating on a stock- 
farm near Galesburg; in 1859 removed to Colo- 
rado, where he engaged in mining and mercantile 
business imtil 1861, when he enlisted in a com- 
pany of scouts, being advanced from the rank of 
First Lieutenant to the Colonelcy of the Third 
Colorado Cavalry, meanwhile serving as Delegate 
to the State Constitutional Convention of 1864. 
Retiring to private life, he again engaged in mer- 
cantile and mining business, first in Nevada and 
then in Idaho; served two terms in the Terri 
torial Legislature of the latter, was appointed 
Territorial Governor in 1889 and, in 1890, was 
chosen the first Governor of the State, in October 
of the same year being elected to the United 
States Senate, and re-elected in 1895 for a second 
term, which ends in 1901. Senator Shoup is one 
of the few Western Senators who remained faith- 
ful to the regular Republican organization, dui'ing 
the political campaign of 1896. 

SHOW ALTER, John W., jurist, was born in 
Mason County, Ky., Feb. 8, 1844; resided some 
years in Scott County in that State, and was 
educated in the local schools, at Maysville and 
Ohio University, finally graduating at Yale Col- 
lege in 1867; came to Chicago in 1869, studied 
law and was admitted to the bar in 1870. He 
returned to Kentucky after the fire of 1871, but, 
in 1872, again came to Chicago and entered the 
employment of the firm of Moore & Caulfield, 
with whom he had been before the fire. In 1879 
he became a member of the firm of Abbott, 
Oliver & Showalter (later, Oliver & Showalter), 
where he remained until his appointment as 
United States Circuit Judge, in March, 1895. 
Died, in Chicago, Dec. 12, 1898. 

SHUMAN, Andrew, journalist and Lieutenant- 
Governor, was born at Manor, Lancaster Countj', 
Pa., Nov. 8, 1830. His father dying in 1837, he 
was reared by an uncle. At the age of 15 he 
became an apprentice in the office of "The Lan- 
caster Union and Sentinel." A year later he ac- 
companied his employer to Auburn, N.Y., working 
for two years on "The Daily Advertiser" of that 
city, then known as Governor Seward's "home 
organ." At the age of 18 he edited, published 
and distributed — during his leisure hours — a 
small weekly j^aper called "The Auburnian." At 
the conclusion of his apprenticeship he was em- 
ployed, for a year or two, in editing and publish- 
ing "The Cayuga Chief," a temperance journal. 

4 so 


la ISol lie entered Hamilton College, but, before 
the completion of his junior year, consented, at 
the solicitation of friends of William H. Seward, 
to assume editorial control of "The Sj'racuse 
Daily Journal."' In July, ISiiO, he came to Chi- 
cago, to accept an editorial position on "The 
Evening Journal" of that city, later becoming 
editor-in-chief and President of the Journal Com- 
pany. From 186r) to 1870 (first by executive 
appointment and afterward by popular election) 
lie was a Commissioner of the Illinois State Peni- 
tentiary at Joliet, resigning the office four years 
before the e.xpiration of his term. In 1876 he 
was elected Lieutenant-Governor on the Repub- 
lican ticket. Owing to declining health, he 
abandoned active journalistic work in 1888, 
dying in Chicago, May 5, 1890. His home during 
the latter years of his life was at Evanston. 
Covernor Shuman was author of a romance 
entitled "Loves of a Lawyer," besides numerous 
aildresses before literary, commercial and scien- 
tific a.s.sociations. 

SHUMWAY, Dorice Dwlght, merchant, was 
born at Williamsburg, Worcester County, Mass., 
Sfpt. 28, 1813, descended from French Huguenot 
ancestry; came to Zanosville, Ohio, in 1837, and 
to Montgomery County, 111., in 1841; married a 
ilaughter of Hiram Eountree, an early resident 
of HiUsboro, and, in 1843, located in Christian 
County ; was engaged for a time in merchandis- 
ing at Taylorville, but retired in 18.58, thereafter 
giving his attention to a large landed estate. In 
1846 lie was chosen Representative in the General 
A.ssembly, served in the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1847, and four years as County Judge of 
Christian County. Died, May 9, 1870. — Hiram 
V. (Shumway), eldest son of the preceding, was 
born in Montgomery County, 111.. June, 1842; 
spent his boyhood on a farm in Christian County 
and in his father's store at Taylorville ; took an 
academy course and. in 1864, engaged in mercan- 
tile business; was Representative in the Twenty- 
eighth General Assembly and Senator in the 
Thirtysixth and Thirty-seventh, afterwards 
removing to Springfield, where he engaged in 
the stone business. 

SHURTLEFF COLLEGE, an institution 
located at Upper Alton, and the third e.stab- 
lished in Illinois. It was originally incorporated 
as the "Alton College" in 1831, under a special 
charter which was not accepted, but re-incorpo- 
rated in 183.5, in an "omnibus bill"' with Illi- 
nois and McKendree Colleges. (See Early Cul- 
Icgen.) Its primal origin was a school at Rock 
Spring in St. Clair County, founded about 18"34, 

by Rev. John M. Peck. This became the "Rock 
Spring Seminary" in 1827, and, about 1831, was 
united with an academy at Upper Alton. This 
was the nucleus of "Alton" (afterward "Shurt- 
leff") College. As far as its denominational 
control is concerned, it has always been domi- 
nated by Baptist influence. Dr. Peck's original 
idea was to found a school for teaching theology 
and Biblical literature, but this project was at 
first inhibited by the State. Hubbard Loomis 
and John Russell were among the first instruc- 
tors. Later. Dr. Benjamin Shurtleff donated the 
college §10.000. and the institution was named in 
his honor. College classes were not organized 
until 1840, and several years elapsed before a class 
graduated. Its endowment in 1898 was over 
§126,000, in addition to §125,000 worth of real and 
personal property. About 255 students were in 
attendance. Besides preparatory and collegiate 
departments, the college also maintains a theo- 
logical school. It has a faculty of twenty 
instructors and is co-educational. 

SIBLEY, a village of Ford County, on the Chi- 
cago Division of the Wabash Railway, 105 miles 
south-southwest of Chicago; has banks and a 
weekly newspaper. The district is agricultural. 
Population (1890), 404; (1900), 444. 

SIBLEY, Joseph, lawyer and jurist, was bom 
at W'estfield, Mass., in 1818; learned the trade of 
a whip-maker and afterwards engaged in mer- 
chandising. In 1843 he began the study of lavp 
at Syracuse, N. Y., and, upon admission to the 
bar, came west, finally settling at Nauvoo, Han- 
cock Coimty. He maintained a neutral attitude 
during the Mormon troubles, thus giving offense 
to a section of the community. In 1847 he was 
an unsuccessful candidate for the Legislature, 
but was elected in 1850, and re-elected in 1853. 
In 1853 he removed to "Warsaw, and, in 1855, was 
elected Judge of the Circuit Court, and re-elected 
in 1861, '67 and '73, being assigned to the bench 
of the Appellate Court of the Second District, in 
1877. His residence, after 1865, was at Quincy, 
where he died, June 18, 1897. 

SIDELL, a village of "Vermillion County, on the 
Chicago & Eastern Illinois and Cincinnati, Hamil- 
ton & Dayton Railroads; has a bank, electric 
light plant and a newspaper. Pop. (1900), 776. 

SIDXEY, a village of Champaign County, on 
the main line of the Wabash Railway, at the junc- 
tion of a branch to Champaign, 48 miles east-north- 
east of Decatur. It is in a farming district; has a 
bank and a newspaper. Population, (1900), 564. 

SIM, (Dr.) "William, pioneer physician, was 
born at Aberdeen, Scotland, in 1795, came to 



America in early manhood, and was the first phy- 
sician to settle at Golconda, in Pope County, 
which he represented iu the Fourth and Fifth 
General Assemblies (182-1: and "28). He married 
a Miss Elizabeth Jack of Philadelphia, making 
the joui-ney from Golconda to Philadelphia for 
that purpose on horseback. He had a family of 
five children, one son. Dr. Francis L. Sim, rising 
to distinction as a physician, and, for a time, 
being President of a Medical College at Memphis, 
Tenn. The elder Dr. Sim died at Golconda, in 

SIMS, James, early legislator and Methodist 
preacher, was a native of South Carolina, but 
removed to Kentucky in early manhood, thence 
to St. Clair County, 111., and, in 1820, to Sanga- 
mon County, where he was elected, in 1822, as the 
first Representative from that county in the 
Third General Assembly. At the succeeding ses- 
sion of the Legislature, he was one of those who 
voted against the Convention resolution designed 
to prepare the way for making Illinois a slave 
State. Jlr. Sims resided for a time in Menard 
County, but finally removed to Morgan. 

SINGER, Horace M., capitalist, was born in 
Schnectady, N. Y., Oct. 1, 1823; came to Chicago 
in 1836 and found employment on the Illinois & 
Michigan Canal, serving as superintendent of 
repairs upon the Canal until 1853. While thus 
employed he became one of the proprietors of 
the stone-quarries at Lemont, managed by the 
firm of Singer & Talcott until about 1890, when 
they became the property of the Western Stone 
Company. Originally a Democrat, he became a 
Republican during the Civil War, and served as a 
member of the Twenty-fifth General Assembly 
(1867) for Cook County, was elected County Com- 
missioner in 1870, and was Chairman of the 
Republican County Central Committee in 1880. 
He was also associated with several financial 
institutions, being a director of the First National 
Bank and of the Auditorium Company of Chi- 
cago, and a member of the Union League and 
Calumet Clubs. Died, at Pasadena, Cal., Dec. 
28, 1896. 

SINGLETON, James W., Congressman, born 
at Paxton, Va., Nov. 23, 1811; was educated at 
the Winchester (Va.) Academy, and removed to 
Illinois in 1833, settling first at Mount Sterling, 
Brown County, and, some twenty years later, 
near Quincy. By profession he was a lawyer, 
and was prominent in political and commercial 
affairs. In his later years he devoted consider- 
able attention to stock-raising. He was elected 
Brigadier-General of the Illinois militia in 18-14, 

being identified to some extent with the "Mor- 
mon War"; was a member of the Constitutional 
Conventions of 1847 and 1862, served six terms in 
the Legislature, and was elected, on the Demo- 
cratic ticket, to Congress in 1878, and again in 
1880. In 1882 he ran as an independent Demo- 
crat, but was defeated by the regular nominee of 
his party, James M. Riggs. Durin.g tlie War of 
the Rebellion he was one of the most conspicuous 
leaders of the "peace party." He constructed 
the Quincy & Toledo (now part of the Wabash) 
and the Quincy, Alton & St. Louis (now part of 
the Chicago, Bm-lington & Quincy) Railways, 
being President of both companies. His death 
occurred at Baltimore, Md. , April 4, 1892. 

SINXET, John S., pioneer, was born at Lex- 
ington, Ky., March 10, 1796; at three years of age, 
taken by his parents to Missouri ; enlisted in the 
War of 1812, but, soon after the war, came to 
Illinois, and, about 1818, settled in what is now 
Christian County, locating on land constituting 
a part of the present city of Taylorville. In 1840 
he removed to Tazewell County, dying there, Jan. 
13, 1872. 

SKINNER, Mark, jurist, was born at Manches- 
ter, Vt., Sept. 13, 1813; graduated from Middle- 
bury College in 1833, studied law, and, in 1836, 
came to Chicago; was admitted to the bar in 
1839, became City Attorney in 1840, later Master 
in Chancery for Cook County, and finally United 
State.s District Attorney under President Tyler. 
As member of the House Finance Committee in 
the Fifteenth General Assembly (1846-48), he 
aided influentially in securing the adoption of 
measures for refunding and paying the State 
debt. In 1851 he was elected Judge of the Court 
of Common Pleas (now Superior Court) of Cook 
County, but declined a re-election in 1853. Origi- 
nally a Democrat, Judge Skinner was an ardent 
opponent of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill and a 
liberal supporter of the Government policy dur- 
ing the rebellion. He liberally aided the United 
States Sanitary Commission and was identified 
with all the leading charities of the city. 
Among the great business enterprises with which 
he was officially associated were the Galena & Chi- 
cago Union and the Chica.go, Burlington & Quincy 
Railways (in each of which he was a Director), 
the Chicago Marine & Fire Insurance Company, 
the Gas-Light and Coke Company and others. 
Died, Sept. 16, 1887. Judge Skinner's only sur- 
viving son was killed in the trenches before 
Petersburg, the last year of the Civil War. 

SKINNER, Otis Ainsworth, clergyman and 
author, was born at RoyaUon, Vt., July 3. 1807; 



In 1851 he entered Hamilton College, but, before 
tlie completion of his junior year, consented, at 
the solicitation of friends of William H. Seward, 
to assume editorial control of "The Syracuse 
Daily Journal." In July, 18.56, he came to Chi- 
cago, to accept an editorial position on "The 
Kvening Journal" of that city, later becoming 
editor-in-chief and President of the Journal Com- 
pany. From 1865 to 1870 (first by executive 
appointment and afterward by popular election) 
he was a Commissioner of the Illinois State Peni- 
tentiary at Joliet, resigning the office four years 
before the expiration of his term. In 1876 he 
waM elected Lieutenant-Governor on the Repub- 
lican ticket. Owing to declining health, he 
abandoned active journalistic work in 1888. 
dying in Chicago, May 5, 1890. His home during 
tlie latter years of his life was at Evanston. 
(lovernor Shuman was author of a romance 
entitled "Loves of a Lawyer," besides numerous 
addresses before literary, commercial and scien- 
tific associations. 

SHUjnVAY, Dorice Dwight, merchant, was 
liiiiii at "Williamsburg, "Worcester County. Mass., 
Sept. ~8, 18Ki, descended from French Huguenot 
ancestry; came to Zancsville, Oliio. in 1887, and 
to Montgomery County, 111., in 1841; married a 
daughter of Hiram Rountree, an early resident 
of Hillsboro, and, in 1843, located in Christian 
County ; was engaged for a time in merchandis- 
ing at Taylorville, but retired in 1858, thereafter 
giving his attention to a large landed estate. In 
1846 he was chosen Representative in the General 
Assembly, served in the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1847, and four years as County Judge of 
Christian County. Died, May 9, 1870.— Hiram 
V. (Shumway), eldest son of the preceding, was 
born in Montgomery County, III.. June, 1843; 
sjient his boyhood on a farm in Christian County 
and in his father's store at Taylorville; took an 
academy course and, in 1864, engaged in mercan- 
tile business; was Representative in the Twenty- 
eighth General Assembly and Senator in the 
Tliirty-sixth and Thirty-.seventh, afterwards 
removing to Springfield, where he engaged in 
the stone business. 

SHURTLEFF COLLEGE, an institution 
located at Upper Alton, and the third e.stab- 
Lished in Illinois. It was originally incorporated 
as the "Alton College" in 1831, under a special 
charter which was not accepted, but re-incorpo- 
rated in 1835, in an "omnibus bill" with Illi- 
nois and McKendree Colleges. (See Earh/ Col- 
leges.) Its primal origin was a school at Rock 
Spring in St. Clair County, founded about 1824, 

by Rev. John M. Peck. This became the "Rock 
Spring Seminary" in 1827, and, about 1831, was 
imited with an academy at Upper Alton. This 
was the nucleus of "Alton" (afterward "Shurt- 
leff") College. As far as its denominational 
control is concerned, it has always been domi- 
nated by Baptist influence. Dr. Peck"s original 
idea was to found a school for teaching theology 
and Biblical literature, but this project was at 
first inhibited by the State. Hubbard Loomis 
and John Russell were among the first instruc- 
tors. Later, Dr. Benjamin Shurtleff donated the 
college SIO.OOO. and the institution was named in 
his honor. College classes were not organized 
until 1840, and several years elapsed before a class 
graduated. Its endowment in 1898 was over 
§126,000, in addition to §125,000 worth of real and 
personal property. About 355 students were in 
attendance. Besides preparatory and collegiate 
departments, the college also maintains a theo- 
logical school. It has a faculty of twenty 
instructors and is co-educational. 

SIBLEY, a village of Ford County, on the Chi- 
cago Division of the "Wabash Railway, 105 miles 
south-southwest of Chicago; has banks and a 
weekly newspaper. The district is agricultural. 
Population (1890). 404; (1900), 444. 

SIBLEY, Joseph, lawyer and jurist, was bom 
at We.stfield, Mass., in 1818; learned the trade of 
a whip-maker and afterwards engaged in mer- 
chandising. In 1843 he began the study of law 
at Syracuse, N. Y., and, upon admission to the 
bar, came west, finally settling at Nauvoo, Han- 
cock County. He maintained a neutral attitude 
during the Mormon troubles, thus giving offense 
to a section of the community. In 1847 he was 
an unsuccessful candidate for the Legislature, 
but was elected in 18.50, and re-elected in 1852. 
In 1853 he removed to Warsaw, and, in 1855, was 
elected Judge of the Circuit Court, and re-elected 
in 1861. '67 and '73, being assigned to the bench 
of the Appellate Court of the Second District, in 
1877. His residence, after 1865, was at Quincy, 
where he died, June 18, 1897. 

SIDELL, a village of "Vermillion County, on the 
Chicago & Eastern Illinois and Cincinnati. Hamil- 
ton & Dayton Railroads; has a bank, electric 
light plant and a newspaper. Pop. (1900), 776. 

SIDNEY, a village of Champaign County, on 
the main line of the Wabash Railway, at the junc- 
tion of a branch to Champaign, 48 miles east-north- 
east of Decatur. It is in a farming district ; has a 
bank and a newspaper. Population, (1900), 564. 

SIM, (Dr.) "William, pioneer physician, was 
born at Aberdeen. Scotland, in 1795, came to 



America in early manhood, and was the first phy- 
sician to settle at Golconda. in Pope County, 
which he represented in the Foiu'th and Fifth 
General Assemblies (1834 and '2S). He married 
a Miss Elizabeth Jack of Philadelphia, making 
the journey from Golconda to Philadelphia for 
that purpose on horseback. He had a family of 
five children, one son. Dr. Francis L. Sim, rising 
to distinction as a physician, and, for a time, 
being President of a Medical College at Memphis, 
Tenn. The elder Dr. Sim died at Golconda, in 

SIMS, James, early legislator and Methodist 
preacher, was a native of South Carolina, but 
removed to Kentucky in early manhood, thence 
to St. Clair County, 111., and, in 1830, to Sanga- 
mon County, where he was elected, in 1833, as the 
first Representative from that county in the 
Third General Assembly. At the succeeding ses- 
sion of the Legislature, he was one of those who 
voted against the Convention resolution designed 
to prepare the way for making Illinois a slave 
State. Mr. Sims resided for a time in Menard 
County, but finally removed to Morgan. 

SINGER, Horace M., capitalist, was born in 
Schnectady, N. Y., Oct. 1, 1823; came to Chicago 
in 1836 and found employment on the Illinois & 
Michigan Canal, serving as superintendent of 
repairs upon the Canal until 1853. While thus 
employed he became one of the proprietors of 
the stone-quarries at Lemont, managed by the 
firm of Singer & Talcott until about 1890, wlien 
they became the property of the Western Stone 
Company. Originally a Democrat, he became a 
Republican during the Civil War, and served as a 
member of the Twenty-fifth General Assembly 
(1867) for Cook County, was elected County Com- 
missioner in 1870, and was Chairman of the 
Republican County Central Committee in 1880. 
He was also associated with several financial 
institutions, being a director of the First National 
Bank and of the Auditorium Company of Chi- 
cago, and a member of the Union League and 
Calumet Clubs. Died, at Pasadena, Cal., Dec. 
28, 1896. 

SINGLETON, James W., Congressman, born 
at Paxton, Va., Nov. 33, 1811; was educated at 
the Winchester (Va. ) Academy, and removed to 
Illinois in 1883, settling first at Mount Sterling, 
Brown Coimty, and. some twenty years later, 
near Quincy. By profession he was a lawyer, 
and was prominent in political and commercial 
affairs. In his later years he devoted consider- 
able attention to stock-raising. He was elected 
lier-General of the Illinois militia in 1844, 

being identified to .some extent with tlie "Mor- 
mon War"; was a member of the Constitutional 
Conventions of 1847 and 1862, served six terms in 
the Legislature, and was elected, on the Demo- 
cratic ticket, to Congress in 1878, and again in 
1880. In 1883 he ran as an independent Demo- 
crat, but was defeated by the regular nominee of 
his party. James M. Riggs. During the War of 
the Rebellion he was one of tlie most conspicuous 
leaders of the "peace party." He constructed 
the Quincy & Toledo (now part of the Wabash) 
and tlie Quincy, Alton & St. Louis (now part of 
the Chicago, Bm-lington & Quincy) Railwaj's, 
being President of both companies. His death 
occurred at Baltimore, Md., April 4, 1893. 

SINXET, Jobn S., pioneer, was born at Lex- 
ington, Ky. , March 10, 1796 ; at three years of age, 
taken by his parents to Missouri : enlisted in the 
War of 1812, but, soon after the war, came to 
Illinois, and, about 1818, settled in what is now 
Christian County, locating on land constituting 
a part of the present city of Taylorville. In 1840 
he removed to Tazewell County, dying there, Jan. 
13, 1873. 

SKINNER, Mark, jurist, was born at Manches- 
ter, Vt., Sept. 13, 1813; graduated from Middle- 
bury College in 1833, studied law, and, in 1836. 
came to Chicago; was admitted to the bar in 
1839, became City Attorney in 1840, later blaster 
in Chancery for Cook County, and finally LTnited 
States District Attorney under President Tyler. 
As member of the House Finance Committee in 
the Fifteenth General Assembly (1846-48), he 
aided influentially in securing the adoption of 
measures for refunding and paying the State 
debt. In 18.51 he was elected Judge of the Court 
of Common Pleas (now Superior Court) of Cook 
County, but declined a re-election in 1853. Origi- 
nally a Democrat, Judge Skinner was an ardent 
opponent of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill and a 
liberal supporter of the Government policy dur- 
ing the rebellion. He liberally aided the United 
States Sanitary Commission and was identified 
with all the leading charities of the city. 
Among the great business enterprises with which 
he was officially associated were the Galena «S: Chi- 
cago Union and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
Railways (in each of which he was a Director), 
the Chicago Marine & Fire Insurance Company, 
the Gas-Light and Coke Company and others. 
Died, Sept. 16, 1887. Judge Skinner's only sur- 
viving son was killed in the trenches before 
Petersburg, the last year of the Civil War. 

SKINNER, Otis Ainsworth, clergyman and 
author, was born at Royalton, Vt., July 3, 1807; 



tauglit for some time, became a Universalist 
minister, serving churehes in Baltimore, Boston 
and New York between 1831 and 1857; then 
came to Elgin, 111., was elected President of Lom- 
bard University at Galesburg, but the following 
year took charge of a church at Joliet. Died, at 
Naperville, Sept. 18, 1861. He wrote several vol- 
umes on religious topics, and, at different times, 
edited religious periodicals at Baltimore, Haver- 
hill,, and Boston. 

SKIXXER, Ozias C, lawyer and jurist, was 
Ixirn at Floyd, Oneida County, N. Y., in 1817; in 
1836. removed to Illinois, settling in Peoria 
County, where he engaged in farming. In 1838 
he began the study of law at Greenville, Ohio, 
and was admitted to the bar of that State in 1840. 
Eighteen months later he returned to Illinois, 
;ind began practice at Carthage, Hancock County, 
removing to Quincy in 1844. During the "Mor- 
mon War" he served as Aid-de-camp to Governor 
Ford. In 1848 he was elected to the lower house 
of the Sixteenth General Assembly, and, for a 
short time, served as Prosecuting Attorney for 
the district including Adams and Brown Coun- 
ties. In 18.51 he was elected Judge of the (then) 
Fifteenth Judicial Circuit, and. in 1855, suc- 
ceeded Judge S. H. Treat on the Supreme bench, 
resigning this position in April. 1858, two months 
before the expiration of his term. He was a 
large land owner and had extensive agricultural 
interests. He built, and was the first President 
of the Carthage & Quincy Railroad, now a part 
of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy system. He 
was a prominent member of the Constitutional 
Convention of 1869, serving as Chairman of the 
'"ommittee on Judiciary. Died in 1877. 

SLADE, Charles, early Congressman ; his early 
history, including date and place of birth, are 
unknown. In 1820 he was elected Representative 
from Washington County in the Second General 
Assembly, and, in 1826, was re-elected to the 
same body for Clinton and Washington. In 1832 
lie was elected one of the three Congressmen 
from Illinois, representing the First District. 
After attending the first session of the Twenty- 
third Congress, while on his way home, he was 
attacked with cholera, dying near Vincennes, 
Ind., July 11, 1834. 

SLADE, James P., ex-State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, was born at Westerlo, Albany 
County, N. Y., Feb. 9, 1837, and spent his boy- 
liood with his parents on a farm, except while 
absent at school ; in 1856 removed to Belleville, 
111., where he soon became connected with the 
public schools, serving for a number of years as 

Principal of the Belleville High School. While 
connected with the Belleville schools, he was 
elected County Superintendent, remaining in 
ofBce some ten years ; later had charge of Almira 
College at Greenville, Bond County, served six 
j'ears as Superintendent of Schools at East St. 
Louis and, in 1878, was elected State Superintend- 
ent of Public Instruction as the nominee of the 
Republican party. On retirement from the 
office of State Superintendent, he resumed liis 
place at the head of Almira College, but, for the 
past few years, has been Superintendent of 
Schools at East St. Louis. 

SLAVERY A(iITATIOX OF 1823-24. (See 
Skn-enj and SUirc Laics.) 

were first brought into the Illinois country by a 
Frenchman named Pierre F. Renault, about 
1722. At that time the present State formed a 
part of Louisiana, and the traffic in slaves was 
regulated by French royal edicts. When Great 
Britain acquired the territory, at the close of the 
French and Indian War. the former subjects of 
France were guaranteed security for their per- 
sons "and effects," and no interference with 
slaverv- was attempted. Upon the conquest of 
Illinois by Virginia (see Clark, George Rogers). 
the French very generally professed allegiance to 
that commonwealth, and, in her deed of cession 
to the United States, Virginia expressly stipulated 
for the protection of the "rights and liberties" 
of the French citizens. This was construed as 
recognizing the right of property in negro 
slaves. Even the Ordinance of 1787, while pro- 
hibiting slavery in the Northwest Territory, pre- 
served to the settlers (reference being especially 
made to the French and Canadians) "of the Kas- 
kaskias, St. Vincents and neighboring villages, 
their laws and customs, now (then) in force, 
relative to the descent and conveyance of prop- 
erty." A conservative construction of this claiise 
was, that while it prohibited the extension of 
slavery and the importation of slaves, the status 
of those who were at that time in involuntary 
servitude, and of their descendants, was left un- 
changed. There were those, however, who denied 
the constitutionality of the Ordinance in toto, 
on the ground that Congress had exceeded its 
powers in its passage. There was also a party 
which claimed that all children of slaves, born 
after 1787, were free from birth. In 1794 a con- 
vention was held at Vincennes, pursuant to a call 
from Governor Harrison, and a memorial to Con- 
gress was adopted, praying for the repeal — or, at 
least a modification— of the sixth clause of the 




Ordinance of 1787. The first Congressional Com- 
mittee, to which this petition was referred, 
reported adversely upon it ; but a second commit- 
tee recommended the suspension of the operation 
of the clause in question for ten years. But no 
action was taken by the National Legislature, 
and, in 1807, a counter petition, extensively 
signed, was forwarded to that body, and Congress 
left the matter in statu quo. It is worthy of note 
that some of the most earnest opponents of the 
measure were Representatives from Southern 
Slave States, John Randolph, of Virginia, being 
one of them. The pro-slavery party in the State 
then prepared what is popularly known as the 
"Indenture Law," which was one of the first acts 
adopted by Governor Edwards and his Council, 
and was re-enacted by the first Territorial Legis- 
lature in 1812. It was entitled, "An Act relating 
to the Introduction of Negroes and JIulattoes into 
this Territory,'" and gave permission to bring 
slaves above 15 years of age into the State, when 
they might be registered and kept in servitude 
within certain limitations. Slaves under that 
age might also be brought in, registered, and held 
in bondage until they reached tlie age of 3.5, if 
males, and 30, if females. The issue of registered 
slaves were to serve their mother's inaster until 
the age of 30 or 28, according to sex. The effect 
of this legislation was rapidly to increase the 
number of slaves. The Constitution of 1818 pro- 
hibited the introduction of slavery thereafter — 
that is to say, after its adoption. In 1822 the 
slave-holding party, with their supporters, began 
to agitate the question of so amending tlie 
organic law as to make Illinois a slave State. To 
effect such a change the calling of a convention 
was necessary, and, for eighteen months, the 
struggle between "conventionists" and their 
opponents was bitter and fierce. The question 
was submitted to a popular vote on August 2, 
1824, the result of the count showing 4,972 votes 
for such convention and 6,640 against. This 
decisive result settled the question of slave-hold- 
ing in Illinois for all future time, though the 
existence of slavery in the State continued to be 
recognized by the National Census until 1840. 
The number, according to the census of 1810. was 
168; in 1820 they had increased to 917. Then 
the number began to diminish, being reduced in 
1830 to 747, and, in 1840 (the last census which 
shows any portion of the population held in 
bondage), it was 331. 

Hooper Warren — who has been mentioned else- 
where as editor of "The Edwardsville Spectator," 
and a leading factor in securing the defeat of the 

scheme to make Illinois a slave State in 1822 — in 
an article in the first number of "Tlie Genius of 
Liberty" (January, 1841), speaking of that con- 
test, says there were, at its beginning, only three 
papers in the State — "The Intelligencer" at 'V^an- 
dalia, "The Gazette" at Shawneetown, and "The 
Spectator" at Edwardsville. The first two of 
these, at the outset, favored the Convention 
scheme, while "The Spectator" opposed it. The 
management of the campaign on the part of the 
pro-slavery party was assigned to Emanuel J. 
West, Theophilus W. Smith and Oliver L. Kelly, 
and a paper was established by, the name of "The 
Illinois Republican," with Smith as editor. 
Among the active opponents of the measure were 
George Churchill, Thomas Lippincott, Samuel D. 
Lock wood, Henry Starr (afterwards of Cincin- 
nati), Rev. John M. Peck and Rev. James 
Lemen, of St. Clair County. Others who con- 
tributed to the cause were Daniel P. Cook, Morris 

Birkbeck, Dr. Hugh Steel and Burton of 

Jackson County, Dr. Henry Perrine of Bond ; 
William Leggett of Edwardsville (afterwards 
editor of "The New York Evening Post"), Ben- 
jamin Lundy (then of Missouri), David Blackwell 
and Rev. John Dew, of St. Clair County. Still 
others were Nathaniel Pope (Judge of the United 
States District Court), William B. Archer, Wil- 
liam H. Brown and Benjamin Mills (of Vandalia), 
John Tillson, Dr. Horatio Newhall, George For- 
quer. Col. Thomas Mather. Thomas Ford, Judge 
David J. Baker, Charles W, Hunter and Henry H. 
Snow (of Alton). This testunony is of interest 
as coming from one who probably had more to do 
with defeating tlie scheme, with the exception of 
Gov. Edward Coles. Outside of the more elabor- 
ate Histories of Illinois, the most accurate and 
detailed accounts of this particular period are to 
be found in "Sketch of Edward Coles" by the late 
E. B. Washburne, and "Early Movement in Illi- 
nois for the Legalization of Slavery," an ad- 
dress before the Chicago Historical Society 
(1864), by Hon. William H. Brown, of Chicago. 
(See also, Colef:. Edward; Warren, Hooper; Bromi. 
William H.: Chnrcliill, George; Lippincott. 
Tliomas;a,ui\ Xnvspapers, Early, elsewhere in this 
volume. ) 

SLOAN, Wesley, legislator and jurist, was 
born in Dorchester County, Md., Feb. 20,, 1806. 
At the age of 17, having received a fair academic 
education, he accompanied his parents to Phila- 
delphia, where, for a year, he was employed in a 
wholesale grocery. His father dying, he returned 
to Maryland and engaged in teaching, at the 
sam'e time studying law, and being admitted to 



the Inir in 1831. He came to Illinois in 1838, 
going liist to Chicago, and afterward to Kaskas- 
kia, finally .settling at Golconda in 1839, which 
continued to be his home the remainder of his 
life. In 1848 he was elected to the Legislature, 
and re-elected in l.S,jO, '52. and "56. serving three 
times as Chairman of the Judiciary Committee. 
He was one of the members of the first State 
Board of Education, created by Act of Feb. 18, 
1857, and took a prominent part in the founding 
and organization of the State educational insti- 
tutions. In 18.57 lie was elected to the bench of 
the Nineteenth Judicial Circuit, and re-elected in 
1861, but declined a re-election for a third term. 
Died, Jan. 1."). 1887. 

SMITH, Abner^, was born at Orange, 
Franklin County, Mass., August 4. 1843, of an 
old New England family, whose ancestors came 
to Massachusetts Colony about 1630; was edu- 
cated in the public schools and at Middlebury 
College. Vt. . graduating from the latter in 1866. 
After graduation he spent a year as a teacher in 
Newton Academy, at Slioreham, Vt., coming to 
Chicago in 1867, and entering upon the studj' of 
law, being admitted to the bar in 1868. The next 
twenty-five years were spent in the practice of 
his profession in Chicago, within that time serv- 
ing as the attorney of several important corpo- 
rations. In 1893 he was elected a Judge of the 
Circuit Court of Cook County, and re-elected 
in 1897, his term of service continuing until 

SMITH, (Dr.) Charles (Jilman, physician, was 
born at E.xeter, N. H., Jan. 4, 1828, received his 
early education at Phillips .\cademy, in his native 
])lace, finally graduating from Harvard Univer- 
sity in 1847. He soon after commenced the study 
of medicine in the Harvard Medical School, but 
completed his course at the University of Penn- 
sylvania in 1851. After two years spent as 
attending physician of the Alms House in South 
Boston, Mass., in 1853 he came to Chicago, where 
he soon acquired an extensive practice. During 
the Civil War he was one of six physicians 
employed by the Government for the treatment 
of prisoners of war in hospital at Camp Douglas. 
In 1868 he visited Europe for the purpose of 
observing the management of hospitals in Ger- 
many, France and England, on his return being 
invited to lecture in the Woman's Medical College 
in Chicago, and also becoming consulting phy- 
sician in the Women's and Children's Hospital, 
as well as in the Pre.sbyterian Hospital — a position 
which he continued to occupy for the remainder 
of his life, gaining a wide reputation in the treat- 

ment of women's and children's diseases. Died, 
Jan. 10, 1894. 

SMITH, David Allen, lawyer, was born near 
Richmond, Va., June 18, 1809; removed with liis 
father, at an early day, to Pulaski, Tenn. ; at 17 
went to Courtland, Lawrence County, Ala., 
where lie studied law with Judge Bramlette and 
began practice. His father, dying about 1831, left 
him the owner of a number of slaves whom, in 
1837, he brought to Carlinville, 111., and emanci- 
pated, giving bond that they should not become 
a charge to the State. In 1839 he removed to 
Jack.sonville, where he practiced law until his 
death. Col. John J Hardin was his partner at 
the time of his death on the battle-field of Buena 
Vista. Mr. Smith was a Trustee and generous 
patron of Illinois College, for a quarter of a cen- 
tury, but never held any political office. As a 
lawyer he was conscientious and faithful to the 
intere.sts of his clients; as a citizen, liberal, pub- 
lic-spirited and patriotic. He contributed liber- 
ally to the support of the Government dur- 
ing the war for the Union. Died, at Anoka, 
Minn., July 13, 1865. where he had gone to 
accompany an invalid son. — Thomas William 
(Smith), eldest son of the preceding, born at 
Courtland, Ala., Sept. 27, 1832; died at Clear 
water, Minn., Oct. 29, 1865. He graduated at 
Illinois College in 1852, studied law and served 
as Captain in the Tenth Illinois Volunteers, 
until, broken in health, he returned home to 

SMITH, Dietrich C, ex-Congressman, was 
born at Ostfriesland, Hanover, April 4, 1840, in 
boyhood came to the United States, and, since 
1849, has been a resident of Pekin, Tazewell 
County. In 1861 he enlisted in the Eighth Illi- 
nois Volunteers, was promoted to a Lieutenancy, 
and, while .so serving, was severely wounded at 
Shiloh. Later, he was attached to the One Hun- 
dred and Thirty-ninth Illinois Infantry, and was 
mustered out of service as Captain of Company C 
of that regiment. His business is that of banker 
and manufacturer, besides which he lias had con- 
siderable experience in the construction and 
management of railroads. He was a member of 
the Thirtieth General Assembly, and, in 1880, was 
elected Representative in Congress from what 
was then the Thirteenth District, on the Repub- 
lican ticket, defeating Adlai E. Stevenson, after- 
wards Vice-President. In 1882, his county (Taze- 
well) having been attached to the district for 
many years represented by Wm. M. Springer, he 
was defeated by the latter as a candidate for re- 



SMITH, George, one of Chicago's pioneers and 
early bankers, was born in Aberdeenshire, Scot- 
land, March 8, 1808. It was his early intention 
to .study medicine, and he entered Aberdeen Col- 
lege with this end in view, but was forced to quit 
the institution at the end of two years, because 
of impaired vision. In 1833 he came to America, 
and, in 1834. settled in Chicago, where he resided 
until 1861, meanwhile spending one year in Scot- 
land. He invested largeh- in real estate in Chi- 
cago and Wisconsin, at one time owning a 
considerable portion of the present site of Mil- 
waukee. In 1837 he secured the charter for the 
Wisconsin Marine and Fire Insurance Company, 
whose headquarters were at Milwaukee. He was 
really the owner of the company, although Alex- 
ander Mitchell, of Milwaukee, was its Secretary. 
Under this charter Mr. Smith was able to issue 
$1,500,000 in certificates, which circulated freely 
as currency. In 1839 he founded Chicago's first 
private banking house. About 1843 he was inter- 
ested in a storage and commission business in 
Chicago, with a Mr. Webster as partner. He 
was a Director in the old Galena & Chicago 
Union Railroad (now a part of the Chicago & 
Northwestern), and aided it, while in course of 
construction, by loans of money; was also a 
charter member of the Chicago Board of Trade, 
organized in 1848. In 1854, the State of Wiscon- 
sin having prohibited the circulation of the Wis- 
consin Marine and Fire Insurance certificates 
above mentioned, Mr. Smith sold out the com- 
pany to his partner, Jlitchell, and bought two 
Georgia bank charters, which, together, em- 
powered him to issue 83,000,000 in currency. The 
notes were duly issued in Georgia, and put into 
circulation in Illinois, over the counter of George 
Smith & Co.'s Chicago bank. About 1856 Mr. 
Smith began winding up his aflfairs in Chicago, 
meanwhile spending most of his time in Scotland, 
but, returning in 1860. made extensive invest- 
ments in railroad and other American securities, 
which netted him large profits. The amount of 
capital which he is reputed to have taken -n-ith 
him to his native land has been estimated at 
§10,000,000, though he retained considerable 
tracts of valuable lands in Wisconsin and about 
Chicago. Among those who were associated 
with him in business, either as employes or 
otherwise, and who have since been prominently 
identified with Chicago business affairs, were 
Hon. Charles B. Farwell, E. I. Tinkham (after- 
wards a prominent banker of Chicago). E. W. 
Willard, now of Newport. R. I., and others. Mr. 
Smith made several visits, during the last fortv 

years, to the United States, but divided his time 
chiefly between Scotland (where he was the 
owner of a castle) and London. Died Oct. 7, 1899. 

SMITH, George W., soldier, lawyer and State 
Treasurer, was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., Jan. 
8, 1837. It was his intention to acquire a col- 
legiate education, but his fatlier's business 
embarrassments having compelled the abandon- 
ment of his studies, at 17 of years age he went 
to Arkansas and taught school for two years. In 
1856 he returned to Albany and began tlie study 
of law, graduating from the law school in 18"i8. 
In October of that year he removed to Chicago, 
where he remained continuously in practice, with 
the exception of the years 1862-65, when he was 
serving in the Union army, and 1867-68, when he 
filled the office of State Treasurer. He was mus- 
tered into service, August 27, 1863, as a Captain in 
the Eighty-eighth Illinois Infantry— the second 
Board of Trade regiment. At Stone River, he 
was seriously wounded and captured. After 
four days" confinement, he was aided by a negro 
to escape. He made his way to the Union lines, 
but was granted leave of absence, being incapaci- 
tated for service. On his return to duty he 
joined his regiment in the Chattanooga cam- 
paign, and was officially complimented for his 
bravery at Gordon's Mills. At Mission Ridge he 
was again severely wounded, and was once more 
personally complimented in the official report. 
At Kenesaw Mountain (June 27, 1864), Capt. 
Smith commanded the regiment after the killing 
of Lieutenant-Colonel Chandler, and was pro- 
moted to a Lieutenant-Colonelcy for bravery on 
the field. He led the charge at Franklin, and 
was brevetted Colonel, and thanked by the com- 
mander for his gallant service. In the spring of 
1865 lie was brevetted Brigadier-General, and, in 
June following, was mustered out. Returning 
to Chicago, he resumed the practice of his pro- 
fession, and gained a prominent position at the 
bar In 1866 he was elected State Treasurer, and, 
after the expiration of his term, in January, 
1869, held no public office. General Smith was, 
for many yeai-s. a Trustee of the Chicago Histor- 
ical Society, and Vice-President of the Board. 
Died, in Chicago, Sept. 16, 1898. 

SMITH, George ^\\, lawyer and Congressman, 
was born in Putnam Count}', Ohio, August 18. 
1846. When he was four years old, his father 
removed to Wayne County. 111., settling on a 
farm. He attended the common schools and 
graduated from the literary department of Mc- 
Kendree College, at Lebanon, in 1868. In his 
youth he learned the trade of a blacksmith, but 



later determined to study law. After reading for 
a time at Fairfield, 111., lie entered the Law 
Department of the Bloomington (Ind.) Univer- 
sity, graduating there in 1870, The same year he 
was admitted to tlie har in Illinois, and lias since 
practiced at Murphysboro. In 1880 he was a 
Republican Presidential Elector, and. in 1888, was 
elected a Republican Representative to Congress 
from the Twentieth Illinois District, and has 
been continuously re-elected, now (1899) serving 
Ins sixth consecutive term as Representative 
from the Twenty-second District. 

SMITH, Giles Alexander, soldier, and Assist- 
ant Postmaster-General, was born in Jeflferson 
County, N. Y., Sept. 29, 1829; engaged in dry- 
goods business in Cincinnati and Bloomington, 
111., in 1861 being proprietor of a hotel in the 
latter place; became a Captain in the Eighth 
Missouri Volunteers, was engaged at Forts Henry 
and Donelson, Shiloh and Corinth, and promoted 
Lieutenant-Colojel and Colonel in 1862 ; led his 
regiment on the first attack on Vicksburg, and 
was severely wounded at Arkansas Post ; was pro- 
moted Brigadier- General in August, 18G3, for 
gallant and meritorious conduct; led a brigade 
of the Fifteenth Army Corps at Chattanooga and 
Jlissionary Ridge, as also in the Atlanta cam- 
paign, and a division of the Seventeenth Corps in 
the "March to the Sea." After the surrender of 
Lee he was transferred to the Twenty fifth Army 
Corps, became JIajor-General in 1865, and 
resigned in 1866, having declined a commission 
as Colonel in the regular army ; about 1869 was 
appointed, by President Grant. Second Assistant 
Postmaster-General, but resigned on account of 
failing health in 1873. Died, at Bloomington, 
Nov. 8, 1870. General Smith was one of the 
founders of the Society of the Army of the 

SMITH, (iustavus Adolphus, soldier, was born 
in Philadelphia, Dec. 26, 1820: at 16 joined two 
brothers who had located at Springfield, Ohio, 
where he learned the trade of a carriage-maker. 
In December, 1837, he arrived at Decatur, 111., 
but soon after located at Springfield, where he 
resided some six years. Then, returning to 
Decatur, he devoted his attention to carriage 
manufacture, doing a large business with tlie 
South, but losing heavily as the result of the 
war. An original Wliig, he became a Democrat 
on the dissolution of the Whig party, but early 
took ground in favor of the Union after the firing 
on Fort Sumter; was offered and accepted the 
colonelcy of the Thirty-fifth Regiment Illinois 
Volunteers, at the same time assisting Governor 

Yates in the selection of Camp Butler as a camp 
of recruiting and instruction. Having been 
assigned to duty in Missouri, in the summer of 
1861, he proceeded to Jefferson City, joined Fre- 
mont at Carthage in that State, and made a 
forced march to Springfield, afterwards taking 
part in the campaign in Arkansas and in the 
battle of Pea Ridge, where he had a horse shot 
under him and was severelj' (and, it was supposed, 
fatally) wounded, not recovering until 1868. 
Being compelled to return home, he received 
authority to raise an independent brigade, but 
was unable to accompany it to the field. In Sep- 
tember, 1862. he was commissioned a Brigadier- 
General by President Lincoln, "for meritorious 
conduct," but was unable to enter into active 
service on account of his wound. Later, he was 
assigned to the command of a convalescent camp 
at Murfreesboro, Tenn., under Gen. George H. 
Thomas. In 1864 he took part in securing tho 
second election of President Lincoln, and, in the 
early part of 1865, was commissioned by Gov- 
ernor Oglesby Colonel of a new regiment (the 
One Hundred and Fifty-fifth Illinois), but, on 
account of his wounds, was assigned to court- 
martial duty, remaining in the service until 
January, 1866, when lie was mustered out with 
tlie brevet rank of Brigadier-General. During 
the second year of his service he was presented 
with a magnificent sword by the rank and file of 
his regiment (the Thirty-fifth), for brave and gal- 
lant conduct at Pea Ridge. After retiring from 
the army, he engaged in cotton planting in Ala- 
bama, but was not successful ; in 1868, canvassed 
Alabama for General Grant for President, but 
declined a nomination in his own favor for Con- 
gress. In 1870 he was appointed, by General 
Grant, United States Collection and Disbursing 
Agent for the District of New Mexico, where he 
continued to reside. 

SMITH, John Corson, soldier, ex-Lieutenant- 
Goveruor and ex-State Treasurer, was born in 
Philadelphia, Feb. 13, 1832. At the age of 16 he 
was apprenticed to a carpenter and builder. In 
IS'A he came to Chicago, and worked at his trade, 
for a time, but soon removed to Galena, where he 
finally engaged in business as a contractor. In 
1862 he enlisted as a private in the Seventy-fourth 
Illinois Volunteers, but, having received author- 
ity from Governor Yates, raised a company, of 
which he was chosen Captain, and which was 
incorporated in the Ninety-sixth Illinois Infan- 
try. Of this regiment he was soon elected Major. 
After a short service about Cincinnati, Oliio, 
and Covington and Newport, Ky., the Ninety- 



sixth was sent to the front, and took part (among 
other battles) in the second engagement at Fort 
Donelson and in the bloody fight at Franklin, 
Tenn. Later, Major Smith was assigned to staff 
duty und,er Generals Baird and Steedman, serv- 
ing through the Tullahoma campaign, and par- 
ticipating in the battles of Chickamauga, Lookout 
Mountain and Missionary Ridge. Being promoted 
to a Lieutenant-Colonelcy, he rejoined his regi- 
ment, and was given command of a brigade. In 
the Atlanta campaign he served gallantly, tak- 
ing a conspicuous part in its long series of bloody 
engagements, and being severely wounded at 
Kenesaw Mountain. In February, 1865, he was 
brevetted Colonel, and, in June, I860, Brigadier- 
General. Soon after his return to Galena he was 
appointed Assistant Assessor of Internal Revenue, 
but was legislated out of office in 1873. In 1873 
he removed to Chicago and embarked in business. 
In 1874-76 he was a member (and Secretary) of 
the Illinois Board of Commissioners to the Cen- 
tennial Exposition at Philadelphia. In 1875 he 
was appointed Chief Grain-Inspector at Chicago, 
and held the office for several years. In 1872 and 
'76 he was a delegate to the National Republican 
Conventions of those years, and, in 1878, was 
elected State Treasurer, as he was again in 1883. 
In 1884 he was elected Lieutenant-Governor, serv- 
ing until 1889. He is a prominent Mason, Knight 
Templar and Odd Fellow, as well as a distin- 
guished member of the Order of Nobles of the 
Mystic Shrine, and was prominently connected 
with the erection of the "Masonic Temple Build- 
ing" in Chicago. 

SMITH, John Eugene, soldier, was born in 
Switzerland, August 3, 1816. the son of an officer 
who had served under Napoleon, and after the 
downfall of the latter, emigrated to Philadelphia. 
The subject of this sketch received an academic, 
education and became a jeweler; in 1861 entered 
the volunteer service as Colonel of the Forty-fifth 
Illinois Infantry; took part in the capture of 
Forts Henry and Donelson, in the battle of Shiloh 
and siege of Corinth ; was promoted a Brigadier- 
General in November, 1863, and placed in com- 
mand of a division in thp Sixteenth Army Corps ; 
led the Third Division of the Seventeenth Army 
Corps in the Vicksburg campaign, later being 
transferred to the Fifteenth, and taking part in 
the battle of Missionary Ridge and the Atlanta 
and Carolina campaigns of 1864-65. He received 
the brevet rank of Major-General of Volunteers 
in January, 1865, and, on his muster-out from the 
volunteer service, became Colonel of the Twenty- 
seventh United States Infantry, being transferred. 

in 1870, to the Fourteenth. In 1867 his services 
at Vicksburg and Savannah were further recog- 
nized by conferring upon him the brevets of Brig- 
adier and Major-General in the regular army. 
In May, 1881, he was retired, afterwards residing 
in Chicago, where he died. Jan. 39, 1897. 

SMITH, Josepli, the founder of the Mormon 
sect, was born at Sharon, Vt. , Dec. 23, 1805. In 
1815 his parents removed to Palmyra, N. Y., and 
still later to Manchester. He early showed a 
dreamy mental cast, and claimed to be able to 
locate stolen articles by means of a magic stone. 
In 1830 he claimed to have seen a vision, but his 
pretensions were riiliculed by his acquaintances. 
His story of the revelation of the golden plates 
by the angel Moroni, and of the latter's instruc- 
tions to him, is well known. With the aid of 
Martin Harris and Oliver Cowdery he prepared 
the "Book of Mormon," alleging that he had 
deciphered it from heaven-sent characters, 
through the aid of miraculous spectacles. This 
was published in 1830. In later years Smith 
claimed to have received supplementary reve- 
lations, which so taxed the credulity of his fol- 
lowers that some of them apostatized. He also 
claimed supernatural power, such as exorcism, 
etc. He soon gained followers in considerable 
numbers, whom, in 1833, he led west, a part 
settling at Kirtland, Ohio, and the remainder in 
Jackson County, Mo. Driven out of Ohio five 
years later, the bulk of the sect found the way to 
their friends in ilissouri, whence they were 
finally expelled after many conflicts with the 
authorities. Smith, with the other refugees, fled 
to Hancock County, 111., founding the city of 
Nauvoo, which was incorporated in 1840. Here 
was begun, in the following year, the erection of a 
great temple, but again he aroused the hostility 
of the authorities, although soon wielding con- 
siderable political power. After various unsuc- 
cessful attempts to arrest him in 1844, Smith and 
a number of his followers were induced to sur- 
render themselves under the promise of protection 
from violence and a fair trial. Having been 
taken to Carthage, the county-seat, all were dis 
charged under recognizance to appear at court 
except Smith and his brother Hyrum, who were 
held under the new charge of "treason, " and were 
placed in jail. So intense had been the feeling 
against the Mormons, that Governor Ford called 
out the militia to preserve the peace; but it is 
evident that the feeling among the latter was in 
sympathy with that of the populace. Most of 
the militia were disbanded after Smith's arrest, 
one company being left on duty at Carthage, 



a commission tendered him by Governor Yates, 
devoted his time and means liberallj- to the re- 
cruitinj; and org-anization of regiments for serv- 
ice in the field, and procuring supplies for the 
sick and wounded. In 18fiG he was elected to the 
lower house of the Legishiture, and was re-elected 
in 1868 and '70, serving, during his last term, as 
Speaker. In IsTT he was appointed by Governor 
CuUom a memljer of the Railroad and AVarehouse 
Conimis-sion. of whicli body he served as President 
until 18S:i. lie was a man of remarkably genial 
temperament, liberal impulses, and wide popu- 
larity. Died, March 25, 1886. 

SMITH, William Sooy, soldier and civil engi- 
neer, was born at Tarlton, Pickaway County, 
Ohio, July 22, 1830: graduated at Ohio University 
in 1849, and. at the United States Military Acad- 
emy, in 18.53, having among his classmates, at the 
latter. Generals McPherson, Schofield and Sheri- 
dan. Coming to Chicago the following year, he found employment as an engineer on the 
Illinois Central Railroad, but later became assist- 
ant of Lieutenant-Colonel Graham in engineer 
service on the lakes ; a year later took charge of 
a select school in Buffalo ; in 18.5T made the first 
surveys for the International Bridge at Niagara 
Falls, then went into the service of extensive 
locomotive and bridge- works at Trenton, N. J., 
in their interest making a visit to Cuba, and also 
superintending the construction of a bridge 
across the Savannah River. The war intervening, 
he returned North and was appointed Lieutenant- 
Colonel and assigned to duty as Assistant Adju- 
tant-General at Camp Denison, Ohio, but, in 
June, 1862, was commissioned Colonel of the 
Thirteenth Ohio Volunteers, participating in the 
West Virginia campaigns, and later, at Shiloh and 
Perryville. In April, 1862, he was promoted 
Brigadier-General of volunteers, commanding 
divisions in the Army of the Ohio until the fall 
of 1862, when he joined Grant and took part in 
the Vicksburg campaign, as commander of the 
First Division of the Sixteenth Army Corps. 
Subsequently he was made Chief of the Cavalry 
Department, serving on the staffs of Grant and 
Sherman, until compelled to resign, in 1864, on 
account of impaired health. During the war 
General Smith rendered valuable service to the 
Union cause in great emergencies, by his knowl- 
edge of engineering. On retiring to private life 
he resumed his profession at Chicago, and since 
has been employed by the Government on some 
f)f its most stupendous works on the lakes, and 
has also planned several of the most important 
railroad bridges across the Missouri and other 

streams. He has been much consulted in refer- 
ence to municipal engineering, and his name is 
connected %vith a number of the gigantic edifices 
in Chicago. 

SMITHBORO, a village and railroad junction 
in Bond County, 3 miles east of Greenville. 
Population. 393; (1900), 314. 

SXAPP, Henry, Congressman, born in Livings- 
ton County, N. Y., June 30, 1822, came to Illinois 
with his father when 11 years old, and, having 
read law at Joliet, was admitted to the bar in 
1847. He practiced in Will County for twenty 
years before entering public life. In 1868 he was 
elected to the State Senate and occupied a seat in 
that body until his election, in 1871, to the Forty- 
second Congress, by the Republicans of the (then) 
Sixth Illinois District, as successor to B. C. Cook, 
who had resigned. Died, at Joliet, Nov. 23, 189.5. 

SNOW, Herman W., ex-Congressman, was born 
in La Porte County, Ind., July 3, 1836, but was 
reared in Kentucky, working upon a farm for 
five years, while yet in his minority becoming a 
resident of Illinois. For several years he was a 
school teacher, meanwhile studying law and 
being admitted to the bar. Early in the war he 
enlisted as a private in the One Hundred and 
Thirty-ninth Illinois Volunteers, rising to the 
rank of Captain. His term of service having 
expired, he re-enlisted in the One Hundred and 
Fifty-first Illinois, and was mustered out with 
the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. After the close 
of the war he resumed teaching at the Chicago 
High School, and later served in the General 
Assembly (1873-74) as Representative from Wood- 
ford County. In 1890 he was elected, as a Demo- 
crat, to represent the Ninth Illinois District in 
Congress, but was defeated by his Republican 
opponent in 1892. 

SXOWHOOK, William B., first Collector of 
Customs at Chicago, was born in Ireland in 1804 ; 
at the age of eight years was brought to New 
York, where he learned the printer's trade, 
and worked for some time in the same office 
with Horace Greeley. At 16 he went back to 
Ireland, remaining two years, but, returning to 
the United States, began the study of law ; was 
also employed on the Passaic Canal; in 1830, 
came to Chicago, and was soon after associated 
with William B. Ogden in a contract on the Illi- 
nois & Jlichigan Canal, which lasted until 1841. 
As early as 1840 he became prominent as a leader 
in the Democratic party, and, in 1846, received 
from President Polk an appointment as first Col- 
lector of Customs for Chicago (having previously 
served as Special Surveyor of the Port, while 



attached to the District of Detroit) ; iu 1853, was 
re-appointed to the Collectorship by President 
Pierce, serving two years. During the "Mormon 
War" (1S44) he organized and equipped, at his 
own expense, the Jlontgomery Guards, and was 
commissioned Colonel, but the disturbances were 
brought to an end before the order to march. 
From 1856 he devoted his attention chiefly to his 
practice, but, in 1863, was one of the Democrats 
of Chicago who took part in a movement to sus- 
tain the Government by stimulating enlistments ; 
was also a member of the Convention which 
nominated Mr. Greeley for President in 1873. 
Died, in Chicago, May o, 1883. 

SNYDER, Adam Wilson, pioneer lawyer, and 
early Congressman, was born at Connellsville, 
Pa., Oct. 6, 1799. In early life he followed the 
occupation of wool-curling for a livelihood, 
attending school in the winter. In 1815. he emi- 
grated to Columbus, Ohio, and afterwards settled 
in Ridge Prairie, St. Clair County, III. Being 
offered a situation in a wool-curling and fulling 
mill at Cahokia, he removed thither in 1817. He 
formed the friendship of Judge Jesse B. Thomas, 
and, through the latter's encouragement and aid, 
studied law and gained a solid professional, poli- 
tical, .social and financial position. In 1830 he 
was elected State Senator from St. Clair County, 
and re-elected for two successive terms. He 
served through the Black Hawk War as private. 
Adjutant and Captain. In 1833 he removed to 
Belleville, and, in 1834, was defeated for Congress 
by Governor Reynolds, whom he, in turn, defeated 
in 1836. Two years later Reynolds again defeated 
him for the same position, and, iu 1840, he was 
elected State Senator. In 1841 he was the Demo- 
cratic nominee for Governor. The election was 
held in August, 1843, but, in May preceding, he 
died at his home in Belleville. His place on the 
ticket was filled by Thomas Ford, who was 
elected.— William H. (Snyder), son of the pre- 
ceding, was born in St. Clair County, 111., July 
18, 1835 ; educated at McKendree College, studied 
law with Lieutenant-Governor Koerner, and was 
admitted to practice in 1845; also served for a 
time as Postmaster of the city of Belleville, and, 
during the Mexican War, as First-Lieutenant and 
Adjutant of the Fifth Illinois Volimteers. From 
1850 to "54 lie represented his county in the Legis- 
lature ; in 1855 was appointed, by Governor Mat- 
teson. State's Attorney, which position he filled 
for two years. He was an imsuccessful candidate 
for the oflJice of Secretary of State in 1856, and, 
in 1857, was elected a Judge of the Twenty- 
fourth Circuit, was re-elected for the Third Cir- 

cuit in "73, '79 and "85. He was also a member of 
the Constitutional Convention of 1869-70. Died, 
at Belleville, Dec. 34, 1893. 

charitable institution, founded by act of the 
Legislature in 1885, and located at Quincy, 
Adams County. The object of its establish- 
ment was to provide a comfortable home for 
such disabled or dependent veterans of the 
United States land or naval forces as had 
honorably served during the Civil War. It 
was opened for the reception of veterans on 
March 3, 1887, the first cost of site and build- 
ings having been about §350,000. The total num- 
ber of inmates admitted up to June 30, 1894, was 
3,813; the number in attendance during the two 
previous years 988, and the whole number present 
on Nov. 10, 1894, 1,088. The value of property at 
that time was §393,036.08. Considerable appro- 
priations have been made for additions to the 
buildings at subsequent session^ of the Legisla- 
ture. The General Government pays to the State 
SlOO per year for each veteran supported at the 

institution, created by act of 1865, for the main- 
tenance and education of children of deceased 
soldiers of the Civil War. An eighty -acre tract, 
one mile north of Normal, was selected as the 
site, and the first principal building was com- 
pleted and opened for the admission of benefici- 
aries on Jime 1, 1869. Its first cost was §135,000, 
the site having been donated. Repairs and the 
construction of new buildings, from time to 
time, have considerably increased this sum. In 
1875 the benefits of the institution were extended, 
by legislative enactment, to the children of sol- 
diers who had died after the close of the war. 
The aggregate number of inmates, in 1894, was 
573, of whom 333 were males and 349 females. 

SOLDIERS' WIDOWS' HOME. Provision was 
made for the establishment of this institution by 
the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, in an act, 
approved, June 13, 1895, appropriating §30,000 for 
the purchase of a site, the erection of buildings 
and furnishing the same. It is designed for the 
reception and care of the mothers, wives, widows 
and daughters of such honorably discharged 
soldiers or sailors, in the United States service, as 
may have died, or may be physically or men- 
tally unable to provide for the families natu- 
rally dependent on them, provided that such 
persons have been residents of the State for 
at least one year previous to admission, and 
are without means or ability for self-support. 


Tlie iilTiiirs of the Homu are maiKi-ed by a 
boaid of five trustees, of whom two are men and 
three women, the former to be members of t)ie 
Grand Army of the Reimblic and of different 
political parties, and the hitter members of the 
Women's Relief Corps of this State. The in.stitu- 
tion was located at Wilmingtou, occupying a 
site of seventeen acres, where it was formally 
opened in a house of eighteen rooms, March 11, 
1S9G, with twenty-six applications for admit- 
tance. The plan contemjilates an early enlarge- 
ment by the erection of additional cottages. 

SOKEXTO, a village of Bond County, at the 
intersection of the Jacksonville & St. Louis and 
the Toledo, St. Louis it Western Railways, 14 
miles southeast of Litchfield; has a bank and a 
newspaper. Its interests are agricultural and 
minmg. Pop. (1890), .338; (1900), 1,000. 

SOULARD, James Gaston, pioneer, born of 
French ancestry in St. Louis, Mo., July 15, 1798; 
resided there until 1821, when, having married 
the daughter of a soldier of the Revolution, he 
received an appointment at Fort Snelling, near 
the present city of St. Paul, then under command 
of Col. Snelling, who was his wife's brother-in- 
law. The Fort was reached after a tedious jour- 
ney by flat-boat and overland, late in the fall of 
1821, his wife accompanying him. Three years 
later they returned to St. Louis, where, being an 
engineer, he was engaged for several years in 
surveying. In 1827 he removed with his family 
to Galena, for the next six years had charge of a 
store of the Gratiot Brothers, early business men 
of that locality. Towards the close of this period 
he received the appointment of County Recorder, 
also holding the position of County Surveyor and 
Postmaster of Galena at the same time. His 
later years were devoted to farming and horti- 
culture, his death taking place, Sept. 17, 1878. 
Mr. Soulard was probaltly the first man to engage 
in freighting between Galena and Chicago. 
"The Galena Advertiser" of Sept. U, 1829, makes 
mention of a wagon-load of lead sent by him to 
Chicago, his team taking back a load of salt, the 
paper remarking: "This is the first wagon that 
lias ever pa.ssed from the Mississippi River to 
Chicago." Great results were predicted from 
the exchange of commodities between the lake 
and the lead mine district. — Mrs. Eliza M. 
Hunt (Soulard), wife of the preceding, was born 
at Detroit, Dec. 18, 1804, her father being Col. 
Thomas A. Hunt, who had taken part in the 
Battle of Bunker Hill and remained in the army 
until his death, at St. Louis, in 1807. His descend- 
ants have maintained their connection with the 

army ever since, a son Vjeing a prominent artillery 
officer at the Battle of Gettysburg. Mrs. Soular 
was married at St. Louis, in 1820, and survive 
her husband some sixteen years, dying at Galena 
August 11, 1894. She had resided in Galen? 
nearly seventy years, and at the date of her 
death, in the 00th year of her age, she was that 
citv's oldest resident. 

R.iILROAl). (See Chicago d- Western Imliana 

SOUTH DANVILLE, a suburb of the city of 
Danville, Vermilion County. Population (1890), 
799; ll'JOO), 898. 

LoiiixriUc &■ XashviUe Raib-oad.) 

SOUTH ELGIN, a village of Kane County, 
near the citv of Elgin. Population (1900), .">1.5. 

located at Albion, Edwards County, incorporated 
in 1891; had a faculty of ten teachers with 219 
pupils (1897-98)— about equally male and female. 
Besides classical, scientific, normal, music and 
fine arts departments, instruction is given in pre- 
paratory studies and business education. Its 
property is valued at §16. .500. 

located at Anna. Union County, founded by act 
of the Legislature in 1809. The original site com- 
prised 290 acres and cost a little more than 
$22,000, of whicli one-fourth was donated bj' citi- 
zens of the county. The construction of build- 
ings was begun in 1869, but it was not until 
March, 187.5, that the north wing (the first com- 
pleted) was ready for occupancy. Other portions 
were completed a year later. The Trustees pur- 
chased 100 additional acres in 1883. The first 
cost (up to September, 1876) was nearly §635,000. 
In 1881 one wing of the main building was de- 
stroyed by fire, and was subsequently rebuilt ; the 
patients being, meanwhile, cared for in temporary 
wooden barracks. The total value of lands and 
buildings belonging to the State, June 30, 1894, 
was estimated at §738,580, and, of property of all 
sorts, at §833,700. The wooden barracks were 
later converted into a permanent ward, additions 
made to the main buildings, a detached building 
for the accommodation of 300 patients erected, 
numerous outbuildings put up and general im- 
provements made. A second fire on the night of 
Jan. 3, 1895, destroyed a large part of the main 
building, inflicting a loss upon the State of 
§175,000. Provision was made for rebuilding by 
the Legislature of that year. The institution has 
capacity for about 750 patients. 

j.'^v-X-i, ..\\ .,,4 

„s,v/r.# v'- 



SITY, established in 1869, and located, after 
competitive bidding, at Carbondale, which offered 
lands and bonds at first estimated to be of the 
value of $229,000, but which later depreciated, 
through shrinkage, to §75,000. Construction was 
commenced in May, 1870, and the first or main 
building was completed and appropriately dedi- 
cated in July, 1874. Its cost was §265,000, but it 
was destroyed by fire, Nov. 26, 1883. In Febru- 
ary, 1887, a new structure was completed at a cost 
of §150,000. Two normal courses of instruction 
are given— classical and scientific — each extend- 
ing over a period of four years. The conditions 
of admission require that the pupil shall be 16 
5'ears of age, and shall possess the qualifications 
enabling him to pass examination for a second- 
grade teacher's certificate. Those unable to do so 
may enter a preparatory department for six 
months. Pupils who pledge themselves to teach 
in the public schools, not less than half the time 
of their attendance at the University, receive 
free tuition with a small charge for incidentals, 
while others pay a tuition fee. The number of 
students in attendance for the year 1897-98 was 
720, coming from forty-seven counties, chiefly in 
the southern half of tlie State, with represent- 
atives from eight other States. The teaching 
faculty for the same year consisted, besides the 
President, of sixteen instructors in the various 
departments, of whom five were ladies and 
eleven gentlemen. 

near Chester, on the Mississippi River. Its erec- 
tion was rendered necessary by the overcrowding 
of the Northern Penitentiary. (See Northern 
Penitentiary.) The law providing for its estab- 
lishment required the Commissioners to select a 
site convenient of access, adjacent to stone and 
timber, and having a high elevation, with a never 
failing supply of water. In 1877, 122 acres were 
purchased at Chester, and the erection of build- 
ings commenced. The first appropriation was of 
§200,000, and §300,000 was added in 1879. By 
March, 1878, 200 convicts were received, and 
their labor was utilized in the completion of the 
buildings, which are constructed upon approved 
modern principles. The prison receives convicts 
sent from the southern portion of the State, and 
has accommodation for some 1,200 prisoners. In 
connection with this penitentiary is an asylum 
for insane convicts, the erection of which was 
provided for by the Legislature in 1889. 

SOUTH GROVE, a village of De Kalb County. 
Population (1890), 730. 

SPALDING, Jesse, manufacturer. Collector of 
Customs and Street Railway President, was born 
at Athens, Bradford County, Pa., April 15, 1833; 
early commenced lumbering on the Susquehanna, 
and, at 23, began dealing on his own account. In 
1857 he removed to Chicago, and soon after bought 
the property of the New York Lumber Company 
at the mouth of the Menominee River in Wiscon- 
sin, where, with different partners, and finally 
practically alone, he has carried on the business 
of lumber manufacture on a large scale ever 
since. In 1881 he was appointed, by President 
Arthur, Collector of the Port of Chicago, and, in 
1889, received from President Harrison an 
appointment as one of the Government Directors 
of the Union Pacific Railway. Mr. Spalding was 
a zealous supporter of the Government during 
the War of the Rebellion and rendered valuable 
aid in the construction and equipment of Camp 
Douglas and the barracks at Chicago for the 
returning soldiers, receiving Auditor's warrants 
in payment, when no funds in the State treasury 
were available for the purpose. He was associ- 
ated with William B. Ogden and others in the 
project for connecting Green Bay and Sturgeon 
Bay by a ship canal, which was completed in 
1882, and, on the death of Mr. Ogden, succeeded 
to the Presidency of the Canal Company, serving 
until 1893, when the canal was turned over to the 
General Government. He has also been identified 
with many other public enterprises intimately 
connected with the development and prosperity 
of Chicago, and, in July, 1899, became President 
of the Chicago Union Traction Company, having 
control of the North and West Chicago Street 
Railway S3'stems. 

SPALDING, John Lancaster, Catholic Bishop, 
was born in Lebanon, Ky., June 2, 1840; educated 
in the United States and in Europe, ordained a 
priest in the Catholic Church in 1863, and there- 
upon attached to the cathedral at Louisville, as 
assistant. In 1869 he organized a congregation 
of colored people, and built for their use the 
Church of St. Augustine, having been assigned 
to that parish as pastor. Soon afterwards he was 
appointed Secretary to the Bishop and made 
Chancellor of the Diocese. In 1873 he was trans- 
ferred from Louisville to New York, where he 
was attached to the missionary parish of St. 
Michael's. He had, by this time, acliieved no little 
fame as a pulpit orator and lecturer. When 
the diocese of Peoria, 111., was created, in 1877, the 
choice of the Pope fell upon him for the new see, 
and he was consecrated Bishop, on May 1 of that 
year, by Cardinal McCloskey at New York. His 



administration lias been characterized by both 
energy and success. He hiis devoted mucli atteii- 
tiun to the subject of emigration, and has brouglit 
aliijut tlie foundiug of many new .settlements in 
the far AVest. He was also largely instrumental 
in bringing about the founding of the Catholic 
University at Washington. Ha is a frequent 
contributor to the reviews, and the author of a 
number of religious works. 

month of June, ITTl), soon after the declaration 
of war between .Spain and Great Britain, an expe- 
dition was organized in Canada, to attack the 
Spanish posts along the Mississippi. Simultane- 
ously, a force was to be dispatched from Pensa- 
cola against New Orleans, then commanded by 
a young Spanish Colonel, Don Bernardo de 
(lalvez. Secret instructions had been sent to 
British Commandants, all through the Western 
country, to cooperate with both expeditions. De 
(ialvez, having learned of the scheme through 
intercepted letters, resolved to forestall the attack 
by becoming the assailant. At the head of a 
force of 670 men, he set out and captured Baton 
Rouge, Fort Manchac and Natchez, almost with- 
out opposition. The British in Canada, being 
ignorant of what had been going on in the South, 
in February following dispatched a force from 
Mackinac to supjjort the expedition from Pensa- 
cola, and, incidentally, to subdue the American 
rebels while en route. Cahokia and Kaskaskia 
were contemplated points of attack, as well as 
the Spanish forts at St. Louis and St. Genevieve. 
This movement was planned by Capt. Patrick 
Sinclair, commandant at Mackinac, but Captain 
Hesse was jilaced in charge of the expedition, 
which numbered some 750 men, including a force 
of Indians led by a chief named Wabasha. The 
British arrived before St. Louis, early on the 
morning of May 26, 1780, taking the Spaniards 
by surprise. Meanwhile Col. George Rogers 
Clark, having been apprised of the project, 
arrived at Cahokia from the falls of the Ohio, 
twenty-four hours in advance of the attack, his 
presence and readiness to co-operate with the, no doubt, contributing to the defeat of 
the expedition. The accounts of what followed 
are conflicting, the number of killed on the St. 
Louis shore being variously estimated from seven 
or eight to .sixty eight — the last being the esti- 
mate of Capt. Sinclair in his official report. All 
agree, however, that the invading party was 
forced to retreat in great haste. Colonel Mont- 
gomerj', who had been in command at Cahokia, 
with a force of S!>0 and a party of Spanish allies, 

pursued the retreating invaders as far as the 
Rock River, destroying many Indian villages on 
the way. This movement on the part of the 
British served as a pretext for an attempted re- 
prisal, undertaken by the Spaniards, with the aid 
of a number of Cahokians, early in 1781. Starting 
early in January, this latter expedition crossed 
Illinois, with the design of attacking Fort St. 
Joseph, at the head of Lake Michigan, which had 
been captured from the English by Thomas Brady 
and afterwards retaken. The Spaniards were com- 
manded by Don Eugenio Pourre, and supported 
by a force of Cahokians and Indians. The fort 
was easily taken and the British flag replaced by 
the ensign of Spain. The affair was regarded as 
of but little moment, at the time, the post being 
evacuated in a few days, and the Spaniards 
returning to St. Louis. Yet it led to serious 
international complications, and the "conquest" 
was seriously urged by the Spanish ministry as 
giving that country a right to the territory trav- 
ersed. This claim was supported by France 
before the signing of the Treaty of Paris, but 
was defeated, through the combined efforts of 
Messrs. Jay, Franklin and Adams, the American 
Commissioners in charge of the peace negoti- 
ations with England. 

SPARKS, (Capt.) David R., manufacturer and 
legislator, was born near Lanesville. Ind., in 
1S23; in 1836, removed with his parents to Ma- 
coupin County, 111. ; in 1847, enlisted for the 
Mexican War, crossing the plains to Santa Fe, 
New Jlexico. In 1850 he made the overland trip 
to California, returning the next year by the 
Isthmus of Panama. In 185.5 he engaged in the 
milling business at Staunton, Macoupin County, 
but. in 1800, made a third trip across the plains 
in search of gold, taking a quartz-mill which was 
erected near where Central City, Colo., now is, 
and which was the second steam-engine in that 
region. He returned home in time to vote for 
Stephen A. Douglas for President, the same year, 
but became a stalwart Republican, two weeks 
later, when the advocates of secession began to 
develop their policy after the election of Lincoln. 
In 1861 he enlisted, under the call for 500,000 vol- 
unteers following the first battle of Bull Run. and 
was commissioned a Captain in the Third Illinois 
Cavalry (Col. Eugene A. Carr), serving two and a 
half years, during which time he took part in 
several hard-fought battles, and being present at 
the fall of Vicksburg. At the end of his service 
he became associated with his former partner in 
the erection of a large flouring mill at Litchfield, 
but, in 1869, the firm bought an extensive flour- 



ing mill at Alton, of which he became the princi- 
pal owner in 1881, and which has since been 
greatly enlarged and improved, until it is now one 
of the most extensive establishments of its kind 
in the State. Capt. Sparks was elected to the 
House of Representatives in 1888, and to the State 
Senate in 1894, serving in the sessions of 1895 and 
"97; was also strongly supported as a candidate 
for the Republican nomination for Congress in 

SPARKS, William A. J., ex-Congressman, was 
born near New Albany, Ind., Nov. 19, 1828, at 8 
years of age was brought by his parents to Illi- 
nois, and shortly afterwards left an orphan. 
Thrown on his own resources, he found work 
upon a farm, his attendance at the district 
schools being limited to the winter months. 
Later, he passed through McKendree College, 
supporting himself, meanwhile, by teaching, 
graduating in 18.50. He read law with Judge 
Sidney Breese, and was admitted to the bar in 
1851. His first public office was that of Receiver 
of the Land Office at Edwardsville, to which he 
was appointed by President Pierce in 1853, re- 
maining until 185G, when he was chosen Presi- 
dential Elector on the Democratic ticket. The 
same year he was elected to the lower house of 
the General Assembly, and, in 1863-64, served in 
the State Senate for the unexpired term of James 
M. Rodgers, d,eceased. He was a delegate to the 
Kational Democratic Convention in 1868, and a 
Democratic Representative in Congress from 1875 
to 1883. In 1885 lie was appointed, by President 
Cleveland, Commissioner of the General Land 
Office in Washington, retiring, by resignation, in 
1887. His home is at Carlvle. 

(See Centralia & Chester Railroad.) 

SPEED, Joshua Fry, merchant, and intimate 
friend of Abraham Lincoln ; was educated in tlie 
local schools and at St. Joseph's College, Bards- 
town, Ky., after which he spent some time in a 
wholesale mercantile establishment in Louisville. 
About 1835 he came to Springfield, 111., where he 
engaged in the mercantile business, later becom- 
ing the intimate friend and associate of Abraham 
Lincoln, to whom he offered the privilege of 
sharing a room over his store, when Mr. Lincoln 
removed from New Salem to Springfield, in 1836. 
Mr. Speed returned to Kentucky in 1842, but the 
friendship with Mr. Lincoln, which was of a 
most devoted character, continued until the 
death of the latter. Having located in Jefferson 
County, Ky., Mr. Speed was elected to the Legis- 
lature in 1848, but was never again willing to 

accept office, though often solicited to do so. In 
1851 he removed to Louisville, where he acquired 
a handsome fortune in the real-estate business. 
On the breaking out of the rebellion in 1861, he 
heartily embraced the cause of the Union, and, 
during the war, was entrusted with many deli- 
cate and important duties in the interest of the 
Government, by Mr. Lincoln, whom he frequently 
visited in Washington. His death occurred at 
Louisville, May 29, 1882. — James (Speed), an 
older brother of the preceding, was a prominent 
Unionist of Kentucky, and, after the war, a 
leading Republican of that State, serving as dele- 
gate to the National Republican Conventions of 
1873 and 1876. In 1864 he was appointed Attor- 
ney-General by Mr Lincoln and served until 1866, 
when he resigned on account of disagreement 
with President Johnson. He died in 1887, at the 
age of 75 years. 

SPOO>r RIVER, rises in Bureau County, flows 
southward through Stark County into Peoria, 
thence southwest through Knox, and to the south 
and southeast, through Fulton County, entering 
the Illinois River opposite Havana. It is about 
150 miles long. 

SPRINGER, (Rev.) Francis, D.D., educator 
and Army Chaplain, born in Franklin County, 
Pa., March 19, 1810; was left an orphan at an 
early age, and educated at Pennsylvania College, 
Gettysburg; entered the Lutheran ministry in 
1836, and, in 1839, removed to Springfield, 111., 
where he preached and taught school; in 1847 
became President of Hillsboro College, whicli, in 
1853, was removed to Springfield and became Illi- 
nois State University, now known as Concordia 
Seminary. Later, he served for a time as Super- 
intendent of Schools for the city of Springfield, 
but, in September, 1861, resigned to accept the 
Chaplaincy of the Tenth Illinois Cavalry ; by suc- 
cessive resignations and appointments, held the 
positions of Chaplain of the First Arkansas Infan- 
try (1863-64) and Post Chaplain at Fort Smith, 
Ark., serving in the latter position until April, 
1867, when he was corami.ssioned Cliaplain of the 
United States Army. This position lie resigned 
while stationed at Fort Harker, Kan.. August 23, 
1867. During a considerable part of his incum- 
bency as Chaplain at Fort Smith, he acted as 
Agent of the Bureau of Refugees and Freedmen, 
performing important service in caring for non- 
combatants rendered homeless by the vicissitudes 
of war. After the war he served, for a time, as 
Superintendent of Schools for Montgomery 
County, 111. : was instrumental in the founding 
of Carthage (111.) College, and was a member of 


its Buard of Control at the time of his death. He 
was elected Chaplain of the Illinois House of 
Kepresentati-res at the session of the Thirty fifth 
General Assembly (1887), and Chaplain of the 
Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of 
Illinois for two consecutive terms (1890-'92). 
He was also member of the Stephenson Post, 
No. 30, G. A. R., at Springfield, and served as its 
Chaplain from January, 1884, to his death, which 
occurred at Springfield, Oct. 21, 18S2. 

SPRINGER, William McKendree, ex-Congress- 
man, Justice of United States Court, was born in 
Sullivan County, Ind. , May 30, 1836. In 1848 he 
removed with his parents to Jacksonville, 111., 
was fitted for college in the public high school at 
Jacksonville, under the tuition of the late Dr. 
Bateman, entered Illinois College, remaining 
three years, when he removed to the Indiana 
State University, graduating there in 1858. The 
following year he was admitted to the bar and 
commenced practice in I^ogan County, but soon 
after removed to Springfield. He entered public 
life as Secretary of the Constitutional Convention 
of 1862. In 1871-72 he represented Sangamon 
County in the Legislature, and, in 1874, was 
elected to Congress from the Thirteenth Illinois 
District as a Democrat. From that time imtil 
the close of the Fifty-third Congress (1895), he 
served in Congress continuously, and was recog- 
nized as one of the leaders of his party on the 
floor, being at the head of many important com- 
mittees when that party was in the ascendancy, 
and a candidate for the Democratic caucus nomi- 
nation for Speaker, in 1893. In 1894 he was the 
candidate of his party for Congress for the 
eleventh time, but was defeated by his Repub- 
lican opponent, James A. ConnoUy. In 1895 
President Cleveland appointed him United 
States District Judge for Indian Territory. 

SPRIXGFIELD, the State capital, and the 
county-seat of Sangamon County, situated five 
miles south of the Sangamon River and 185 miles 
southwest of Chicago; is an important railway 
center. The first settlement on the site of the 
present city was made by John Kelly in 1819. 
On April 10, 1821. it was selected, by the first 
Board of County Commissioners, as the temporary 
county-seat of Sangamon County, the organi- 
zation of which had been authorized by act of 
the Legislature in January previous, and tlie 
name Springfield was given to it. In 1S23 the 
selection was made permanent. The latter year 
the first sale of lands took place, the original site 
being entered by Pascal P. Enos, Elijah lies and 
Thomas Cox. The town was platted about the 

same time, and the name "Calhoun" was given to 
a section in the northwest quarter of the present 
city — this being the "hey-day" of the South 
Carolina statesman's greatest popularity — but 
the change was not popularly accepted, and the 
new name was soon dropped. It was incorpo- 
rated as a town, April 2, 1832, and as a citv. April 
6, 1840; and re-incorporated, under the general, 
law in 1882. It was made the State capital by 
act of the Legislature, passed at the session of 
1837, which went into effect, July 4, 1839, and the 
Legislature first convened there in December of 
the latter year. The general surface is fiat, 
though there is rolling gi-ound to the west. The 
city has excellent water-works, a paid fire-depart- 
ment, six banks, electric street railways, gas and 
electric lighting, commodious hotels, fine 
churches, numerous handsome residences, beauti- 
ful parks, thorough sewerage, and is one of the 
best paved and handsomest cities in the State. 
The city proper, in 1890, contained an area of four 
square miles, but has since been enlarged by the 
annexation of the following suburbs: North 
Springfield, April 7, 1891 ; West Springfield, Jan. 
4, 1898; and South Springfield and the village of 
Laurel, April 5, 1898. These additions give to 
the present city an area of 5.84 square miles. 
The population of the original city, according to 
the census of 1880, was 19,743. and, in 1890, a4,963, 
while that of the annexed suburbs, at the last 
census, was 2, 109— making a total of 29,072. The 
latest school census (1898) showed a total popu- 
lation of 33,375— population by census (1900), 
34,159. Besides the State House, the city has a 
handsome United States Government Building 
for United States Court and post-ofBce purposes, 
a county courthouse (the former State capitol). 
a city hall and (State) Executive Mansion. 
Springfield was the home of Abraham Lincoln. 
His former residence has been donated to the 
State, and his tomb and monument are in the 
beautiful Oak Ridge cemetery, adjoining the 
city. Springfield is an important coal-mining 
center, and has many important industries, 
notably a watch factory, rolling mills, and exten- 
sive manufactories of agricultural implements 
and furniture. It is also the permanent location 
of the State Fairs, for which extensive buildings 
have been erected on the Fair Grounds north of 
the city. There are three daily papers — two morn- 
ing and one evening — published here, besides 
various other pul)lications. Pop. (1900), 34.159. 

EASTERN R.ilLRO.VD. (See St. Louis. Indian- 
apolis <& Eastern Railroad.) 



ERN RAILROAD. (See Baltimore & Ohio 
South Wf.^tern Railroad.) 

ROAD. (See Chicago, Peoria & St Louis 
Bailroad of Illinois.) 

SPRINdr VALLEY, an incorporated city in 
Bureau County, at intersection of the Chicago & 
Northwestern, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, and the 
Toluca, Marquette & Northern Railways, 100 
miles southwest of Chicago. It lies in a coal- 
mining region and has important manufacturing 
interests as well. It has two banks, electric 
street and interurban railways, and two news- 
papers. Population (1890), 3,837; (1900), 6,214. 

ST. AGATHA'S SCHOOL, an institution for 
j'oung ladies, at Springfield, under the patronage 
of the Bishop of the Episcopal Clmrch, incorpo- 
rated in 1889. It has a faculty of eight teachers 
giving instruction in the preparatory and higher 
branches, including music and fine arts. It 
reported fifty-five pupils in 1894, and real estate 
valued at §15,000, 

ST. ALBAN'S ACADEMY, a boys' and young 
men's school at Knoxville, III., incorporated in 
1890 imder the auspices of the Episcopal Church; 
in 1898 liad a faculty of seven teachers, with 
forty-five pupils, and property valued at §01,100, 
of which §54,000 was real estate. Instruction is 
given in the classical and scientific branches, 
besides music and preparatory studies. 

ST. ANNE, a village of Kankakee County, 
at the crossing of the Chicago it Eastern Illinois 
and the Cleveland, Cincinnati. Chicago & St. 
Louis Railways, 60 miles south of Chicago. The 
town has two banks, tile and brick factory, and a 
weekly newspaper. Pop. (1900), 1,000. 

ST. CHARLES, a city in Kane County, on both 
sides of Fox River, at intersection of the Chicago 
& Northwestern and the Chicago Great Western 
Railways; 38 miles west of Chicago and 10 miles 
south of Elgin. The river furnishes excellent 
water-power, which is being utilized by a number 
of important manufacturing enterprises. The 
city is connected with Chicago and many towns 
in the Fox River valley by interurb.n electric 
trolley lines; is also the seat of the State Home 
for Boys. Pop. (1890), 1,690; (1900), 2,675. 

ST. CLAIR, Arthur, first Governor of the 
Northwest Territory, was born of titled ancestry 
at Thurso, Scotland, in 1734; came to America in 
1757 as an ensign, having purchased his commis- 
sion, participated in the capture of Louisburg. 
Canada, in 1758, and fought under Wolfe at 

Quebec. In 1764 he settled in Pennsylvania, 
-where he amassed a moderate fortune, and be- 
came prominent in public affairs. He served with 
distinction during the Revolutionary War, rising 
to the rank of Major-General, and succeeding 
General Gates in command at Ticonderoga, but, 
later, was censured by Washington for his hasty 
evacuation of the post, though finally vindicated 
by a military court. His Revolutionary record, 
however, was generally good, and even distin- 
guished. He represented Pennsylvania in the 
Continental Congress, and presided over that 
body in 1787. He served as Governor of the 
Northwest Territory (including the present State 
of Illinois) from 1789 to 1802. As an executive 
he was not successful, being unpopular because 
of his arbitrariness. In November, 1791, he 
suffered a serious defeat by the Indians in the 
valley between the Miami and the Wabash. In 
this campaign he was badh' crippled by the gout, 
and had to be carried on a litter; he was again 
vindicated by a Congressional investigation. His 
first visit to the Illinois Country was made in 
1790, when he organized St. Clair County, which 
was named in his honor. In 1802 President Jef- 
ferson removed him from the governorship of 
Ohio Territory, of which he had continued to be 
the Governor after its separation from Indiana 
and Illinois. The remainder of his life was 
spent in comparative penury. Shortly before his 
decease, he was granted an annuity by the Penn- 
sylvania Legislature and hj Congress. Died, at 
Greensburg. Pa.. August 31, 1818. 

ST. CLAIR COUNTY, the first county organ- 
ized within the territory comprised in the pres- 
ent State of Illinois — the whole region west 
of the Ohio River having been first placed under 
civil jurisdiction, under the name of "Illinois 
County," by an act of the Virginia House of 
Delegates, passed in October, 1778, a few months 
after the capture of Kaskaskia by Col. George 
Rogers Clark. (See Illinois; also Clark, George 
Rogers.) St. Clair County was finally set oft 
by an order of Gov. Arthur St Clair, on occa- 
sion of his first visit to the "Illinois Country,*' 
in April, 1790 — more than two years after his 
assumption of the duties of Governor of the 
Nortliwest Territory, which then comprehended 
the "Illinois Country" as well as the whole 
region within the present States of Ohio, Indiana, 
Michigan and Wisconsin. Governor St. Clair's 
order, which bears date, April 27, 1790, defines 
the boundaries of the new county — which took 
his own name — as follows: "Beginning at the 
mouth of the Little Michillimackanack River, 


running thence southerly in a direct line to the 
mouth of the little river above Fort Massac upon 
the Ohio River; thence with the said river to its 
junction with the Mississippi; thence up the 
Mississippi to the mouth of the Illinois, and so up 
the Illinois River to the place of beginning, with 
all the adjacent islands of .said rivers. Illinois and 
Mississippi." The "Little Michillimackanack." 
the initial point mentioned in this description— 
also variously spelled "Maldna" and "Macki- 
naw." the latter being the name by which the 
stream is now known — empties into the Illinois 
River on the south side a few miles below 
Pekin. in Tazewell County. The boundaries 
of St. Clair County, as given by Gov. St. Clair, 
indicate the imperfect knowledge of the topog- 
raphy of the "Illinois Country" existing in 
that day, as a line drawn south from the mouth 
of the Mackinaw River, instead of roa<-hing the 
Ohio "above Fort Massac," would have followed 
the longitude of the present city of Springfield, 
striking the Mississippi about the northwestern 
corner of Jackson County, twenty-five miles west 
of the mouth of the Ohio. The object of Gov- 
ernor St. Clair"s order was, of course, to include 
the settled portions of the Illinois Country in the 
new county ; and, if it had had the effect intended, 
the eastern border of the countj- would have fol- 
lowed a line some fifty miles farther eastward, 
along the eastern border of Marion, Jefferson. 
Franklin. Williamson and Johnson Counties, 
reaching tlie Ohio River about the pn-scnt sif "f 
Metropolis City in Massac County, aipl cnilnaiiii;;- 
about one-half of the area of the prcNiMil State of 
Illinois. For all practical purposes it embraced 
all the Illinois Country, as it included that por- 
tion in which the white settlements were located. 
(See St. Clair, Arthur; also Illinois Country.) 
The early records of St. Clair County are in the 
French language ; its first settlers and its early 
civilization were French, and tlie first church to 
inculcate the doctrine of Christianity was the 
Roman Catholic. The first proceedings in court 
under the common law were had in 1796. The 
first Ju.sticesof the Peace were appointed in 1807, 
and, as there was no penitentiary, the whipping- 
post and pillory played an important part in the 
code of penalties, these punishments being im- 
partially meted out as late as the time of Judge 
(afterwards. Governor) Reynolds, to "the lame, the 
halt an<l the blind," for such offenses as the lar- 
ceny of a silk handkerchief. At first three 
places— Cahokia, Prairie du Rocher and Kaskas- 
kia — were nameil as county-seats by Governor St. 
Clair; but Randolph County having been set off 

in 1895, Cahokia became the county-seat of the 
older coimty. so remaining until 1813, when 
Belleville was selected as the seat of justice. At 
that time it was a mere cornfield owned by 
George Blair, although settlements had previously 
been established in Ridge Prairie and at Badgley. 
Judge Jesse B. Thomas held his first court in a 
log-cabin, but a rude court house was erected in 
1814, and, the same year, George E. Blair estab- 
lished a hostelry, Joseph Kerr opened a store, 
and, in 1817, additional improvements were 
inaugurated by Daniel Murray and others, from 
Baltimore. John H. Dennis and the Mitchells 
and Wests (from Virginia) settled soon after- 
ward, becoming farmers and mechanics. Belle- 
ville was incorporated in 1819. In 182.J Governor 
Edwards bought the large landed interests of 
Etienne Personeau, a large French land-owner, 
ordered a new survey of the town and infused fresh 
life into its development. Settlers began to arrive 
in large numbers, mainly Virginians, who brought 
with them their slaves, the right to hold which 
was, for man}- years, a fruitful and perennial 
source of strife. Emigrants from Germany 
began to arrive at an early day, and now a large 
proportion of the population of Belleville and St. 
Clair County is made up of that nationality. The 
county, as at present organized, lies on the west- 
ern border of the south half of the State, immedi- 
ately opposite St. Louis, and comprises some 680 
square miles. Three-fourths of it are underlaid 
by a vein of coal, si.x to eight feet thick, and 
about one hundred feet below the surface. Con- 
siderable wheat is raised. The principal towns 
are Belleville. East St. Louis, Lebanon and Mas- 
coutah. Population of the county (1880), 01,806; 
(1890), e6,.")71; (inoO) SO. 085. 

ST. JOHX, an incorporated village of Pei-ry 
County, on the Illinois Central Railway, one mile 
north of Duquoin. Coal is mined and salt manu- 
factured here. Population about 500. 

ST. JOSr.PH, a village of Champaign County, 
on the Cleveland. Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis 
Railway, 10 miles east of Champaign; has inter- 
urban railroad connection. Pop. (1900), 637. 

ST. JOSEPH'S HOSPITAL, (Chicago), founded 
in 1860, by the Sisters of Charity. Having been de- 
stroyed in the fire of 1871, it was rebuilt in the 
following year. In 1892 it was reconstructed, en- 
larged and made thoroughly modern in its appoint- 
ments. It can accommodate about 2.50 patients. 
The Sistersattend to the nursing, and conduct the 
domestic and financial affairs. The medical staff 
comprises ten physicans and surgeons, among 
whom are some of the most eminent in Chicago. 


•19 S 


(See Chicago & Alton Railvoad. ) 

ROAD. (See St. Louis, Chicago & St. Paul 

RAILOAD, a corporation formerly operating an 
extensive system of railroads in Illinois. The Terre 
Haute & Alton Railroad Company (the original 
corporation) was chartered in January, 1851, 
work begun in 1853, and the main line fi'om 
Terre Haute to Alton (172.5 miles) completed, 
March 1, 1856. The Belleville & Illinoistown 
branch (from Belleville to East St. Louis) was 
chartered in 1853, and completed between the 
points named in the title, in the fall of 1854. 
This corporation secured authority to construct 
an extension from Illinoistown (now East St. 
Louis) to Alton, which was completed in October, 
1S56, giving the first raiboad connection between 
Alton & St. Louis. Simultaneously with this, 
these two roads (tlie Terre Haute & Alton and 
the Belleville & Illinoistown) were consolidated 
under a single charter by special act of the Legis- 
lature in February, 1854, the consolidated line 
taking the name of the Terre Haute, Alton & St. 
Louis Railroad. Subsequently the road became 
finanoiall3' embarassed, was sold under foreclosure 
and reorganized, in 1863, under the name of the 
St. I.,ouis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad. June 
1, 1867, the main line (from Terre Haute to St. 
Louis) was leased for niety-nine years to the 
IndianapoUs & St. Louis Railway Company (an 
Indiana corporation) guaranteed by certain other 
lines, but the lease was subsequently broken by 
the insolvency of the lessee and some of the 
guarantors. The Indianapolis & St. Louis went 
into the hands of a receiver in 1883, and was sold 
under foreclosure, in July of the same year, its 
interest being absorbed by the Cleveland, Cin- 
cinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railway, by which 
the main line is now operated. The properties 
officially reported as remaining in the hands of 
the St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad, 
June 30, 1895, beside the Belleville Branch (14.40 
miles), included the following leased and subsidi- 
ary lines: Belleville & Southern Illinois — "Cairo 
Short Line"' (56.40 miles) ; Belleville & Eldorado, 
(50.30 miles); Belleville & Carondelet (17.30 
miles); St. Louis Southern and branches (47.37 
miles), and Chicago, St. Louis & Paducah Rail- 
way (58.50 miles). All these have been leased, 
since the close of the fiscal year 1895, to the Illi- 
nois Central. (For sketches of these several 
roads see headings of each. ) 


ROAD, (Bluff Line), a line running from Spring- 
field to Granite City, 111., (opposite St. Louis), 
103.1 miles, with a branch from Lock Haven to 
Grafton, 111., 8.4 _ miles— total length of line in 
Illinois, 110.5 miles. The track is of standard 
gauge, laid with 56 to 70-pound steel rails.— (His- 
tory. ) The road was originally incorporated 
under the name of the St. Louis, Jerseyville & 
Springfield Railroad, built from Bates to Grafton 
in 1883, and absorbed by the Wabash, St. Louis & 
Pacific Railway Company ; was surrendered by the 
receivers of the latter in 1886, and passed under 
the control of the bond-holders, by whom it was 
transferred to a corporation known as the St. 
Louis & Central Illinois Railroad Company. In 
June, 1887, the St. Louis, Alton & Springfield 
Railroad Company was organized, with power to 
build extensions from Newbern to Alton, and 
from Bates to Springfield, which was done. In 
October, 1890, a receiver was appointed, followed 
by a reorganization under the present name (St. 
Louis, Chicago & St. Paul). Default was made 
on the interest and, in June following, it was 
again placed in the hands of receivers, by whom 
it was operated until 1898. The total earnings 
and income for the fiscal year 1897-98 were 
§318,815, operating expenses, §373,370; total 
capitalization, §4,853,536, of which, §1,500,000 
was in the form of stock and §1,235 000 in income 

RAILROAD, a railroad line 90 miles in length, 
extending from Switz City, Ind., to Effingham, 
111. — 56 miles being within the State of Illinois. 
It is of standard gauge and the track laid chiefly 
with iron rails.— (History.) The orginal corpo- 
ration was chartered in 1869 as the Springfield, 
Effingham & Quincy Railway Company. It waa 
built as a narrow-gauge line bj' the Cincinnati, 
Effingham & Quincy Construction Company, 
wliich went into the hands of a receiver in 1878. 
The road was completed by the receiver in 1880, 
and, in 1885, restored to the Construction Com- 
pany by the discharge of the receiver. For a 
short time it was operated in connection with 
the Bloomfield Railroad of Indiana, but was 
reorganized in 1886 as the Indiana & lUinois 
Southern Railroad, and the gauge changed to 
standard in 1887. Having made default in the 
payment of interest, it was sold under foreclosure 
in 1890 and purchased in the interest of the bond- 
holders, by whom it was conveyed to the St. 
Louis, Indianapolis & Eastern Railroad Company, 
in whose name the line is operated. Its business 





is limiteJ. ami chiefly local. The tcital earnings 
in 1898 were $<>.">. "js:i and the expenditures ?(!<). 1 12. 
Its capital stock «as .?T40.!)(I(); bonded debt, 
S9T8.000, other indebtednes-s increasing the total 
capital investment to .Sl.sifi.TSG. 

K.V I LHO A I). I See Ch iairjo <{■ AUi»i Ra ilmad. ) 

KAILHOAI). (.^ee St. Lou,\ Chicwj,, A- St. I'a„l 

BANY RAILKOAO, (See LonhvUlf. Ki-dnxrillc 
A- St. Louis (Co)tsoli(l(ital) liailruml.) 

WAV, known as "Peoria Short Line," a corpo- 
ration organized, Feb. 29, 1890, to take over and 
unite the properties of the St. Louis & Eastern, 
the St. Louis & Peoria and the North and South 
Railways, and to extend the same due north 
from Springfield to Peoria (00 miles), and thence 
to Fulton or East Clinton, 111., on the Upper Mis- 
sissippi. The line extends from Springfield to 
Glen Carbon (84.46 miles), with trackage facilities 
over the Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis Railroad 
and the Slerchants" Terminal Bridge (18 miles) 
to St. Louis. — (IlTSTOEY.) This road has been 
made up of three sections or divisions. (1) The 
initial section of the line was constructed under 
the name of the St. Louis & Chicago Railroad of 
Illinois, incorporated in 1885, and opened from 
Mount Olive to Alhambra in 1887. It passed 
into the hands of a receiver, was sold under fore- 
closure in 1889, and reorganized, in 1890, as the St. 
Louis & Peoria R;iilroad. The St. Louis & East- 
ern, chartered in 1889, built the line from Glen 
Carbon to Marine, wliich was opened in 1893; the 
following year, bought the St. Louis & Peoria 
line, and, in 1895, constructed the link (8 miles) 
between AUiambra and Marine. (3) The North 
& South Railroad Company of Illinois, organized 
in 1890, as successor to the St. Louis & Chicago 
Railway Company, proceeded in the cx)nstruction 
of the line (50.46 miles) from Mt. Olive to Spring- 
field, which wiis subsequently leased to the Chi- 
cago, Peoria & St. Louis, then under the 
management of the Jacksonville. Louisville & St. 
Louis Riiilway. The latter corporation having 
defaulted, the property pas.sed into the hands of 
a receiver. By expiration of the lease in Decem- 
ber, 1896, the property reverted to the jjroprietary 
Company, which took ixssession, Jan. 1, 1896. 
The St. Louis & Southeastern then bought the 
line outright, and it was incorporated as a part of 
the new organization under the name of the St. 
Louis, Peoria & Xorthcrn Uailwav. the North 

& South Railroad going out of existence. In 
May, 1899, the St. Louis. Peoria & Northern was 
sold to the reorganized Chicago & Alton Railroad 
Company, to be operated as a short line between 
Peoria & St. Louis. 

RAILROAD. (See Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 

running from Pinckneyville, 111., via Murphys- 
lioro. to Carbondale. The company is also the 
lessee of the Carbondale & Shawneetown Rail- 
road, extending from Carbondale to Marion, 17.5 
miles — total, 50.5 miles. The track is of standard 
gauge and laid with 56 and 00-pound steel rails. 
The companj- was organized in August, 1886, to 
succeed to the property of the St. Louis Coal Rail- 
road (organized in 1879) and the St. Louis Central 
Railway ; and was leased for 980 years from Dec. 
1, 188e" to the St. Louis, xVlton & Terre Haute 
Railroad Company, at an annual rental equal to 
thirty per cent of the gross earnings, with a mini- 
mum guarantee of 832,000, which is sufficient 
to paj- the interest on the first mortgage bonds. 
During the year 1890 this line passed under lease 
from the St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Rail- 
road Company, into the hands of the Illinois 
Central Railroad Companv. 

RAILROAD COMPANY, a corporation organized 
in July, 1899, to take over the property of the 
Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railway in the 
State of Illinois, known as the Ohio & Mississippi 
and the Springfield & Illinois Southeastern 
Railways — the former extending from Vin- 
cennes, Ind., to East St, Louis, and the latter 
from Beardstown to Shawneetown. The prop- 
erty was sold under foreclosure, at Cincinnati, 
July 10, 1899, and transferred, for purposes of 
reorganization, into the hands of the new cor- 
poration, July 28, 1899. (For history of the 
several lines see Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern 
Bail way.) 

RAILROAD. This line extends from St. ' 
Louis eastward across the State, to the Indiana 
State line, a distance of 158.3 miles. The Terre 
Haute & Indianapolis Railroad Company is the 
lessee. The track is single, of standard gauge, 
and laid with steel rails. The outstanding capi- 
tal stock, in 1898, was 53,924,058, the bonded debt, 
$4,496,000, and the floating debt, §218,480.— (His- 
tory ) The St. Louis. Vandalia & Terre Haute 
Railroad was chartered in 1805, opened in 1870 
and leased to the Terre Haute & Indianapolis 



Railroad, for itself and the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, 
Chicago & St. Louis Railroad. 

from East St. Louis to Cairo, 111., 151.6 miles, with 
a branch from Jlillstadt Junction to High Prairie, 
miles. The track is of standard gauge and laid 
mainly with steel rails. — (HiSTOEV.) The origi- 
nal charter was granted to the Cairo & St. Louis 
Railroad Company, Feb. 16, 1865, and the road 
opened, JIarch 1, 1875. Subsequently it passed 
into the hands of a receiver, was sold under fore- 
closure, July 14, 1881, and was taken charge of 
by a new company under its present name, Feb. 
1, 1883. On Feb. 1, 1886, it was leased to the 
Mobile & Ohio Railroad Company for forty-five 
years, and no\v constitutes the Illinois Division 
of that line, giving it a connection with St. 
Louis. (See Jlobile d- Oh to Railu-aij. ) 

ROAD. (See Sf. Louis. Chicago & St. Paul 

Illinois). (See St. Louis, Peoria & Northern 
Ra ihvay. ) 

St. Louis. Peoria & Xorthern Railway.) 

St. Louis. Peoria A Xorthern Railway.) 

ST. LUKE'S HOSPITAL, located in Chicago. 
It was chartered in 1865, its incorporators, in 
their initial statement, substantially declaring 
their object to be the establishnrent of a free hos- 
pital under the control of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church, which should be open to the 
afflicted poor, without distinction of race or 
creed. The hospital was opened on a small scale, 
but steadily increased luatil 1879, when re-incor- 
poration was effected under the general law. In 
1885 a new building was erected on land donated 
for that purpose, at a cost exceeding §150.000, 
exclusive of §20,000 for furnishing. While its 
primary object has been to afford accommoda- 
tion, with medical and surgical care, gratuitously, 
to the needy poor, the institution also provides a 
considerable number of comfortable, well-fur- 
nished private rooms for patients who are able 
and willing to pay for the same. It contains an 
amphitheater for surgical operations and clinics, 
and has a free dispensary for out-patients. Dur- 
ing the past few years important additions 
have been made, the number of beds increased, 
and provision made for a training school for 
nurses. The medical .staff (1896) consists of 
thirteen physicians and surgeons and two 

ST, MART'S SCHOOL, a young ladies" semi- 
nary, under the patronage of the Episcopal 
Church, at Knoxville, Knox County, 111. ; was 
incorporated in 1858, in 1898 had a faculty of foui'- 
teen teachers, giving in.struction to 113 pupils. 
The branches taught include the clas.sics, the 
sciences, fine arts, music and preparatory studies. 
The institution has a library of 2,200 volumes, 
and owns property valued at .5130,500, of wliich 
§100,000 is real estate. 

STAGER, Anson, soldier and Telegraph Super- 
intendent, was born in Ontario County, N. Y.. 
April 20, 1835 ; at 16 years of age entered the serv- 
ice of Henry O'Reilly, a printer who afterwards 
became a pioneer in building telegraph lines, and 
with whom he became associated in various enter- 
prises of this character. Having introduced 
several improvements in the construction of bat- 
teries and the arrangement of wires, he was. in 
1852, made General Superintendent of the princi- 
pal lines in the West, and, on the organization of 
the Western Union Company, was retained in 
this position. Early in the Civil War he was 
entrusted with the management of telegraph 
lines in Southern Ohio and along the Virginia 
border, and, in October following, was appointed 
General Superintendent of Government tele- 
graphs, remaining in this position until Septem- 
ber, 1868, his services being recognized in his 
promotion to a brevet Brigadier-Generalship of 
Volunteers. In 1869 General Stager returned to 
Chicago and, in addition to his duties as General 
Superintendent, engaged in the promotion of a 
number of enterprises connected with the manu- 
facture of electrical appliances and other 
branches of the business. One of these was the 
consolidation of the telephone companies, of 
which he became President, as also of the West- 
ern Edison Electric Light Company, besides being 
a Director in several otlier corporations. Died, 
in Chicago, March 26, 1885. 

STANDISH, John Van Ness, a lineal descendant 
of Capt. Miles Standish, the Pilgrim leader, was 
born at Woodstock, Vt., Feb. 26, 1825. His early 
years were spent on a farm, but a love of knowl- 
edge and books became his ruling passion, and he 
devoted several years to study, in the "Liberal 
Institute" at Lebanon, N. H., finally graduating, 
with the degree of A. B., at Norwich University 
in the class of 1847. Later, he received the 
degree of A.M., in due ooiirse, from his Alma 
Mater in 1855; that of Ph.D. from Knox College, 
in 1883, of LL.D from St. Lawrence University 
in 1893, and from Norwich, in 1898. Dr. Standish 
chose the profession of a teacher, and has spent 




over fifty years in its pursuit in conuettion %vUli 
private and public schools and the College, of 
which more than forty years were as Professor and 
President of Lombard University at Galesburg. 
He lias also lecttured and conducted Teachers' 
Institutes all over the State, and, in 1859, was 
elected President of the State Teachers" Associ- 
ation. He made three visits to the Old World— 
in 1879, ■82-83, and "91-92— and, during his second 
trip, traveled over 40,000 miles, visiting nearly 
every country of Eui-ope, including the "Land of 
the Midnight Sun," besides Northern Africa 
from the Slediterranean to the Desert of Sahara, 
Egypt, Palestine, Syria and Asia Minor. A lover 
of art, he has visited nearly all the principal 
mu.seums and picture galleries of the world. In 
liolitirs he is a Republican, and, in opposition to 
many college men, a firm believer in the doctrine 
of jirntection. In religion, he is a Universalist. 
STAPP, James T. B., State Auditor, was born 
in "Woodford County, Ky"., xVpril 13, 1804; at the 
age of 12 accompanied his widowed mother to 
Kaskaskia, 111., where she settled; before he was 
20 yeai-s old, was employed as a clerk in the office 
of the State Auditor, and, upon the resignation of 
that officer, was appointed his successor, being 
twice thereafter elected by the Legislature, serv- 
ing nearly five years. He resigned the auditor- 
ship to ac-cept the Presidency of the State Bank 
at Vandalia, which post he filled for thirteen 
years; acted as Aid-de-camp on Governor Rey- 
nolds staff in the Black Hawk War, and .served 
as Adjutant of the Third Illinois Volunteers dur- 
ing the war with Mexico. President Taylor 
appointed Mr. Stapp Receiver of the United 
States Land Office at Vandalia, which office he 
held during the Fillmore administration, resign- 
ing in 18.55. Two years later he removed to 
Decatur, where he continued to reside until his 
death in 1876. A handsome Methodist chapel, 
erected by him in that city, bears his name. 

STARK COUNTY, an interior county in the 
northern half of the State, lying west of the Illi- 
nois River ; has an area of 290 square miles. It 
has a rich, alluvial soil, well watered by numer- 
ous small streams. The principal industries are 
agriculture and stock-raising, and the chief 
towns are Toulon and Wyoming. The county 
wiis erected from Putnam and Knox in 1839, and 
named in honor of General Stark, of Revolution- 
ary fame. The earliest settler was Isaac B. 
Essex, who built a cabin on Spoon River, in 1828, 
and gave his name to a townslup. Of other pio- 
neer families, the Buswells, Smiths, Spencers and 

Eastmans came from Xew England; llic Thom- 
ases, Moores, Holgates, Fullers and Whittakers 
from Pennsylvania; the Coxes from Ohio, tlie 
Perrys and Parkers from Virginia; the McClana- 
hans from Kentucky ; the Hendersons from Ten- 
nessee ; the Lees and Hazens from New Jersey ; 
the Halls from England, and the Turnbulls and 
Olivers from Scotland. The pioneer church was 
the Congregational at Toulon. Population ( 18S0), 
11,207; (1890), 9,982; (1900), 10,186. 

STARVED ROCK, a celebrated rock or cliff on 
tlie south side of Illinois River, in La Salle 
County, upon which the French explorer. La 
Salle, and his lieutenant, Tonty, erected a fort in 
1682, which they named Fort St. Louis. It was 
one mile north of the supposed location of the 
Indian village of La Vantum, the metropolis, so 
to speak, of the Illinois Indians about the time of 
the arrival of the first French explorers. The 
population of this village, in 1080, according to 
Father IMembre, was some seven or eight thou- 
sand. Both La Vantum and Fort St. Louis were 
repeatedly attacked by the Iroquois. The Illinois 
were temporarily driven from La Vantum, but 
the French, for the time being, successfully 
defended their fortification. In 1703 the fort was 
abandoned as a military post, but continued to 
be used as a French trading-post until 1718, 
when it was burned by Indians. The Illinois 
were not again molested until 1722, when the 
Foxes made an unsuccessful attack upon them. 
The larger portion of the tribe, however, resolved 
to cast in their fortunes with other tribes on the 
Mississippi River. Those who remained fell an 
easy prey to the foes by whom they were sur- 
rounded. In 17G9 they were attacked from the 
north by tribes who desired to avenge the murder 
of Pontiac. Finding themselves hard pressed, 
they betook themselves to the bluff where Fort 
St. Louis had formerly stood. Here they were 
besieged for twelve days, when, destitute of food 
or water, they made a gallant but hopeless sortie. 
According to a tradition handed down among the 
Indians, all were massacred by the besiegers in 
an attempt to escape by night, except one half- 
breed, who succeeded in evading his pursuers. 
This sanguinary catastrophe has given the rock 
its popular name. Elmer Baldwin, in his History 
of La Salle Cotmty (1877), says: "The bones of 
the victims lay scattered about the cliff in pro- 
fusion after the settlement by the whites, and 
are .still found mingled plentifully with the soil." 
(See La Salle, Robert Cavelier; Tonty: Fort St. 



STARXE, Alexander, Secretary of State and 
State Treasurer, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., 
Nov. 21, 1813; in the spring of 1836 removed to 
Illinois, settling at Griggsville, Pike Count)', 
where he opened a general store. From 1839 to 
"42 he served as Commissioner of Pike County, 
and, in the latter year, was elected to the lower 
house of the General Assembly, and re-elected in 
1844. Having, in the meanwhile, disposed of his 
store at Griggsville and removed to Pittsfield, he 
was appointed, by Judge Purple, Clerk of the 
Circuit Court, and elected to the same office for 
four years, when it was made elective. In 18.52 
he was elected Secretary of State, when he 
removed to Springfield, returning to Griggsville 
at the expiration of his term in 1857, to assmne 
the Presidency of the old Hannibal and Naples 
Railroad (now a part of the Wabash system). 
He represented Pike and Brown Counties in the 
Constitutional Convention of 1862, and the same 
year was elected State Treasurer. He thereupon 
again removed to Springfield, where he resided 
until his death, being, witli his sons, extensively 
engaged in coal mining. In 1870, and again in 
1872, he was elected State Senator from San- 
gamon County. He died at Springfield, March 
31, 1886. 

STATE BAiVK OF ILLINOIS. The first legis- 
lation, having for its object the establishment of 
a bank within the territory whicla now consti- 
tutes the State of Illinois, was the passage, by 
the Territorial Legislature of 1816, of an act 
incorporating the "Bank of Illinois at Shawnee- 
town, with branches at Edwardsville and Kas- 
kaskia. '' In the Second General Assembly of 
the State (1820) an act was passed, over the 
Governor's veto and in defiance of the adverse 
judgment of the Council of Revision, establish- 
ing a State Bank at VandaUa with branches at 
Shawneetown, Edwardsville, and Brownsville in 
Jackson County. This was, in effect, a recharter- 
ing of the banks at Shawneetown and Edwards- 
ville. So far as the former is concerned, it seems 
to have been well managed ; but the official 
conduct of the officers of the latter, on the basis 
of charges made by Governor Edwards in 1826, 
was made the subject of a legislative investiga- 
tion, which (although it resulted in nothing) 
seems to have had some basis of fact, in view of 
the losses finally sustained in winding up its 
affairs^that of the General Government amount- 
ing to 8.54,000 Grave charges were made in this 
connection against men who were then, or 
afterwards became, prominent in State affairs, 
including one Justice of the Supreme Court and 
one (still later) a United States Senator. The 

experiment was disastrous, as. ten year.s later 
(1831), it was found necessary for tlie State to 
incur a debt of §100,000 to redeem the outstand- 
ing circulation. Influenced, however, by the 
popular demand for an increase in the "circu- 
lating medium," the State continued its experi- 
ment of becoming a stockholder in banks 
managed by its citizens, and accordingly we find 
it, in 1835, legislating in the same direction for 
the establishing of a central "Bank of Illinois" 
at Spring6eld, with branches at other points as 
might be required, not to exceed six in number. 
One of these branches %vas established at Van- 
dalia and another at Chicago, furnishing the first 
banking institution of the latter city. Two 
years later, when the State was entering upon 
its scheme of internal improvement, laws were 
enacted increasing the capital stock of these 
banks to 84,000,000 in the aggregate. Following 
the example of similar institutions elsewhere, 
they suspended specie payments a few months 
later, but were protected by "stay laws" and 
other devices until 1842, when the internal 
improvement scheme having been finally aban- 
doned, they fell in general collapse. The State 
ceased to be a stock-holder in 1843, and the banks 
were put in course of liquidation, though it 
required several years to complete the work. 

STATE CAPITALS. The first State capital of 
Illinois was Kaskaskia, where the first Territorial 
Legislature convened, Nov. 25, 1812. At that 
time there were but five counties in the State — 
St. Clair and Randolph being the most important, 
and Kaskaskia being the county-seat of the 
latter. Illinois was admitted into the Union as a 
State in 1818, and the first Constitution provided 
that the seat of government should remain at 
Kaskaskia until removed bj- legislative enact- 
ment. That instrument, however, made it obli- 
gatory upon the Legislature, at its first session, 
to petition Congress for a grant of not more than 
four sections of land, on which should be erected 
a town, which should remain the seat of govern- 
ment for twenty years. The petition was duly 
presented and granted ; and, in accordance with 
the power granted by the Constitution, a Board 
of five Commissioners selected the site of the 
present city of Vandalia, then a point in the 
wilderness twenty miles north of any settle- 
ment. But so great was the faith of speculators 
in the future of the proposed city, that town lots 
were soon selling at SlOO to 8780 each. The Com- 
missioners, in obedience to law, erected a plain 
two-story frame building — scarcely more than a 
commodious shanty — to which the State offices 
were removed in December, 1820. This building 



I-()IiI('AL K^■CV(•L(tl'l■;I)IA (IK ILLINOIS 

was burned. Dec. !), 182'3, anU a brick structure 
erected iu its place. Later, when the question of 
a second removal of the capital began to be agi- 
tated, the citizens of Vandalia assumed the risk 
of erecting a new. brick State House, costing 
§1G.O(»0. Of this amount .$0,000 wa.s reimbursed 
by the Governor from the contingent fund, and 
the balance (§10.000) was appropriated in 1S3T. 
when the seat of government was removed to 
Springfield, by vote of the Tentli General Assem- 
bly on the fourth ballot. The other places receiv- 
ing the princii)al vote at the time of the removal 
to Springfield, were Jacksonville, Vandalia, 
Peoria. Alton and Illiopolis— Springfield receiv- 
ing the largest vote at each ballot. The law 
removing the capital appropriated §.50,000 from 
the State Treasury, provided that a like amount 
should be raised by private subscription and 
guaranteed by bond, and that at least two acras 
of land should be donated as a site. Two State 
Houses have been erected at Springfield, the first 
cost of the present one (including furnishing) 
having been a little in excess of §4,000,000. 
Abraham Lincoln, who was a member of the 
Legislature from Sangamon County at the time. 
was an influential factor in securing the removal 
of the capital to Springfield. 

STATE DEBT. The State debt, which proved 
so formidable a burden upon the State of Illinois 
for a generation, and, for a part of that period, 
seriously checked its prosperity, was the direct 
outgrowth of the internal improvement scheme 
entered upon in lS;i7. (.See Internal Improvement 
Policy.) At the time this enterprise was under 
taken the aggregate debt of the State was less 
than §400.000 — accumulated within the preceding 
six years. Two years later (18.38) it had increased 
to over §0.500.000. while the total valuation of 
real and personal property, for the purposes of 
taxation, was than §00.000.000, and the aggre- 
gate receipts of the State tre;xsury, for the same 
year, amounted to less than §ir)0,000. At the 
same time, the disbursements, for the support of 
the State Government alone, had grown to more 
than twice the receipts. This disparity continued 
until the declining credit of the State forced upon 
the managers of public affairs an involuntary 
eeononi}'. when the means could no longer be 
secured for more lavish expenditures. The first 
iMjnds issued at the inception of the internal 
improvement scheme sold at a premium of 5 per 
cent, but rapidly declineil until they were hawked 
in the markets of New York and London at a dis- 
count, in some cases falling into the hands of 
brokers who failed before completing their con- 

tracts, thus causing a direct loss to the State. If 
the internal improvement scheme was ill-advised, 
the time chosen to carry it into effect was most 
unfortunate, as it came simultaneouslv with the 
panic of 1837. rendering the disaster all the more 
complete. Of tlie various works undertaken by 
the State, only the Illinois & Jlichigan Canal 
brought a return, all the others resulting in more 
or less complete loss. The internal improvement 
scheme was abandoned in 1839-40, but not until 
State bonds exceeding §13,000,000 had been 
issued. For two years longer the State struggled 
with its embarrassments, increased by the failure 
of the State Bank in Februarj', 1842, and, by that 
of the Bank of Illinois at Shawneetown, a few 
months later, with the proceeds of more than two 
and a half millions of the State's bonds in their 
possession. Thus left without credit, or means 
even of paying the accruing interest, there were 
those who regarded the State as hopelessly bank- 
rupt, and advocated repudiation as the onlj' 
means of escape. Better counsels prevailed, how- 
ever; the Constitution of 1848 put the State on a 
basis of strict economy in the matter of salaries 
and general expenditures, with restrictions upon 
the Legislature in reference to incui-ring in- 
debtedness, while the beneficent "two-mill tax" 
gave assurance to its creditors that its debts 
would be paid. While the growth of the State, 
in wealth and population, had previously been 
checked by the fear of excessive taxation, it now 
entered upon a new career of prosperity, iu spite 
of its burdens— its increase in population, be- 
tween 1850 and 1800, amounting to over 100 per 
cent. The movement of the State debt after 1840 
— when the internal improvement scheme was 
abandoned — chiefly by accretions of unpaid inter- 
est, has been estimated as follows: 1842. §15,- 
037,9.50: 1844, §14,033,909; 1840, §10,389,817; 184.8, 
§10,001.795. It reached its maxinmm in 18.53— 
the first year of Governor Matteson's administra- 
tion — when it was officially reported at §10,724,- 
177. At this time the work of extinguishment 
began, and was prosecuted under successive 
administrations, except during the war, when 
the vast expense incurred in sending troops to 
the field caused an increase. During Governor 
Bisseirs administration, the reduction amounted 
to over §3,000,000; during Oglesby's. to over five 
and a quarter million, besides two and a quarter 
million paid on interest. In 1880 the debt had 
been reduced to §281,059.11. and. before the close 
of 1882, it had been entirely extinguished, except 
a balance of §18.500 in bonds, which, having been 
called in years previously and never presented for 



payment, are supposed to have been lost. (See 
Macali.iter and Stehbins Bonds.) 

organized for the care of female juvenile delin- 
quents, by act of June 3, 1893. The Board consists 
of seven members, nominated by the Executive 
and confirmed by the Senate, and who consti- 
tute a body politic and corporate. Not more than 
two of the members may reside in the same Con- 
gressional District and, of the seven members, 
four must be women. (See also Home for Female 
Juvenile Offenders.) The term of office is six 

STATE HOUSE, located at Springfield. Its 
construction was begun under an act passed by 
the Legislature in February, 1S67, and completed 
in 1S87. It stands in a park of about eight acres, 
donated to the State by the citizens of Spring- 
field. A provision of the State Constitution of 
1870 prohibited the expenditure of any sum in 
excess of $3,500,000 in the erection and furnishing 
of the building, without previous approval of such 
additional expenditure by the people. This 
amount proving insufficient, the Legislature, at 
its session of 1885, passed an act making an addi- 
tional appropriation of §531,713, which having 
been approved by popular vote at the general 
election of 1886, the expenditure was made and 
the capitol completed during the following year, 
thus raising the total cost of construction and fur- 
nishing to a little in excess of §4,000,000. The 
building is cruciform as to its ground plan, and 
classic in its style of architecture ; its extreme 
dimensions (including porticoes), from north 'to 
south, being 379 feet, and, from east to west, 286 
feet. The walls are of dressed Joliet limestone, 
while the porticoes, which are spacious and 
lofty, are of sandstone, supported by polished 
columns of gray granite. The three stories of 
the building are surmounted by a Mansard roof, 
with two turrets and a central dome of stately 
dimensions. Its extreme height, to the top of 
the iron flag-staff, which rises from a lantern 
springing from the dome, is 364 feet. 

tion for the education of teachers, organized 
under an act of the General Assembly, passed 
Feb. 18, 18.57. This act placed the work of 
organization in the hands of a board of fifteen 
persons, which was styled "The Board of Educa- 
tion of the State of Illinois, "" and was constituted 
as follows: C. B. Denio of Jo Daviess County; 
Simeon AYright of Lee; Daniel Wilkins of Mc- 
Lean ; Charles E. Hovey of Peoria; George P. Rex 
of Pike; Samuel W. Moulton of Shelby; John 

Gillespie of Jasper; George Bun.sen of St. Clair; 
Wesley Sloan of Pope; Ninian W. Edwards of 
Sangamon; John R. Eden of Moultrie; Flavel 
Moseley and William Wells of Cook; Albert R. 
Shannon of White; and the Superintendent o\. 
Public Instruction, ex-officio. The object of the 
Univei'sitj', as defined in the organizing law, is 
to qualify teachers for the public schools of the 
State, and the course of instruction to be given 
embraces "the art of teaching, and all branches 
which pertain to a common school education; in 
the elements of the natural sciences, including 
agricultural chemistry, animal and vegetable 
physiology ; in the fundamental laws of the 
United States and of the State of Illinois in 
regard to the rights and duties of citizens, and 
such other studies as the Board of Education maj', 
from time to time, prescribe." Various cities 
competed for the location of the institution, 
Bloomington being finally selected, its bid, in- 
cluding 160 acres of land, being estimated as 
equivalent to §141,725. The corner-stone was 
laid on September 39, 1857, and the first building 
was ready for permanent occupancy in Septem- 
ber, 1860. Previously, however, it had been 
sufficiently advanced to permit of its being used, 
and the first commencement exercises were held 
on June 39 of the latter year. Three years 
earlier, the academic department had been organ- 
ized under the charge of Charles E. Hovey. The 
first cost, including furniture, etc., was not far 
from §300,000. Gratuitous instruction is given to 
two pupils from each county, and to three from 
each Senatorial District. The departments are : 
Grammar school, high school, normal department 
and model school, all of which are overcrowded. 
The whole number of students in attendance on 
the institution during the school year, 1897-98, 
was 1,197, of whom 891 were in the normal 
department and 306 in the practice school depart- 
ment, including representatives from 86 coun- 
ties of the State, with a few pupils from other 
States on the payment of tuition. The teaching 
faculty (including the President and Librarian) 
for the same year, was made up of t%venty-six 
members — twelve ladies and fourteen gentlemen. 
The expenditures for the year 1897-98 aggregated 
§47,636.92, against S66,.528.69 for 1896-97. Nearly 
§33,000 of the amount expended during the latter 
year was on account of the construction of a 
gj'mnasium building. 

STATE PROPERTY. The United States Cen- 
sus of 1890 gave the value of real and personal 
property belonging to the State as follows: PuVi 
lie lands, §338,000; buildings, §32,164,000; mis- 



cellaneous property, .Si. 050.000— total, .525.142,000. 
The land may Iw sululivided thus: Cainp-grounds 
of the Illinois National (Uiard near Springfield 
(donated), .$40,000; Illinois and Michigan Canal. 
$168,000; Illinois University lands, in Illinois 
(donated by the General Government), $41,000, in 
Minnesota (similarly donated), $79,000. The 
buildings comprise tliose connected with the 
charitable, i>pnal and educational institutions of 
the State, liesides the State Arsenal, two build- 
ings for the use of the Appellate Courts (at 
Ottawa and Mount Vernon), the State House, 
the Executive Mansion, and locks and dams 
erected at Henry and Copperas Creek. Of the 
miscellaneous property, $130,000 represents the 
equipment of the Illinois National Guard ; $1,9.59,- 
000 the value of the movable property of public 
buildings; $.550,000 the endowment fund of the 
University of Illinois; and .?21,000 the movable 
property of the Illinois & Jlichigan Canal. The 
figures given relative to the value of the public 
buildings include only the first appropriations 
for their erection. Considerable sums have 
since been expended upon some of them in repairs, 
enlargements and improvements. 

STATE TREASURERS. The only Treasurer 
of Illinois during the Territorial period was John 
Thomas, who served from 1812 to 1818, and 
became the first incumbent under the State 
Government. Under the Constitution of 1818 
the Treasurer was elected, biennially, by joint vote 
of the two Houses of the General Assembly; by 
the Constitution of 1848, this officer was made 
elective by the people for the same period, witli- 
out limitations as to number of terms; under the 
Constitution of 1870, the manner of election and 
duration of term are unchanged, but the incum- 
bent is ineligible to re-election, for two years 
from expiration of the term for which he may 
have been chosen. The following is a list of the 
State Treasurers, from the date of the admission 
of the State into the Union down to the present 
time (1899), with the date and duration of the 
term of each. John Thomas, 1818-19; Robert K. 
McLaughlin, 1819-23; Abner Field, 1823-27; 
James Hall, 1827 31; John Dement, 1831-36; 
Charles Gregory, 1836-37; John D. Whiteside, 
1837-41; Milton Carpenter, 1841-48; John Moore, 
1S48-57; James Miller, 1857-.59; William Butler, 
ls.59-63, Alexander Starne, 1863-65; James H. 
Reveridge. 1865-67; George W. Smith, 1867-69; 
£rastusN. Bates, 1869-73; Edward Rutz, 1873-75: 
Thomas S Ridgway. 1875-77; Edward Rutz. 
1877-79, John C. Smith, 1879-81: Edward Rutz, 
1881-83 , John C. Smith. 1883-85; Jacob Gross, 

188.5-S7; John R. Tanner, 1887-89; Charles 
Becker, 1889-91; Edward S. Wilson, 1891-93; 
RufusN. Ramsay, 1893-95; Henry Wulfif, 1895-97; 
Henry L. Hertz, 1897-99 ; Floyd K. Whittemore, 
1899- . 

STAl'MOX, a village in the southeast corner 
of Macoupin County, on the Chicago, Peoria &, 
St. Louis and tlie Wabash Railways; is 36 milps 
northeast of St. Louis, and 14 miles southwest of 
Litchfield. Agriculture and coal-mining are the 
industries of the surrounding region. Staunton 
has two banks, eight churches and a weekly 
newspaper. Population (1880). 1,358; (1890), 2,209; 
(1900), 2,786 

STEEL PRODUCTION. In the manufacture 
of steel, Illinois has long ranked as the second 
State in the Union in the amount of its output, 
and, during the period between 1880 and 1890, 
the increase in production was 241 per cent. In 
1880 there were but six steel works in the State; 
in 1890 these had increased to fourteen ; and the 
production of steel of all kinds (in tons of 2.000 
pounds) had risen from 254,569 tons to 868,250. 
Of the 3,837.039 tons of Bessemer steel ingots, or 
direct castings, produced in the United States in 
1890, 22 per cent were turned out in Illinois, 
nearly all the steel produced in the State being 
made by that process. From the tonnage of 
ingots, as given above, Illinois produced 622,260 
pounds of steel rails. — more than 30 per cent of 
the aggregate for the entire country. This fact 
is noteworthy, inasmuch as the competition in 
the manufacture of Bessemer steel rails, since 
1880, has been so great that many rail mills have 
converted their steel into forms other than rails, 
experience having proved their production to 
any considerable extent, during the past few 
years, unprofitable except in works favorably 
located for obtaining cheap raw material, or 
operated under the latest and most approved 
methods of manufacture. Open-hearth steel is 
no longer made in Illinois, but the manufacture 
of crucible steel is slightly increasing, the out- 
put in 1890 being 445 tons, as against 130 in 1880. 
For purposes requiring special grades of steel the 
product of the crucible process will be always 
in demand, but the high cost of manufacture 
prevents it, in a majority of instances, from 
successfully competing in price with the other 
processes mentioned. 

STEPHEN SOX, Benjamin, pioneer and early 
politician, came to Illinois from Kentucky in 
1809, and was appointed the first Sheriff of 
Randolph County by Governor Edwards under 
the Territorial Government; afterwards served 



as a Colonel of Illinois militia during the War of 
1812; represented Illinois Territory as Delegate 
in Congress, 1814-16, and, on bis retirement from 
Congress, became Register of the Land Office at 
EdwardsTille. finally dying at Edwardsville — Col. 
James W. (Stephenson), a son of the preceding, 
was a soldier dm-ing the Black Hawk War, after- 
wards became a prominent politician in the north- 
western part of the State, served as Register of 
the Land Office at Galena and, in 1838, received 
the Democratic nomination for Governor, but 
withdrew before the election. 

STEPHE>'SO>, (Dr.) Benjamin Franklin, 
physician and soldier, was born in Wayne 
County, 111., Oct. 30, 1832, and accompanied his 
parents, in 1825, to Sangamon County, %vhere the 
family settled. His early educational advantages 
were meager, and he did not study his profession 
(medicine) until after reaching his majority, 
graduating from Rush Medical College, Chicago, 
in 18o0. He began practice at Petersburg, but, 
in April, 1862, was mustered into the volunteer 
army as Surgeon of the Fourteenth Illinois 
Infantry. After a little over two years service he 
was mustered out in June, 1864, when he took up 
his residence in Springfield, and, for a year, was 
engaged in the drug business there. In 1865 he 
resumed professional practice. He lacked tenac- 
ity of purpose, however, was indifferent to money, 
and always willing to give his own services and 
orders for medicine to the poor. Hence, his prac- 
tice was not lucrative. He was one of the leaders 
in the organization of the Grand Army of the 
Republic (which see), in connection with which 
he is most widely known ; but his services in its 
cause failed to receive, during his lifetime, the 
recognition which they deserved, nor did the 
organization promptly floirrish, as he had hoped. 
He finally returned with his familj' to Peters- 
burg. Died, at Rock Creek, Menard, County, 111., 
August 30, 1871. 

STEPHENSON COUXTT, a northwe.stern 
county, with an area of 560 square miles. The 
soil is rich, productive and well timbered. Fruit- 
culture and stock-raising are among the chief 
industries. Not until 1837 did the aborigines quit 
the locality, and the county was organized, ten 
years later, and named for Gen. Benjamin 
Stephenson. A man named Kirker, who had 
been in the employment of Colonel Gratiot as a 
lead-miner, near Galena, is said to have built the 
first cabin within the present limits of what was 
called Burr Oak Grove, and set himself up as an 
Indian-trader in 1826. but only remained a short 
time. He was followed, the next year, by Oliver 

W. Kellogg, who took Kirker's place, built a 
more pretentious dwelling and became the first 
permanent settler. Later came William Wad- 
dams, the Montagues, Baker, Kilpatrick, Preston, 
the Goddards, and others whose names are linked 
with the county's early history. The first house 
in Freeport was built by William Baker. Organi- 
zation was effected in 1837, the total poll being 
eighty-four votes. The earliest teacher vras Nel- 
son Martin, who is said to have tauglit a school 
of some twelve pupils, in a house which stood on 
the site of the present city of Freeport. Popula- 
tion (1880), 31,963; (1890), 31,338; (1900), 34,933. 

STERLING, a flourishing city on the north 
bank of Rock River, in White.side County, 109 
miles west of Chicago. 39 miles east of Clinton, 
Iowa, and .52 miles east-northeast of Rock Island. 
It has ample railway facilities, furnished by the 
Chicago. Burlington & Quincy, the Sterling & 
Peoria, and the Chicago & Northwestern Rail- 
roads. It contains fourteen churches, an opera 
house, high and grade schools, Carnegie library, 
Government postofiice building, tliree banks, 
electric street and interurban car lines, electric 
and gas lighting, water-works, paved streets and 
sidewalks, fire department and four newspaper 
offices, two issuing daily editions. It has fine 
water-power, and is an important manufacturing 
center, its works turning out agricultural imple- 
ments, carriages, paper, barbed-wire, school furni- 
ture, burial caskets, pumps, sash, doors, etc. It 
also has the Sterling Iron Works, besides foundries 
and machine shops. The river here flows through 
charming scenery. Pop. (1890), 5,834; (1900), 6,309. 

STEVENS, Bradford A., ex-Congressman, was 
born at Boscawen (afterwards Webster), N. H., 
Jan. 3, 1813. After attending schools in New 
Hampshire and at Montreal, he entered Dart- 
mouth College, graduating therefrom in 1835. 
During the six years following, he devoted him- 
self to teaching, at Hopkinsville, Ky., and New 
York City. In 1843 he removed to Bureau 
County, 111., where he became a merchant and 
farmer. In 1868 he was chairman of the Board 
of Supervisors, and, in 1870, was elected to Con- 
gress, as an Independent Democrat, for the Fifth 

STEVENSON, Adlai E., ex-Vice-President of 
the United States, was born in Christian County. 
Ky., Oct. 23, 1835. In 1853 he removed with his 
parents to Bloomington, McLean County, 111., 
where the family settled; was educated at the 
Illinois Wesleyan University and at Centre Col- 
lege, Ky., was admitted to the bar in 1858 and 
began practice at Metamora, Woodford County, 



where lie was Master in Chancery. 1861-6ii, and 
State's Attorney, 1865-69. In 1864 he was candi- 
date for Presidential Elector on the Democratic 
ticket. In 18G9 he returned to Bloomington, 
where he has since resided. In 1874, and again 
in 1876. he was an unsuccessful candidate of his 
party for Congress, but was elected as a Green- 
back Democrat in 1878, though defeated in 1880 
and 1S82. In 1877 he was appointed by President 
Hayes a member of the Board of Visitors to 
West Point. During the first administration of 
President Cleveland (ISS.'i-Sg') he was First Assist- 
ant Postmaster General; was a member of the 
National Democratic Conventions of 1884 and 
1892, being Chairman of the Illinois delegation 
the latter year. In 1893 he received his party's 
nomination for the Vice-Presidency, and was 
elected to that office, serving until 1897. Since 
retiring from office he has resumed his residence 
at Bloomington. 

STEWARD, Lewis, manufacturer and former 
Congressman, was born in Wayne County, Pa., 
Nov. 20, 1824, and received a common school 
education. At the age of 14 he accompanied his 
parents to Kendall County, 111., where he after- 
wards resided, being engaged in farming and the 
manufacture of agricultural implements at 
Piano. He studied law but never practiced. In 
1876 he was an unsuccessful candidate for Gov- 
ernor on the Democratic ticket, being defeated 
by Shelby M. Cullom. In 1890 the Democrats of 
the Eighth Illinois District elected him to Con- 
gress. In 1892 he was again a candidate, but was 
defeated by his Republican opponent, Robert A. 
Cliilds, by the narrow margin of 27 votes, and, 
In 1894, was again defeated, this time being pitted 
against Albert J. Hopkins. Mr. Steward died at 
his home at Piano, August 26, 1896. 

STEWARDSON, a town of Shelby County, at 
the intersection of the Toledo, St. Louis & Kan- 
sas City R;tilway %vith the Altamont branch of 
the Wabash, 12 miles southeast of Shelby ville; 
is in a grain and lumber region ; has a bank and 
a weekly (niper. Population, (1900), 677. 

STICKXEY, William H., pioneer lawyer, was 
born in Baltimore, Md. , Nov. 9, 1809, studied law 
and was admitted to the bar at Cincinnati in 
1831. and. in Illinois in 1834, being at that time a 
resident of Shawneetown ; was elected State's 
-Attorney by the Legislature, in 1839, for the cir- 
cuit embracing some fourteen counties in the 
southern and southeastern part of the State; for 
a time also, about 1835-36, officiated as editor of 
"The Gallatin Democrat." and "The Illinois 
Advertiser," published at Shawneetown. In 1846 

Mr. Stickney was elected to the lower branch of 
the General Assembly from Gallatin County, and, 
twenty-eight years later— having come to Chi- 
cago in 1848 — to the same body from Cook 
County, serving in the somewhat famous Twenty- 
ninth Assembly. He also held the office of 
Police Justice for some thirteen years, from 1860 
onward. He lived to an advanced age, dying in 
Chicago, Feb. 14, 1898, being at the time the 
oldest surviving member of the Chicago bar. 

STILES, Isaac Newton, lawyer and soldier, 
born at Suffield, Conn., July 16, 1833; was ad- 
mitted to the bar at Lafayette, Ind., in 1855, 
became Prosecuting Attorney, a member of the 
Legislature and an effective speaker in the Fre- 
mont campaign of 1856 ; enlisted as a private sol- 
dier at the beginning of the war, went to the 
field as Adjutant, was captured at Malvern Hill, 
and, after six weeks' confinement in Libby 
prLson, exchanged and returned to duty; was 
promoted Major, Lieutenant-Colonel and Colonel, 
and brevetted Brigadier-General for meritorious 
.service. After the war he practiced his profes- 
sion in Chicago, though almost totally blind. 
Died, Jan. 18, 1895. 

STILLMAX, Stephen, first State Senator from 
Sangamon County, 111., was a native of Massachu- 
setts who came, with his widowed mother, to 
Sangamon County in 1820, and settled near 
Williamsville, where he became the first Post- 
master in the first postoffice in the State north of 
the Sangamon River. In 1822, Mr. Stilkuan was 
elected as the first State Senator from Sangamon 
County, serving four years, and, at his first session, 
being one of the opponents of the pro-slavery 
Convention resolution. He died, in Peoria, some- 
where between 1835 and 1840. 

STILLMAX VALLEY, village hi Ogle County, 
on Chicago Great Western and the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee it St. Paul Railways; site of first battle 
Black Hawk War; has graded schools, four 
churches, a bank and a newspaper. Pop. , 475. 

STITES, Samuel, pioneer, was born near 
Mount Bethel, Somerset County, N. J., Oct. 31, 
1776; died, August 16, 1839, on his farm, which 
subsequently became the site of the city of Tren- 
ton, in Clinton County, 111. He was descended 
from John Stites, M.D., who was born in Eng- 
land in 1595, emigrated to America, and died at 
Hempstead, L. I., in 1717, at the age of 122 years. 
The family removed to New Jersey in the latter 
part of the seventeenth century. Samuel was a 
cousin of Benjamin Stites, the first white man to 
settle within the present limits of Cincinnati, and 
various members of the family were prominent in 



the settlement of the upper Ohio Valley as early 
as 1788. Samuel Stites married, Sept. 14, 1794. 
Martha Martin, daughter of Ephraim Martin, 
and grand- daughter of Col. Ephraim Martin, both 
soldiers of the New Jersey line during the Revo- 
lutionary War — with the last named of whom 
he had (in connection with John Cleves Symmes) 
been intimately associated in the purchase and 
settlement of the Miami Valley. In 1800 lie 
removed to Hamilton County, Ohio, in 1803 to 
Greene County, and, in 1818, in company with his 
son-in-law. x\nthony Wayne Casad, to St. Clair 
County, 111., settling near Union Grove. Later, he 
removed to O'Fallon, and, still later, to Clinton 
County. He left a large family, several members 
of which became prominent pioneers in the 
movements toward Minnesota and Kansas. 

STOLBRAND, Carlos John Mueller, soldier, 
was born in Sweden, May 11, 1821 ; at the age of 
18, enlisted in the Royal Artillery of his native 
land, serving through the campaign of Schleswig- 
Holstein (1848) ; came to tlie United States soon 
after, and, m 1861, enlisted in the first battalion 
of Illinois Light Artillery, finally becoming Chief 
of Artillery under Gen. John A. Logan. When 
the latter became commander of the Fifteenth 
Army Corps, Col. Stolbrand was placed at the 
head of the artillery brigade ; in February, 1865, 
was made Brigadier-General, and mustered out 
in January, 18G0. After the war he went South, 
and was Secretary of the South Carolina Consti- 
tutional Convention of 1868. The same year he 
was a delegate to the Republican National Con- 
vention at Chicago, and a Presidential Elector. 
He was an inventor and patented various im- 
provements in steam engines and boilers; was 
also Superintendent of Public Buildings at 
Charleston, S. C, under President Harrison. 
Died, at Charleston, Feb. 3, 1894. 

STOJfE, Daniel, early lawyer and legislator, 
was a native of Vermont and graduate of Middle- 
bury College; became a member of the Spring- 
field (111.) bar in 1833, and, in 1836, was elected 
to the General Assembly — being one of the cele- 
brated "Long Nine" from Sangamon County, and 
joining Abraham Lincoln in his protest against 
a series of pro-slavery resolutions which had been 
adopted by the House. In 1837 he was a Circuit 
Court Judge and, being assigned to the north- 
western part of the State, removed to Galena, 
but was legislated out of office, when he left the 
State, dying a few years later, in Essex County, 
N. J. " 

STONE, Horatio 0., pioneer, was born in 
Ontario (now Monroe) County, N. Y., Jan. 2, 

1811 ; in boyhood learned the trade of shoemaker, 
and later acted as overseer of laborers on the 
Lackawanna Canal. In 1831, having located in 
Wayne County, Mich., he was drafted for the 
Black Hawk War, serving twenty-two days under 
Gen. Jacob Brown. In January, 1835, he came 
to Chicago and, having made a fortunate specu- 
lation in real estate in that early daj', a few 
months later entered upon the grocery and pro- 
vision trade, which he afterwards extended to 
grain; finally giving his chief attention to real 
estate, in which he was remarkably successful, 
leaving a large fortune at his death, which 
occurred in Chicago, June 20, 1877. 

STONE, (Rev.) Luther, Baptist clerg>'man, 
was born in the town of Oxford, Worcester 
County, Mass., Sept. 26, 1815, and spent his boy- 
hood on a farm. After acquiring a common 
school education, he prepared for college at Lei- 
cester Academy, and, in 1835, entered Brown 
University, graduating in the class of 1839. He 
then spent three years at the Theological Insti- 
tute at Newton, Mass. ; was ordained to the 
ministry at Oxford, in 1843, but, coming west the 
next year, entered upon evangelical work in 
Rock Island, Davenport, Burlington and neigh- 
boring towns. Later, he was pastor of the First 
Baptist Church at Rockford, 111. In 1847 Mr. 
Stone came to Chicago and established "The 
Watchman of the Prairies," which survives to- 
day under the name of "The Standard," and has 
become the leading Baptist organ in the West. 
After six years of editorial work, he took up 
evangelistic work in Chicago, among the poor 
and criminal classes. During the Civil War he 
conducted religious services at Camp Douglas, 
Soldiers' Rest and the Marine Hospital. He was 
associated in the conduct and promotion of many 
educational and charitable institutions. He did 
much for the First Baptist Church of Chicago, 
and, during the latter years of his life, was 
attached to the Immanuel Baptist Church, 
which he labored to establish. Died, in Julv, 

STONE, MelTille E., journahst, banker. Man- 
ager ot Associated Press, born at Hudson, 111., 
August 18, 1848. Coming to Chicago in 1860, he 
graduated from the local high school in 1867, 
and, in 1870, acquired the sole proprietorship of 
a foundry and machine shop. Finding himself 
without resources after the great fire of 1871, he 
embarked in journalism, rising, through the suc- 
cessive grades of reporter, city editor, assistant 
editor and Washington correspondent, to the 
position of editor-in-chief of his own journal. 



He was connected with various Chicago dailies 
between 1871 and 187"). and. on Cliristnias Day 
of tlie latter year, issued the first number of "Tlie 
Chicago Daily News." He gradually disposed of 
his interest in this journal, entirely severing 
his connection therewith in 1888. Since that 
date he has been engaged in banking in tlie city 
of Chicago, and is also General Manager of the 
Associated Press. 

STONE, Samuel, philanthropist, %vas born at 
Chesterfield, Mass., Dec. G, 1798; left an orphan 
at seven years of age, after a short term in Lei- 
cester Acatlemy, and several years in a wholesale 
store in Boston, ab the age of 19 removed to 
Rochester, N. Y., to take charge of interests in 
the "Holland Purchase," belonging to his father's 
estate ; in 1843-49, was a resident of ^Detroit and 
interested in some of the early railroad enter- 
prises centering there, but the latter year re- 
moved to Milwaukee, being there associated with 
Ezra Cornell in telegraph construction. In 1859 
he became a citizen of Chicago, where he was 
one of the founders of the Chicago Historical 
Society, and a liberal patron of many enterprises 
of a public and benevolent character. Died, May 
4. 1876. 

STONE FORT, a village in the counties of 
Saline and William.son. It is situated on the Cairo 
Division of the Cleveland. Cincinnati, Chicago & 
St. Louis Railway, 57 miles northeast of Cairo. 
Population (1900)" 479. 

STOREY, Wilbur F., journalist and news- 
paper publisher, was born at Salisbury, Vt. , Dec. 
19, 1819. He began to learn the printer's trade 
at 12, and, before he was 19, was part owner of a 
Democratic paper called "The Herald," published 
at I^ Porte, Ind. Later, he either edited or con- 
trolled journals published at Mishawaka, Ind., 
and Jackson and Detroit, Mich. In January, 
1861, he became the principal owner of "The 
Chicago Times,"' then the leading Democratic 
organ of Chicago. His paper soon came to be 
regarded as the organ of the anti-war party 
throughout the Northwest, and, in June, 1863, 
was suppressed by a military order issued by 
General Burnside, which was subsequently 
revoked by President Lincoln. The net result 
was an increase in "The Times" "' notoriety and 
circulation. Other charges, of an equally grave 
nature, relating to its sources of income, its char- 
acter as a family newspaper, etc., were repeatedly 
made, but to all these Mr. Storey turned a deaf 
ear. He lost heavily in the fire of 1871, but, in 
1872, appeared as the editor of "The Times." 
then destitute of political ties About 187C his 

health tegan to decline. Medical aid failed to 
afford relief, and, in August, 1884, he was ad- 
judged to be of unsound mind, and his estate was 
placed in the hands of a conservator. On the 
27th of the following October (1884), he died at 
his home in Chicago. 

STORRS, Emery Alexander, lawyer, was born 
at Hinsdale, Cattaraugus County, N. Y., August 
12, 1835; began the study of law with his father, 
later pursued a legal course at Buffalo, and, in 
1853, was admitted to the bar; spent two years 
(1857-59) in New York City, the latter year re- 
moving to Chicago, where he attained great 
prominence as an advocate at the bar, as well as 
an orator on other occasions. Politically a 
Republican, he took an active part in Presidential 
campaigns, being a delegate-at-large from Illinois 
to the National Republican Conventions of 1868, 
'73, and "80, and serving as one of the Vice-Presi- 
dents in 1872. Erratic in habits and a master of 
epigram and repartee, many of his speeches are 
quoted with relish and appreciation by those who 
were his contemporaries at the Chicago bar. 
Died suddenly, while in attendance on the Su- 
preme Court at Ottawa, Sept. 12, 1885. 

STRAWX, Jacob, agriculturist and stock- 
dealer, born in Somerset County, Pa., May 30, 
1800 ; removed to Licking County, Ohio, in 1817, 
and to Illinois, in 1831, settling four miles south- 
west of Jacksonville. He was one of the first to 
demonstrate the possibilities of Illinois as a live- 
stock state. Unpretentious and despising mere 
show, he illustrated the virtues of industry, fru- 
gality and honesty. At his death — wliich occurred 
August 23, 1865 — he left an estate estimated in 
value at about 51,000,000, acquired by industry 
and business enterprise. He was a zealous 
Unionist during the war, at one time contributing 
§10,000 to the Christian Commission. 

STREATOR, a city (laid out in 1868 and incor- 
porated in 1882) in the southern part of La Salle 
County, 93 miles southwest of Chicago ; situated 
on the 'Vermilion River and a central point for 
five railroads. It is surrounded by a rich agri- 
cultural country, and is underlaid b.v coal seams 
(two of which are worked) and by shale and 
various clay products of value, adapted to the 
manufacture of fire and building-brick, drain- 
pipe, etc. The city is thoroughly modern, having 
gas, electric lighting, street railways, water- 
works, a good fire-department, and a large, im- 
proved public park. Churches and schools are 
numerous, as are also fine public and private 
buildings. One of the chief industries is the 
manufacture of glass, including rolled-plate, 



window-glass, flint and Bohemian ware and glass 
bottles. Other successful industries are foundries 
and machine shops, flour mills, and clay working 
estabhsliments. Tliere are several banks, and 
three daily and weekly papers are published here. 
The estimated property valuation, in 188-t, was 
§13,000,000. Streator boasts some handsome 
public buildings, especially the Government post- 
office and the Carnegie public libiary building, 
both of which have been erected within the past 
few years. Pup. (1890), 11,414; (1900), 14,079. 

STKEET, Joseph M., pioneer and early politi- 
cian, settled at Shawneetown about 1812, coming 
from Kentuckj-, though believed to have been a 
native of Eastern Virginia. In 1827 he was a 
Brigadier-General of militia, and appears to have 
been prominent in the affairs of that section of 
the State. His correspondence with Governor 
Edwards, about this time, shows him to have been 
a man of far more than ordinary education, with 
a good opinion of his merits and capabilities. He 
was a most persistent applicant for office, making 
urgent appeals to Governor Edwards, Henry Clay 
and other politicians in Kentucky, Virginia and 
Washington, on the ground of his poverty and 
large family. In 1827 he received the offer of 
the clerkship of the new county of Peoria, but, 
on visiting that region, was disgusted with the 
prospect ; returning to Shawneetown, bought a 
farm in Sangamon County, but, before the close 
of the year, was appointed Indian Agent at 
Prairie du Chien. This was during the difficul- 
ties with the Winnebago Indians, upon which he 
made voluminous reports to the Secretary of 
War. Mr. Street was a son-in-law of Gen. 
Thomas Posey, a Eevolutionary soldier, who was 
prominent in the early history of Indiana and its 
last Territorial Governor. (See Posey. (Oen.) 

STREETER, Alson J., farmer and politician, 
was born in Rensselaer County, N. Y., in 1823; 
at the age of two years accompanied his father to 
Illinois, the family settling at Dixon, Lee County, 
He attended Knox College for three years, and, 
in 1849, went to California, where he spent two 
years in gold mining. Returning to Illinois, he 
purchased a farm of 240 acres near New Windsor, 
Mercer County, to which he has since added sev- 
eral thousand acres. In 1872 he was elected to 
the lower house of the Twenty-eighth General 
Assembly as a Democrat, but, in 1873, allied him- 
self with the Greenback party, whose candidate 
for Congress he was in 1878, and for Governor in 
1880, when he received nearly 3,000 votes more 
than his party's Presidential nominee, in Illinois. 

In 1884 he was elected State Senator by a coali- 
tion of Greenbackers and Democrats in the 
Twenty-fourth Senatorial District, but acted as 
an independent throughout his enth'e term. 

STROXG, William Emerson, soldier, was born 
at Granville, N. Y.. in 1840; from 18 years of age, 
spent his early life in Wisconsin, studied law and 
was admitted to the bar at Racine in 1861. The 
same year he enlisted under the first call for 
troops, took part, as Captain of a Wisconsin Com- 
pany, in the first battle of Bull Run; was 
afterwards promoted and assigned to duty as 
Inspector-General in the West, participated in 
tlie Vicksburg and Atlanta campaigns, being 
finally advanced to tlie rank of Brigadier-Gen- 
eral. After some fifteen months spent in the 
position of Inspector-General of the Freedmen's 
Bureau (186.5-66), he located in Chicago, and 
became connected with several important busi- 
ness enterprises, besides assisting, as an officer on 
the staff of Governor Cullom, in the oi'ganization 
of the Illinois National Guard. He was elected 
on the first Board of Directors of the World's 
Columbian Exposition, and, while making a tour 
of Europe in the interest of that enterprise, died, 
at Florence, Italy. April 10, 1891. 

STUART, John Todd, lawyer and Congress- 
man, born near Lexington, Ky., Nov. 10, 1807— 
the son of Robert Stuart, a Presbyterian minister 
and Professor of Languages in Transylvania 
University, and related, on the maternal side, to 
the Todd family, of whom Mrs. Abraham Lincoln 
was a member. He graduated at Centre College, 
Danville, in 1826, and, after studying law, re- 
moved to Springfield, 111., in 1828, and began 
practice. In 1882 he was elected Representative 
in the General Assembly, re-elected in 1834, and, 
in 1886, defeated, as the Whig candidate for Con- 
gress, by Wm. L. May, though elected, two years 
later, over Stephen A. Douglas, and again in 1840. 
In 1837, Abraham Lincoln, who had been 
studying law under Mr. Stuart's advice and 
instruction, became his partner, the relation- 
ship continuing until 1841. He served in the 
State Senate, 1849-53, was the Bell-Everett 
candidate for Governor in 1860, and was 
elected to Congress, as a Democrat, for a third 
time, in 1862, but, in 1864, was defeated by 
Shelby M. Cullom, his former pupil. During the 
latter years of his life, Mr. Stuart was head of the 
law firm of Stuart. Edwards & Brown. Died, at 
Springfield, Nov. 28, 188.5. 

STURGES, Solomon, merchant and banker, 
was born at Fairfield, Conn., April 21, 1796, early 
manifested a passion for the sea and. in 1810, 



made a voj-age, on a vessel of wliich his brother 
was captain, from New York to Georgetown, 
D. C, intending to continue it to Lisbon. At 
Georgetown he was induced to accept a position 
as clerk with a Mr. Williams, where he was 
jissociated with two other youths, as fellow-em- 
ployes, who became eminent baukers and 
capitalists— W. W. Corcoran, afterwards the 
well-known banker of Washington, and George 
W. Peabody, who had a successful banking career 
in England, and won a name as one of the most 
liberal and public-spirited of philanthropists. 
During the War of 1813 young Stmges joined a 
volunteer infantry company, where he had, for 
comrades, George W. Peabody and Francis S. Key, 
the latter author of the popular national song, 
"The Star Spangled Banner." In 1814 Mr. 
Sturges accepted a clerkship in the store of his 
brother-in-law, Ebenezer Buckingham, at Put- 
nam, Sluskingum County, Ohio, two years later 
becoming a partner in the concern, where he 
developed that business capacity which laid the 
foundation for his future wealth. Before steam- 
ers navigated the waters of the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi Rivers, he piloted flat-boats, loaded with 
produce and merchandise, to New Orleans, return- 
ing overland During one of his visits to that 
city, he witnessed the arrival of the "Washing- 
ton," the first steamer to descend the Missis.sippi, 
as, in 1817, he saw the arrival of the "Walk-in- 
the- Water" at Detroit, the first steamer to arrive 
from Buffalo— the occasion of his visit to Detroit 
being to carry funds to General Cass to pay off 
the United States troops. About 1849 he was 
associated with the construction of the Wabash 
& Erie Canal, from the Ohio River to Terre Haute, 
Ind., advancing money for the prosecution of the 
work, for which was reimbursed by the State. In 
1854 he came to Cliicago, and, in partnership 
with his brothers-in-law, C. P. and Alvah Buck- 
ingham, erected the first large grain-elevator in 
that city, on land leased from the Illinois Central 
Railroad Company, following it, two years later, 
by another of equal capacity. For a time, sub- 
stantially all the grain coming into Chicago, by 
railroad, passed into these elevators. In 18,57 he 
established the private banking house of Solomon 
Sturges & Sons, which, shortly after his death, 
under the management of his son. George Stur- 
ges, became the Northwestern National Bank of 
Chicago. He was intensely patriotic and, on the 
breaking out of the War of the Rebellion, used 
of his means freely in support of the Govern- 
ment, 6<iuipping the Sturges Rifles, an independ- 
ent company, at a of ,520,000. He was also a 

subscriber to the first loan made by the Govern- 
ment, during this period, taking §100,000 in 
Government bonds. Wliile devoted to his 
ness, he was a hater of shams and corruption, and 
contributed freely to Christian and benevolent 
enterprises. Died, at the home of a daughter, at 
Zanesville, Ohio, Oct. 14, 1864, leaving a large 
fortune acquired bv legitimate trade. 

STURTETANT," Julian Munson, D.D., LL.D., 
clergyman and educator, was born at Warren, 
Litchfield County, Conn., July 26, 1805; spent his 
youth in Summit County, Ohio, meanwhile pre- 
paring for college; in 1822, entered Yale College 
as the classmate of the celebrated Elizur Wright, 
graduating in 1826. After two years as Princi- 
pal of an academj- at Canaan, Conn., he entered 
Yale Divinity School, graduating there in 1829; 
then came west, and, after spending a year in 
superintending the erection of buildings, in De- 
cember, 1830, as sole tutor, began instruction to a, 
class of nine pupils in what is now Illinois Col- 
lege, at Jacksonville. Having been joined, the 
following year, by Dr. Edward Beecher as Presi- 
dent, Mr. Sturtevant assumed the chair of Mathe- 
matics, Natural Philosophy and Astronomy, 
which he retained until 1844, when, by the 
retirement of Dr. Beecher, he succeeded to the 
offices of President and Professor of Intellectual 
and Jloral Philosophy. Here he labored, inces- 
santly and unselfishly, as a teacher during term 
time, and, as financial agent during vacations, 
in the interest of the institution of which he had 
been one of the chief founders, serving until 1876, 
when he resigned the Presidency, giving his 
attention, for the next ten years, to the duties of 
Professor of Mental Science and Science of Gov- 
ernment, which he had discharged from 1870. 
In 1886 he retired from the institution entirely, 
having given to its service fifty-six years of his 
life. In 1863, Dr. Sturtevant visited Europe in 
the interest of the Union cause, delivering effec- 
tive addresses at a number of points in England. 
He was a frequent contributor to the weekly 
religious and periodical press, and was the author 
of "Economics, or the Science of Wealth" (1876) 
— a text- book on political economy, and "Keys 
of Sect, or the Church of the New Testament" 
(1879), besides frequently occupying the pulpits 
of local and distant churches — having been early 
ordained a Congregational minister. He received 
the degree of D.D. from the University of Mis- 
souri and that of LL.D. from Iowa University. 
Died, in Jacksonville, Feb. 11, 1886.— Julian M. 
(Sturtevant), Jr., sdn of the preceding, was born 
at Jacksonville, III. Feb. 2, 1834; fitted for col- 



lege in the preparatory department of Illinois 
College and graduated from the college (proper) 
in 1854. After leaving college he served as 
teacher in the Jacksonville public schools one 
year, then spent a year as tutor in Illinois Col- 
lege, when he began the study of theology at 
Andover Theological Seminary, graduating there 
in 1859, meanwhile having discharged the duties 
of Chaplain of the Connecticut State's prison in 
1858. He was ordained a minister of the Con- 
gregational Church at Hannibal, Mo., in 1860, 
remaining as pastor in that city nine years. He 
has since been engaged in pastoral work in New 
York City (1869-70), Ottawa, 111., (1870-73); Den- 
ver, Colo., (1873-77); Grinnell, Iowa, (1877-84); 
Cleveland, Ohio, (1884-90); Galesburg, 111., 
(1890-93), and Aurora, (1893-97). Since leaving 
the Congregational church at Aurora, Dr. Sturte- 
vant has been engaged in pastoral work in Chi- 
cago. He was also editor of "The Congrega- 
tionalist" of Iowa (1881-84), and, at different 
periods, has served as Trustee of Colorado, 
Marietta and Knox Colleges; being still an 
honored member of the Knox College Board. 
He received the degree of D.D from Illinois 
College, in 1879. 

SUBLETTE, a station and village on the Illi- 
nois Central Railroad, in Lee Coimty, 8 miles 
northwest of Mendota. Population, (1900), 306. 

SUFFRA(tE, in general, the right or privilege 
of voting. The qualifications of electors (or 
voters), in the choice of public officers in Illinois, 
are fixed by the State Constitution (Art. VII.), 
except as to school officers, which are prescribed 
by law. Under the State Constitution the exer- 
cise of the right to vote is limited to persons who 
were electors at the time of the adoption of the 
Constitution of 1848, or who are native or natu- 
ralized male citizens of the United States, of the 
age of 21 years or over, who have been residents 
of the State one year, of the county ninety days, 
and of the district (or precinct) in which they 
offer to vote, 30 days. Under an act passed in 
1891, women, of 21 years of age and upwards, are 
entitled to vote for school officers, and are also 
eligible to such offices under the same condition?, 
as to age and residence, as male citizens. (See 
Elections; Australian Ballot.) 

SULLIVAN, a city and county-seat of Moultrie 
County, 25 miles southeast of Decatur and 14 
miles northwest of Mattoon; is on three lines of 
railway. It is in an agricultural and stock-rais- 
ing region; contains two State banks and four 
weekly newspapers. Population (1880), 1,305; 
(1890), 1,468; (1900), 2,399; (1900, est.), 3,100. 

SULLIVAN, William K., journalist, was born 
at Waterford, Ireland, Nov. 10, 1843 ; educated at 
the Waterford Model School and in Dublin, came 
to the United States in 1863, and, after teaching 
for a time in Kane County, in 1864 enlisted in the 
One Hundred and Forty-first Regiment Illinois 
Volunteers. Then, after a brief season spent in 
teaching and on a visit to his native land, he 
began work as a reporter on New York papers, 
later being employed on "The Chicago Tribune" 
and "The Evening Journal," on the latter, at 
different times, holding the posi*-- a of city edi- 
tor, managing editor and c rufi-r- .uXent. He 
was also a Representative County in 

the Twenty-seventh O" ^jg^* ijbly, for three 
years a member o* ' ' . ,go Board of Edu- 
cation, and appoint' .a States Consul to the 
Bermudas by Pve>iU-j.. Harrison, resigning in 
1892. Died, in Chicago, January 17, 1899. 

SULLIVANT, Michael Lucas, agriculturist, 
was born at Franklinton (a suburb of Columbus, 
Ohio), August 6, 1807; was educated at Ohio 
University and Centre College, Ky., and — after 
being engaged in the improvement of an immense 
tract of land inherited from his father near his 
birth-place, devoting much attention, meanwhile, 
to the raising of improved stock — in 1854 sold his 
Ohio lands and bought 80,000 acres, chiefly in 
Champaign and Piatt Counties, 111., where he 
began farming on a larger scale than before. The 
enterprise proved a financial failure, and he was 
finally compelled to sell a considerable portion of 
his estate in Champaign County, known as Broad 
Lands, to John T. Alexander (see Alexander, 
John T.), retiring to a farm of 40,000 acres at 
Burr Oaks, 111. He died, at Henderson, Ky.^ Jan. 
29, 1879. 

SUMMERFIELD, a village of St. Clair County, 
on the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railway, 
27 miles east of St Louis ; was the home of Gen. 
Fred. Hecker. Population (1900). 360. 

SUMNER, a city of Lawrence County, on the 
Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railroad, 19 miles 
west of Vincennes, Ind. ; has a fine school house, 
four churches, two banks, two flour mills, tele- 
phones, and one weekly newspaper. Pop. (1890), 
1,037; (1900), 1.268. 

TION. The office of State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction was created by act of the" 
Legislature, at a special session held in 1854, its 
duties previous to that time, from 1845, having 
been discharged by the Secretary of State as 
Superintendent, ex-officio. The following is a list 
of the incumbents from the date of the forma) 



creation uf the office down to the present time 
(1899), with the date and duration of the term of 
each Ninian W. Edwards (by ai^pointment of 
the Governor), 1854-57; "William H. Powell (bj' 
election), 1857-09; Newton Bateman, 1859-63; 
John P. Brooks, 1863-65; Newton Bateman, 
1865-75; Samuel AV. Etter, 1875-79; James P. 
Slade, 1879-83; Henry Raab, 1883-87; Richard 
Edwards, 1887-91; Henry Raab, 1891-95; Samuel 
M. Inglis, 1895-98; James H. Freeman, June, 
1898, to January, 1899 (by appointment of tlie 
Governor, to fill the unexpired term of Prof. 
Inglis, who died in office, June 1, 1898); Alfred 
Baylis, 1899—. 

Previous to 1870 the tenure of the office was 
two years, but, by the Constitution adopted that 
year, it was extended to four years, the elections 
occurring on the even years between those for 
Governor and other State officers except State 

following is a list of Justices of the Supreme 
Court of Illinois who have held office since the 
organization of the State Government, with the 
period of their respective incumbencies. Joseph 
Phillips, 1S18-22 (resigned); Thomas C. Browne, 
181^ 48 (term expired on adoption of new Con- 
stitution) ; William P. Foster, Oct. 9, 1818, to 
July 7, 1819 (resigned), John Reynolds, 1818-25; 
Thomas Reynolds (vice Phillips), 1822-25; Wil- 
Uam Wilson (vice Foster) 1819-48 (term expired 
on adoption of new Constitution) ; Samuel D 
Lockwood, 1825-48 (term expired on adoption of 
new Constitution) ; Theophilus W. Smith, 1825-43 
(resigned); Thomas Ford, Feb. 15, 1841, to Au- 1, 1843 (resigned) ; Sidney Breese, Feb. 15, 
1841, to Dec. 19, 1843 (resigned)— also (by re-elec- 
tions), 1857-78 (died in office) ; Walter B. Scates, 
1841-47 (resigned)— also (vice Trumbull), 1854-57 
(resigned); Samuel H. Treat, 1841-55 (resigned); 
Stephen A. Douglas, 1841-43 (resigned) ; Jolm D. 
Caton (vice Ford) August, 1843, to March, 1843— 
also (vice Robinson and by succe.ssive re-elec- 
tions). May, 1843 to January, 1864 (resigned); 
James Semple (vice Breese), Jan. 14, 1843, to 
April 16, 1843 (resigned) ; Richard M. Young (vice 
Smith), 1843-47 (resigned); John M. Robinson 
(vice Ford), Jan. 14, 1843, to April 27, 1843 (died 
in office); Jesse B. Thomas, Jr., (vice Douglas), 
1843-45 (resigned)- also (vice Young), 1847-48; 
James Shields (vice Semple), 1843-45 (resigned) ; 
Norman H. Purple (vice Thomas), 1843-48 (retired 
under Constitution of 1848) ; Gustavus Koerner 
(vice Shields), 1845-48 (retired by Constitution); 
William A. Denning (vice Scates), 1847-48 (re- 

tired by Constitution) ; Lyman Trumbull, 1848-53 
(resigned); Ozias C. Skinner (vice Treat), 1855-58 
(resigned); Pinkney H. Walker (vice Skinner), 
1858-85 (deceased); Corydon Beckwith (by ap- 
jjointment, vice Caton), Jan. 7, 1864, to June 6, 
1864; Charles B. Lawrence (one term), 1864-73; 
Anthony Thornton, 1870-73 (resigned); Jolin M, 
Scott (two terms), 1870-88 ; Benjamin R. Sheldon 
(two terms), 1870-88; William K. McAlUster, 
1870-75 (resigned) ; John SchoLfield (vice Thorn- 
ton), 1873 93 (died); T. Lyle Dickey (vice 
McAllister), 1875-85 (di6d) ; David J. Baker (ap- 
pointed, vice Breese), July 9, 1878, to June 2, 
1879— also, 1888-97: John H. Mulkey, 1879-88; 
Damon G. Tunniclille (appointed, vice Walker), 
Feb. 15, 1885, to June 1, 1885; Simeon P. Shope, 
1885-94, Joseph M. Bailey, 1888-95 (died in office). 
The Supreme Court, as at present constituted 
(1890), is as follows: Carroll C. Boggs, elected, 
1897, Jesse J. Phillips (vice ScholflelJ, deceased) 
elected, 1893, and re-elected, 1897; Jacob W. Wil- 
kin, elected, 1888, and re-elected, 1897; Joseph 
N. Carter, elected, 1894; Alfred M. Craig, elec- 
ted, 1873, and re-elected, 1882 and "91; James H. 
Cartwright (vice Bailey), elected, 1895, and re- 
elected, 1897 ; Benjamin D. Magruder (vice 
Dickey), elected, 1885, "88 and '97. The terms of 
Justices Boggs, Phillips, Wilkin, Cartwright and 
Magrader expire in 1906 ; that of Justice Carter 
on 1903; and Justice Craig's, in 1900. Under the 
Constitution of 1818, the Justices of the Supreme 
Court were chosen by joint ballot of the Legisla- 
ture, but, under the Constitutions of 1848 and 
1870, by popular vote for terms of nine years 
each. (See Judicial System; also sketches of 
individual members of the Supreme Court vmder 
their proper names.) 

United States law passed on the subject of Gov- 
ernment surveys was dated, Jlaj' 20, 1785. After 
reserving certain lands to be allotted by way of 
pensions and to be donated for school purposes, 
it provided for the division of fRe remaining pub- 
lic lands among the original thirteen States. 
This, however, was, in effect, repealed by the Ordi- 
nance of 1788. The latter provided for a rectan 
gular system of surveys which, with but little 
modification, has remained in force ever since. 
Briefly outlined, the system is as follows: Town- 
ships, six miles square, are laid ovt from principal 
bases, each township containing thirty -six sec- 
tions of one square mile, numbered consecutively, 
the numeration to commence at the upper right 
hand corner of the township. The first principal 
meridian (84° 51' west of Greenwich), coincided 



with the line dividing Indiana and Ohio. The 
second (1° 37' farther west) had direct relation 
to surveys in Eastern Hhnois. The third (89' 10' 
30" west of Greenwich) and the fourth (90° 29' 
56" west) governed the remainder of Illinois sur- 
veys. The first Public Surveyor was Thomas 
Hutchins, who was called "the geographer." 
(See Hutchins, Tliomas.) 

SWEET, (Gen.) Benjamin J., soldier, was 
born at Kirkland, Oneida County, N. Y., April 
24, 1833 ; came with his father, in 1848, to Sheboy- 
gan, Wis , studied law, was elected to the State 
Senate in 1859, and, in 1861, enlisted in the Sixth 
Wisconsin Volimteers, being commissioned Major 
in 1863. Later, he resigned and, returning home, 
assisted in the organization of the Twenty-first 
and Twenty-second regiments, being elected 
Colonel of the former , and with it taking part in 
the campaign in Western Kentucky and Tennes- 
see. In 1868 he was assigned to command at 
Camp Douglas, and was there on tlie exposure, 
in November, 1864, of the conspiracy to release 
the rebel prisoners. (See Cam}} Douglas Conspir- 
acy.) The service which he rendered in the 
defeat of this bold and dangerous conspiracy 
evinced his courage and sagacity, and was of 
inestimable value to the country. After the 
war. General Sweet located at Lombard, near 
Chicago, was appointed Pension Agent at Chi- 
cago, afterwards served as Supervisor of Internal 
Revenue, and, in 18T3, became Deputy Commis- 
sioner of Internal Revenue at Washington. Died, 
in Washington, Jan. 1, 1874. — Miss Ada C. 
(Sweet), for eight years (1874-82) the eflScient 
Pension Agent at Chicago, is General Sweet's 

SWEETSER, A. C, soldier and Department 
Commander G. A. R., was born in Oxford County, 
Maine, in 1839; came to Bloomington, Ilk, in 
1857; enlisted at the beginning of the Civil War 
in the Eighth IlUnois Volunteers and, later, in the 
Thirty-ninth; at the battle of Wierbottom 
Church, Va , in June, 1864, was shot through 
both legs, necessitating the amputation of one of 
them. After the war he held several offices of 
trust, including those of City Collector of Bloom- 
ington and Deputy Collector of Internal Revenue 
for the Springfield District ; in 1887 was elected 
Department Commander of the Grand Army of 
the Republic for Illinois. Died, at Bloomington. 
March 23, 1896. 

SWETT, Leonard, lawyer, was born near 
Turner, Maine. August 11. 1835, was educated at 
Waterville College (now Colby University), but 
left before graduation , read law in Portland, and, 

while seeking a location in the West, enlisted in 
an Indiana regiment for the Mexican War, being 
attacked by cUmatic fever, was discharged before 
completing his term of enlistment. He soon 
after came to Bloomington, 111., where he became 
tlie intimate friend of Abraham Lincoln and 
David Davis, traveling the circuit with them for 
a number of years He early became active in 
State politics, was a member of the Republican 
State Convention of 1856, was elected to the 
lower house of the General Assembly in 1858, 
and, in ISGO, was a zealous supporter of Mr. Lin- 
coln as a Presidential Elector for the State-at 
large. In 1863 he received the Republican 
nomination for Congress in his District, but was 
defeated. Removing to Chicago in 1865, he 
gained increased distinction as a lawyer, espe- 
cially in the management of criminal cases. In 
1872 he was a supporter of Horace Greeley for 
President, but later returned to the Republican 
party, and, in the National Republican Conven- 
tion of 1888, presented the name of Judge 
Gresham for nomination for the Presidency, 
Died, June 8, 1889. 

SWIGERT, Charles Philip, ex- Auditor of Pub- 
lic Accounts, was born in the Province of Baden, 
Germany, Nov. 27, 1843, brought by his parents 
to Chicago, 111., in chiklliood, and, in his boy- 
hood, attended tlie Scamnion School in that city 
In 1854 his family removed to a farm in Kanka- 
kee County, where, between the ages of 12 and 
18, he assisted his father in "breaking" between 
400 and 500 acres of prairie land. On the break- 
ing out of the war, in 1861, although scarcely 18 
years of age, he enlisted as a private in the Forty- 
second Illinois Volunteer Infantry, and, in April, 
1862, was one of twenty heroic volunteers who 
ran the blockade, on the gunboat Carondelet, at 
Island No. 10, assisting materially in the reduc- 
tion of that rebel stronghold, which resulted in 
the capture of 7,000 prisoners At the battle of 
Farmington, Miss., during tlie siege of Corinth, 
in May, 1862, he had his right arm torn from its 
socket by a six-pound cannon-ball, compelling his 
retirement from the army. Returning home, 
after many weeks spent in hospital at Jefferson 
Barracks and Quincy, 111., he received his final 
discharge, Dec. 31, 1862, spent a year in school, 
also took a course in Bryant & Stratton's Com- 
mercial College in Chicago, and having learned 
to write with his left hand, taught for a time in 
Kankakee County ; served as letter-carrier in Chi- 
cago, and for a year as Deputy County Clerk of 
Kankakee County, followed by two terms (1867- 
69) as a student in the Soldiers" College at Fulton 



111. The latter year he entered upon the duties 
of Treasurer of Kankakee County, serving, by 
successive re-elections, until 1880, when he re- 
signed to take the position of State Auditor, to 
which he was elected a second time in 1884. In 
all these positions Mr. Swigert has proved him- 
self an upright, capable and high-minded public 
official Of late years his has been in 

SWi>'(i, (Rev.) David, clergyman and pulpit 
orator, was born of German ancestry, at Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, August 23, 1836. After 1837 (his 
father dying about this time), the family resided 
for a time at Reedsbirrgh, and, later, on a farm 
near AVilliamsburgh, in Clermont County, in the 
same State. In 18.52, having graduated from the 
Miami (Ohio) University, he commenced the 
study of theologj', but, in 1854, accepted the 
position of Professor of Languages in his Alma 
Mater, which he continued to fill for thirteen 
years. His first pastorate was in connection with 
the Westminster Presbyterian Church of Chi- 
cago, which he assumed in 1866. His church 
edifice was destroyed in the great Chicago fire, 
but was later rebuilt. As a preacher he was 
popular ; but, in April, 1874, he was placed on trial, 
before an ecclesiastical court of his own denomi- 
nation, on charges of heresy. He was acquitted 
by the trial court, but, before the appeal taken by 
the prosecution could be heard, he personallj- 
withdrew from affiliation with the denomination. 
Shortly afterward he became pastor of an inde- 
pendent religious organization known as the 
"Central Church," preaching, first at McVicker"s 
Theatre and. afterward, at Central Music Hall, 
Chicago. He was a fluent and popular speaker 
on all themes, a frequent and valued contributor 
to numerous magazines, as well as the author of 
several voliunes. Among his best known books 
are "Motives of Life," "Truths for To-day," and 
"Club Es.s;iys." Died, in Chicago, Oct. 3, 1894. 

SYCAMORE, the county-seat of De Kalb 
County (founded in 1836), 56 miles west of Chi- 
cago, at the intersection of the Chicago & Xorth- 
westeru and the Chicago Great Western Rail- 
roads; lies in a region devoted to agriculture, 
dairying and stock-raising. The city itself con- 
tains several factories, the principal products 
being agricultural implements, flour, insulated 
wire, brick, tile,, furniture, soap and 
carriages and wagons. There are also works for 
canning vegetables and fruit. besides two creamer- 
ies. The town is lighted by electricity, and has 
high-pressure water-works. There are eleven 
churches, three graded public schools and a 

young ladies' seminary. Population (ISsii. 
3,038; (1890), 2,987; (1900). .'I.O.dS. 

TAFT, Lorado, sculptor, was born at Elmwuod. 
Peoria County, 111, April 29, 1860; at an early 
age evinced a jiredilection for sculpture and 
began modeling; graduated at the University of 
Illinois in 1880, tlien went to Paris and studied 
sculpture in the famous Ecole des Beaux Arts 
until 1885. The following year he settled in Chi 
cago, finally becoming associated with the Chi- 
cago Art Institute. He has been a lecturer on 
art in the Chicago University. Jlr. Taft fur- 
nished the decorations of the Horticultural Build- 
ing on the World's Fair Grounds, in 1893. 

TALCOTT, Mancel, business man, was born 
in Rome, N. Y., Oct. 12, 1817; attended the com- 
mon schools until 17 years of age, when he set 
out for the West, traveling on foot from Detroit 
to Chicago, and thence to Park Ridge, where he 
worked at farming until 1850. Then, having 
followed the occupation of a miner for some time, 
in California, with some success, he united with 
Horace 51. Singer in establishing the firm of 
Singer & Talcott, stone-dealers, which lasted dur- 
ing most of his life. He served as a member of 
the Chicago Cit}' Council, on the Board of County 
Commissioners, as a member of the Police Board, 
and was one of the founders of the First National 
Bank, and President, for several years, of the 
Stock Yards National Bank. Liberal and public- 
spirited, he contributed freely to works of 
charity. Died, June 5, 1878. 

TALCOTT, (Capt.) 'William, soldier of the 
War of 1812 and pioneer, was born in Gilead, 
Conn., March 6, 1774; emigrated to Rome, Oneida 
County, N. Y., in 1810, and engaged in farming; 
served as a Lieutenant in the Oneida County 
militia dm-ing the War of 1812-14, being stationed 
at Sackett's Harbor under the command of Gen. 
Winfleld Scott. In 1835, in company with his 
eldest son, Thomas B. Talcott, he made an ex- 
tended tour through the West, finally selecting a 
location in Illinois at the junction of Rock River 
and the Pecatonica, where tlie town of Rockton 
now stands— there being only two white families, 
at that time, within the present limits of Winne- 
bago County. Two years later (1837), he brought 
his family to this point, with his sons took up a 
considerable body of Government land and 
erected two mills, to which customers came 
from a long distance. In 1838 Captain Talcott 
took part in the organization of the first Congre- 
gational Church in that section of the State. A 
zealous anti-slavery min. he supported James G. 



Birney (the Liberty candidate for President) in 
1844, continuing to act with that party until the 
organization of tlie Republican party in 1856; 
was deeply interested in the War for the Union, 
but died before its conclusion, Sept. 2, 1864. — 
Maj. Thomas B. (Talcott), oldest son of the pre- 
ceding, was born at Hebron, Conn , April 17, 
1806; was taken to Rome, N. Y., by his father in 
infancy, and, after reaching maturitj-, engaged 
in mercantile business with his brother in Che 
mung County ; in 1835 accompanied his father in 
a tour through the West, finally locating at 
Rockton, where he engaged in agriculture. On 
the organization of Winnebago Covmty, in 1836, 
he was elected one of the first County Commis- 
sioners, and, in 1850, to the State Senate, serving 
four years. He also held various local offices. 
Died, Sept. 30, 1894.— Hon. Wait (Talcott), second 
son of Capt. William Talcott, was born at He- 
bron, Conn., Oct. 17, 1807. and taken to Rome, 
N. Y., where lie remained until his 19th year, 
when he engaged in business at Booneville and, 
still later, in Utica; in 1838, removed to Illinois 
and joined his father at Rockton, finallj'- 
becoming a citizen of Rockford, where, in his 
later years, he was extensively engaged in manu- 
facturing, having become, in 1854, with his 
brother Sylvester, a partner of the firm of J. H. 
Manny & Co., in the manufacture of the Manny 
reaper and mower. He was an original anti- 
slavery man and, at one time, a Free-Soil candidate 
for Congress, but became a zealous Republican 
and ardent friend of Abraham Lincoln, whom he 
employed as an attorney in the famous suit of 
McCormick vs. the Manny Reaper Company for 
infringement of patent. In 1854 he was elected 
to the State Senate, succeeding his brother, 
Thomas B., and was the first Collector of Internal 
Revenue in the Second District, appointed by Mr. 
Lincoln in 1862, and continuing in office some 
five years. Though too old for active service in 
the field, during the Civil War, he voluntarily 
hired a substitute to take his place. Mr. Talcott 
was one of the original incorporators and Trus- 
tees of Beloit College, and a founder of Rockford 
Female Seminary, remaining a trustee of each 
for many years. Died, June 7, 1890.— SylTester 
(Talcott), third son of William Talcott, born at 
Rome, N. Y., Oct. 14, 1810; when of age, engaged 
in mercantile business in Chemung County; in 
1837 removed, with other members of the family, 
to Winnebago County, 111., where he joined his 
father in the entry of Government lands and the 
erection of mills, as already detailed. He became 
one of the first Justices of the Peace in Winne- 

bago County, also served as Supervisor for a 
number of years and, although a farmer, became 
interested, in 1854, with Ids brother Wait, 
in the Manny Reaper Company at Rockford. 
He also followed the example of his brother, 
just named, in furnishing a substitute for the 
War of the Rebellion, thougli too old for service 
himself Died, June 19, 1885.— Henry Walter 
(Talcott), fourth son of William Talcott, was 
born at Rome, N. Y., Feb. 13, 1814; came with 
his father to Winnebago County, 111., in 1835, and 
was connected with his father and brothers in busi- 
ness. Died, Dec. 9, 1870.— Dwight Lewis (Tal- 
cott), oldest son of Henry Walter Talcott, born 
in Winnebago County ; at the age of 17 years 
enlisted at Belvidere, in January, 1864, as a soldier 
in the Ninth Illinois Volunteer Infantry ; served 
as provost guard some two months at Fort Picker- 
ing, near Memphis, and later took part in many 
of the important battles of that year in Missis- 
sippi and Tennessee. Having been captured at 
Campbellsville. Tenn.. he was taken to Anderson- 
ville, Ga., where he suffered all the horrors of 
that famous prison-pen, until March, 1865, when 
he was released, arriving at home a helples.s 
skeleton, the day after Abraham Lincoln's assas- 
sination. Mr. Talcott subsequently settled in 
Muscatine County, Iowa. 

TALLI'LA, a prosperous village of Menard 
County, on the Jacksonville branch of the Chi- 
cago & Alton Railway, 24 miles northeast of 
Jacksonville; is in the midst of a grain, coal- 
mining, and stock-growing region; has a local 
bank and newspaper. Pop. (1890), 445 ; (1900), 639. 

T.\JIAROA, a village in Perry County, situated 
at the junction of the Illinois Central with the 
Wabash, Chester & Western Railroad, 8 miles 
north of Duquoin, and 57 miles east-southeast of 
Belleville. It has a bank, a newspaper office, a 
large public school, Ave churches and two flour- 
ing mills. Coal is mined here and exported in 
large quantities. Pop. (1900). 853. 

(See Wabash, Clicster d: Western Railroad.) 

TAJfXER, Edward Allen, clergyman and edu- 
cator, was born of New England ancestry, at 
Waverly, 111., Nov. 29, 1837— being the child 
who could claim nativity there; was educated 
in the local schools and at Illinois College, 
graduating from the latter in 1857; spent four 
years teaching in his native place and at Jack- 
sonville; then accepted the Professorship of 
Latin in Pacific L'niversity at Portland, Oregon, 
remaining four years, when he returned to his 
Alma Mater (1865), assuming there the chair of 



Latin and Rhetoric. In 1881 he was appointed 
financial agent of the latter institution, and, in 
1882, its President. While in Oregon he had 
been ordained a minister of the Congregational 
Church, and, for a considerable period during 
his connection with Illinois College, officiated as 
Chaplain of the Central Hospital for the Insane 
at Jack.sonTille, besides supplying local and 
other jiulpits. He labored earnestly for the 
benefit of the institution under his charge, and, 
during his incumbency, added materially to its 
endowment and resources. Died, at Jackson- 
ville, Feb. 8, 1892. 

TANXER, John R., Governor, was bom in 
Warrick County, Ind., April 4, 1844, and brought 
to Southern Illinois in boyhood, where he grew 
up on a farm in the vicinity of Carbondale, 
enjoying only such educational advantages as 
were afforded by the common school ; in 1863, at 
the age of 19, enlisted in the Ninety-eighth Illi- 
nois Volunteers, serving until June, 186.5, when 
he was transferred to the Sixty-first, and finally 
mustered out in September following. All the 
male members of Governor Tanner's family were 
soldiers of the late war, his father dying in a 
rebel prison at Columbus, Miss., one of his bro- 
thers suffering the same fate from wounds at Nash- 
ville, Tenn.,and another brother dying in hospital 
at Pine Bluff, Ark. Only one of this patriotic 
family, besides Governor Tanner, still survives— 
Mr. J. 51. Tanner of Clay County, who left the 
service witli the rank of Lieutenant of the Thir- 
teenth Illinois Cavalry. Returning from the 
war, Mr. Tanner established himself in business 
as a farmer in Clay County, later engaging suc- 
cessfully in the milling and lumber business as 
the partner of his brother. The public positions 
held by him, since tlie war, include those of 
Sheriff of Clay County ( 1870-72), Clerk of the Cir- 
cuit Court (1872-76), and State Senator (1880-83). 
During the latter year he received the appoint- 
ment of United States Marshal for the Southern 
District of Illinois, serving until after the acces- 
sion of President Cleveland in 1885. In 1886, he 
was the Republican nominee for State Treasurer 
and was elected by an unusually large majority ; 
in 1891 was appointed, by Governor Fifer, a 
member of the Railroad and Warehouse Commis- 
sion, but, in 1892, received the appointment of 
Assistant United States Treasurer at Chicago, 
continuing in the latter office until December, 
1893. For ten years (1874-84) he was a member 
of the Republican State Central Committee, re- 
turning to that body in 1894. when he was chosen 
Chairman and conducted the campaign which 

resulted in the unprecedented Republican suc- 
cesses of that year. In 1896 he received the 
nomination of his party for Governor, and was 
elected over Gov. John P. Altgeld, his Demo- 
cratic opponent, by a plurality of over 113,000, 
and a majority, over all, of nearly 90,000 votes. 

TANNER, Tazewell B., jurist, was born in 
Henry County, Va., and came to Jefferson 
County, 111., about 1846 or '47, at first taking a 
position as teacher and Superintendent of Public 
Schools. Later, he was connected with "The 
Jeffersonian," a Democratic paper at Mount Ver- 
non, and, in 1849, went to the gold regions of 
California, meeting with reasonable success as a 
miner. Returning in a year or two, he was 
elected Clerk of the Circuit Court, and, while in 
the discharge of his duties, prosecuted the study 
of law, finally, on admission to the bar, entering 
into partnership with the late Col. Thomas S. 
Casey. In 1854 he was elected Representative in 
the Nineteenth General Assembly, and was in- 
strumental in securing the appropriation for the 
erection of a Supreme Court building at Mount 
Vernon. In 1862 he served as a Delegate to the 
State Constitutional Convention of that year ; was 
elected Circuit Judge in 1873, and, in 1877, was 
assigned to duty on the Appellate bench, but, at 
the expiration of his term, declined a re-election 
and resumed the practice of his profession at 
Mount Vernon. Died, March 25, 1880. 

TAXATION, in its legal sense, the mode of 
raising revenue. In its general sense its purposes 
are the support of the State and local govern- 
ments, the promotion of the public good by 
fostering education and works of public improve- 
ment, the protection of society by the preser- 
vation of order and the punishment of crime, and 
the support of the helpless and destitute. In 
])ractice, and as prescribed by the Constitution, 
the raising of revenue is required to be done "by 
levying a tax by valuation, so that every person 
and corporation shall pay a tax in proportion to 
the value of his, her or its property — such value 
to be ascertained by some person or persons, to be 
elected or appointed in such manner as the Gen- 
eral Assembly shall direct, and not otherwise." 
(State Constitution, 1870— Art. Rei-enue, Sec. 1.) 
The person selected imder the law to make this 
valuation is the Assessor of the county or the 
township (in counties under township organiza- 
tion), and he is required to make a return to the 
County Board at its July meeting each year — the 
latter having authority to hear complaints of tax- 
payers and adjust inequalities when found to 
exist. It is made the duty of the Assessor to 



include in his return, as real-estate, all lands and 
the buildings or other improvements erected 
thereon; and, under the head of personal prop- 
erty, all tangible effects, besides mone3's, credits, 
bonds or stocks, shares of stock of companies or 
corporations, investments, annuities, franchises, 
royalties, etc. Property used for school, church 
or cemeterj- purposes, as well as public buildings 
and other property belonging to the State and 
General Government, municipalities, public 
charities, public libraries, agricultural and scien- 
tific societies, are declared exempt. Nominally, 
all property subject to taxation is required to be 
assessed at its cash valuation ; but, in reality, the 
valuation, of late years, has been on a basis of 
twenty- five to thirty-three per cent of its esti- 
mated cash value. In the larger cities, however, 
the valuation is often much lower than this, 
while very large amounts escape assessment 
altogether. The Revenue Act, passed at the 
special session of the Fortieth General Assembly 
(1898), requires the Assessor to make a return of 
all property subject to taxation in his district, at 
its cash valuation, upon which a Board of Review 
fixes a tax on the basis of twenty per cent of 
such cash valuation. An abstract of the property 
assessment of each county goes before tlie State 
Board of Equalization, at its annual meeting in 
August, for the purpose of comparison and equal- 
izing valuations between counties, but the Board 
has no power to modify the assessments of indi- 
vidual tax-payers. (See State Board of Equali- 
zation.) This Board has exclusive power to fix 
the valuation for purposes of taxation of the 
capital stock or franchises of companies (except 
certain specified manufacturing corporations), in- 
corporated under the State laws, togetlier with the 
"railroad track" and "rolling stock'" of railroads, 
and the capital stock of railroads and telegraph 
lines, and to fix the distribution of the latter 
between counties in which they lie. — The Consti 
tution of 18-18 empowered the Legislature to 
impose a capitation tax, of not less than fifty 
cents nor more than one dollar, upon each free 
white male citizen entitled to the right of suf- 
frage, between the ages of 21 and 60 years, but the 
Constitution of 1870 grants no such power, 
though it authorizes the extension of the "objects 
and subjects of taxation" in accordance with the 
principle contained in the first section of the 
Revenue Article. — Special assessments in cities, 
for the construction of sewers, pavements, etc., 
being local and in the form of benefits, cannot 
be said to come under the head of general tax- 
ation. The same is to be said of revenue derived 

from fines and penalties, which are forms of 
punishment for specific offenses, and go to the 
benefit of certain specified funds. 

TAYLOR, Abner, ex-Congressman, is a native 
of Maine, and a resident of Chicago. He has been 
in active business all his life as contractor, builder 
and merchant, and, for some time, a member of 
the wholesale dry -goods firm of J. V. Farwell & 
Co., of Chicago. He was a member of the Thirty- 
fourth General Assembly, a delegate to the 
National Republican Convention of 1884, and 
represented the First Illinois District in the Fifty- 
first and Fifty -second Congresses, 1889 to 1893. 
Mr. Taylor was one of the contractors for the 
erection of the new State Capitol of Texas. 

TAYLOR, Benjamin Franklin, journalist, poet 
and lecturer, was born at Lowville, N. Y'., July 
19, 1819; graduated at Madison University in 
1839, the next year becoming literary and dra- 
matic critic of "The Chicago Evening Journal" 
Here, in a few years, he acquired a wide reputa- 
tion as a journalist and poet, and was much in 
demand as a lecturer on literary topics. His 
letters from the field during the Rebellion, as 
war correspondent of "The Evening Journal," 
won for him even a greater popularity, and were 
complimented by translation into more than one 
European language. After the war, he gave his 
attention more unreservedly to literature, his 
principal works appearing after that date. His 
publications in book form, including both prose 
and poetry, comprise the following: "Attractions 
of Language" (1845); "January and June" 
(18.53); "Pictures in Camp and Field" (1871), 
"The World on Wheels" (1873); "Old Time Pic- 
tures and Sheaves of Rhyme" (1874); "Songs of 
Yesterday" (1877); "Summer Savory Gleaned 
from Rural Nooks" (1879); "Between the Gates" 
— pictures of California life — (1881) ; "Dulce 
Domum. the Burden of Song" (1884), and "Theo- 
philus Trent, or Old Times in the Oak Openings, ' ' 
a novel (1887). The last was in the hands of the 
publishers at his death, Feb. 27, 1887. Among 
his most popular poems are "The Isle of the Long 
Ago," "The Old Village Choir," and "Rhymes of 
the River." "The London Times" complimented 
Mr. Taylor with the title of "The Oliver Gold- 
smith of xVmerica. " 

TAYLOR, Edmund Dick, early Indian-trader 
and legislator, was born at Fairfield C. H. , Va. , 
Oct. 18, 1802 — the son of a commissary in the 
army of the Revolution, under General Greene, 
and a cousin of General (later, President) Zachary 
Taylor ; left his native State in his youtti and, at 
an early day, came to Springfield, 111., where he 



opened an Indian-trading post and ;;eneral store; 
was elected from Sangamon County Id the lower 
branch of the Seventh General Assembly (1830) 
and re-elected in 1832 — the latter year being a 
competitor of Abraham Lincoln, whom he 
defeated. In 1834 he was elected to the State 
Senate and, at the next session of the Legislature, 
was one of the celebrated "Long Nine"" who 
secured the removal of the State Capital to 
Springfield. He resigned before the close of his 
term to accept, from President Jackson, the ap- 
pointment of Receiver of Public Moneys at Chi- 
cago. Here he became one of the promoters of 
the Galena & Chicago Union Railroad (1837). 
serving as one of the Commissioners to secure 
subscriptions of stock, and was also active in 
advocating the construction of the Illinois & 
Michigan Canal. The title of "Colonel,"" by 
which he was known dm-ing most of his life, was 
acquired by service, with that rank, on the staff 
of Gov. John Reynolds, during the Black Hawk 
War of 1832. After coming to Chicago, Colonel 
Taylor became one of the Trustees of the Chicago 
branch of the State Bank, and was later identified 
with various banking enterprises, as also a some- 
what extensive operator in real estate. An active 
Democrat in the early part of his career in Illi- 
nois. Colonel Taylor was one of the members of 
his party to take ground against the Kansas-Neb 
raska bill in 18.54, and advocated the election of 
General Bissell to the governorship in 18.50. In 
ISfiO he was again in line with his party in sup- 
port of Senator Douglas for the Presi<lency. and 
w;us an opponent of the war policy of the Govern- 
ment still later, as shown by his participation in 
the celebrated "Peace Convention"" at Spring- 
field, of June 17, 1863. In the latter years of his 
life he became extensively interested in coal 
lands in La Salle and adjoining counties, and, 
for a coni?iderable time, served as President of tlie 
Northern Illinois Coal & Mining Company, his 
home, during a part of this period, being at 
Mendota. Died, in Chicago, Dec. 4, 1891. 

T.WLOKVILLE, a city and county-seat of 
Christian County, on the South Fork of the Sanga- 
mon Uiver and on the Wabash Railway at its 
point of intersection with the Springlield Division 
of the Baltimore it Ohio Southwestern. It is 
about 27 miles southeast of Springfield, and 
28 miles southwe.->t of Decatur. It has several 
banks, flour mills, paper mill, electric light and 
gas plants, water-works, two coal mine-s, carriage 
and wagon slioiJS, a manufactory of farming 
implements, two claily and weekly paper.s, nine 
churches and five graded and township high 

schools. Much coal is mined in this vicinity. 
Pop, (1890), 2,839; (1900), 4,248. 

TAZEWELL COUNTY, a central county on 
the Illinois River; ■was settled in 1823 and 
organized in 1827 ; has an area of 650 square miles 
— was named for Governor Tazewell of Virginia. 
It is drained by the Illinois and Mackinaw Rivers 
and traversed by several lines of railway. The 
surface is generally level, the soil alluvial and 
rich, but, requiring drainage, especially on the 
river bottoms. Gravel, coal and sandstone are 
found, but, generally speaking, Tazewell is an 
agricultural county. The cereals are extensively 
cultivated; wool is also clipped, and there are 
dairy interests of some importance. Distilling is 
extensively conducted at Pekin, the county-seat, 
which is also the seat of otlier mechanical indus- 
tries. (See also Pekin.) Population of the 
county (1880), 29,666; (1890), 29,5-56; (1900), 33,221. 

TEMPLE, John Taylor, JI.D., early Chicago 
physician, born in Virginia in 1804, graduated in 
medicine at Middlebury College, Vt., in 1830, and, 
in 1833, arrived in Chicago. At this time he had 
a contract for carrying the United States mail 
from Chicago to Fort Howard, near Green Bay, 
and the following year undertook a similar con- 
tract between Chicago and Ottawa. Having sold 
these out three years later, he devoted his atten- 
tion to the practice of his profession, though 
interested, for a time, in contracts for the con- 
struction of the Illinois & Michigan Canal. Dr. 
Temple was instrumental in erecting the first 
house (after Rev. Jesse Walker"s missionary 
station at Wolf Point), for public religious 
worship in Chicago, and, although himself a 
Baptist, it was used in common by Protestant 
denominations. He was a member of the first 
Board of Trustees of Rush Medical College, 
though he later became a convert to homeopathy, 
and finall}-, removing to St. Louis, assisted in 
founding the St. Louis School of Homeopathy, 
dying there. Feb. 24, 1S77. 

TEXl'RE OF OFFICE. (See Elections.) 

H.4ILR0AD. (See Sf. Louis. Alton d Terre 
lldiitr RiiUnxul) 

.S7. Lo<iis. Alton d- Terre Haute Railroad.) 

ROAD, a corporation operating no line of its own 
within the State, but the lessee and operator of 
the following lines (which see): St. Louis, 
Vandalia & Terre Haute, 1.58.3 miles; Terre 
Haute & Peoria, 145.12 miles; East St. Louis 
& Carondelet, 12.74 miles— total length of leased 



lines in Illinois, 316.16 miles. The Tene Haute 
& Indianapolis Railroad was incorporated in 
Indiana in 1847. as the Terre Haute & Rich- 
mond, completed a line between the points 
named in the title, in 1852, and took its present 
name in 186t'. The Pennsylvania Railroad Com- 
pany purchased a controlling interest in its stock 
in 1893. 

(Vandalia Line), a line of road extending from 
Terre Haute, Ind., to Peoria, 111., 145.13 miles, 
with 28. 78 miles of trackage, making in all 173.9 
miles in operation, all being in Illinois— operated 
by the Terre Haute & Indianapolis Railroad Com- 
pany. The gauge is standard, and the rails are 
steel. (History.) It was organized Feb. 7, 1887, 
successor to the Illinois Midland Railroad. The 
latter was made up by the consolidation (Nov. 4, 
1874) of three Unes: (1) The Peoria, Atlanta & 
Decatur Railroad, chartered in 1869 and opened in 
1874; (2) the Paris & Decatur Railroad, chartered 
in 1861 and opened in December, 1872 ; and (3) the 
Paris & Terre Haute Railroad, chartered in 1873 
and opened in 1874 — the consolidated lines 
assuming the name of the Illinois Midland Rail- 
road. In 1886 the Illinois Midland was sold mider 
foreclosure and, in February, 1887, reorganized 
as the Terre Haute & Peoria Railroad. In 1892 
it was leased for ninety-nine years to the Terre 
Haute & Indianapolis Railroad Company, and is 
operated as a part of the "Vandalia System." 
The capital stock (1898) was §3,764,200; funded 
debt, §2,230,000,— total capital invested, §6,227,- 

TEUTOPOLIS, a village of Effingham County, 
on the Terre Haute & Indianapolis Railroad, 4 
miles east of Effingham; was originally settled 
by a colony of Germans from Cincinnati. Popu- 
lation (1900), 498. 

THOMAS, Horace H., lawyer and legislator, 
was born in Vermont, Dec. 18, 1831, graduated at 
Middlebury College, and, after admission to the 
bar, removed to Chicago, where he commenced 
practice. At the outbreak of the rebellion he 
enUsted and was commissioned Assistant Adju- 
tant-General of the Army of the Ohio. At the 
close of the war he took up his lesidence in Ten- 
nessee, serving as Quartermaster upon the staff 
of Governor Brownlow. In 1867 he returned to 
Chicago and resumed practice. He was elected 
a Representative in the Legislature in 1878 and 
re-elected in 1880, being chosen Speaker of the 
House during his latter term. In 1888 he was 
elected State Senator from the Sixth District, 
serving during the sessions of the Thirty-sixth 

and Thirty-seventh General As.semblies. In 
1897, General Thomas was appointed United 
States Appraiser in connection with the Custom 
House in Chicago. 

THOMAS, Jesse Burgess, jurist and United 
States Senator, was born at Hagerstown, Md., 
claiming direct descent from Lord Baltimore. 
Taken west in childhood, he grew to manhood 
and settled at Lawrenceburg, Indiana Territory, 
in 1803; in 1805 vv-as Speaker of the Territorial 
Legislature and, later, represented the Territory 
as Delegate in Congress. On the organization of 
Illinois Territory (which he had favored), he 
removed to Kaskaskia, was appointed one of the 
first Judges for the new Territory, and, in 1818, 
as Delegate from St. Clair County, presided over 
the first State Constitutional Convention, and, on 
the admission of the State, became one of the 
first United States Senators — Governor Edwards 
being his colleague. Though an avowed advo- 
cate of slavery, he gained no little prominence 
as the author of the celebrated "Missouri Com- 
promise," adopted in 1820. He was re-elected to 
the Senate in 1823, serving until 1829. He sub- 
sequently removed to Mount Vernon, Ohio, where 
he died by suicide. May 4, 1853. — Jesse Burgess 
" (Thomas), Jr., nephew of the United States Sena- 
tor of the same name, was born at Lebanon, Ohio, 
July 31, 1806, was educated at Transylvania 
University, and, being admitted to the bar, 
located at Edwardsville, 111. He first appeared 
in connection with public affairs as Secretary of 
the State Senate in 1830, being re-elected in 1832; 
in 1834 was elected Representative in the General 
Assembly from Madison County, but, in Febru- 
ary following, was appointed Attorney-General, 
serving only one year. He afterwards held the 
position of Circuit Judge (1837-39), his home being 
then in Springfield; in 1843 he became Associ- 
ate Justice of the Supreme Court, by appointment 
of the Governor, as successor to Stephen A. Doug- 
las, and was afterwards elected to the same 
office by the Legislature, remaining until 1848. 
During a part of his professional career he was 
the partner of David Prickett and William L. 
May, at Springfield, and afterwards a member of 
the Galena bar, finally removing to Chicago, 
where he died, Feb. 21, 1850.— Jesse B. (Thomas) 
third, clergyman and son of the last named ; born 
at Edwardsville, 111., July 29, 1832; educated at 
Kenyon College, Ohio, and Rochester (N. Y.) 
Theological Seminary ; practiced law for a time 
in Chicago, but finally entered the Baptist minis- 
try, serving churches at "VVaukegan, 111., Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., and San Francisco (1862-69). He 



then became pastor of tlie Michigan Avenue Bap- 
tist Church, in Chicago, remaining until 1874, 
when he returned to Brooklyn. In 1887 he 
became Professor of Biblical Historj- in the 
Theological Seminary at Newton, Mass., where he 
has since resided. He is the author of several 
volumes, and. in 18G6, received the degree of D.D. 
from the uld University of Chicago. 

THOMAS, John, pioneer and soldier of the 
Black Hawk War, was born in Wythe County, 
Va., Jan. 11, 1800. At the age of 18 he accom- 
panied his parents to St. Clair County, 111., where 
the family located in what was then called the 
Ale.xander settlement, near the present site of 
Shiloh. ^^^len he was 22 he rented a farm 
(although he had not enough money to buy a 
horse) and married. Six years later he bought 
and stocked a farm, and, from that time forward, 
rapidly accumulated real property, until he 
became one of the most e-xtensive owners of farm- 
ing land in St. Clair County. In early life he 
was fond of military exercise, holding various 
offices in local organizations and serving as a 
Colonel in the Black Hawk War. In 1824 he was 
one of the leaders of the party opposed to the 
amendment of the State Constitution to sanction 
slavery, was a zealous opponent of the Kansas- 
Nebraska bill in 1854, and a firm supporter of the 
Republican party from the date of its formation. 
He was elected to the lower house of the General 
Assembly in 1838, '62, '04, "72 and "74; and to the 
State Senate in 1878, serving four years in the 
latter body. Died, at Belleville, Dec. IC, 1894, in 
the 95th year of his age. 

THOMAS, John R., ex-Congressman, was born 
at Mount Vernon, 111., Oct. 11, 1840. He served 
in the Union Army during the War of the Rebel- 
lion, rising from the ranks to a captaincy. After 
his return home he studied law, and was admit- 
ted to the bar in 1869. From 1872 to 1876 he was 
State's Attorney, and, from 1879 to 1889, repre- 
sented his District in Congress. In 1897, Mr. 
Thomas was appointed by President McKinley 
an additional United States District Judge for 
Indian Territory. His home is now at Vanita, 
in that Territory. 

THOMAS, William, pioneer lawyer and legis- 
lator, was born in what is now Allen County, 
Ky., Nov. 22, 1802; received a rudimentary edu- 
cation, and served as deputy of his father (who 
was Sheriff), and afterwards of the County Clerk ; 
studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1823; 
in 1826 removed to Jacksonville, 111., where be 
taught school, served as a private in the Winne- 
bago War (1S27V and .-it tlir- session of 1828-29, 

reported the proceedings of the General Assem- 
blj' for "The Vandalia Intelligencer" ; was State's 
Attorney and School Commissioner of Morgan 
County; served as Quartermaster and Commis- 
sary in the Black Hawk War (1831-32), first under 
Gen. Joseph Duncan and, a year later, under 
General Whiteside; in 1839 was appointed Circuit 
Judge, but legislated out of office two years later. 
It was as a member of the Legislature, however, 
that he gained the greatest prominence, first as 
State Senator in 1834-40, and Representative in 
1846-48 and 1850-52, when he was especially influ- 
ential in the legislation which resulted in estab- 
lishing the institutions for the Deaf and Dumb 
and the Blind, and the Hospital for the Insane 
(the first in the State) at Jacksonville— serving, 
for a time, as a member of the Board of Trustees 
of the latter. He was also prominent in connec- 
tion with many enterprises of a local character, 
including the establishment of the Illinois Female 
College, to which, although without children of 
his own, he was a liberal contributor. During 
the first year of the war he was a member of the 
Board of Army Auditors by appointment of Gov- 
ernor Yates. Died, at Jacksonville, August 22, 

THORNTON, Anthony, jurist, was born in 
Bourbon County, Ky., Nov. 9, 1814 — being 
descended from a 'Virginia family. After the 
usual primary instruction in the common schools, 
he spent two years in a high school at Gallatin, 
Tenn., when he entered Centre College at Dan- 
ville, Ky., afterwards continuing his studies at 
Miami University, Ohio, where he graduated in 
1834. Having studied law with an uncle at 
Paris, Ky., he was licensed to practice in 1836, 
when he left his native State with a view to set- 
tling in Missouri, but, visiting his uncle. Gen. 
William F. Thornton, at Shelby ville. 111., was 
induced to establish himself in practice there. 
He served as a member of the State Constitutional 
Conventions of 1847 and 1862, and as Represent- 
ative in the Seventeenth General Assembly 
(1850-52) for Shelby County. In 1864 he was 
elected to the Thirty-ninth Congress, and, in 
1870, to the Illinois Supreme Court, but served 
only until 1873, when he resigned. In 1879 
Judge Thornton removed to Decatur, 111., but 
subsequentl}' returned to Shelbyville, where 
(1898) he now resides. 

THORNTON, William Fltzhugh, Commissioner 
of the Illinois & Michigan Canal, was bom in 
Hanover County, Va., Oct. 4, 1789; in 1806, went 
to Alexandria, Va., where he conducted a drug 
business for a time, also acting as a.ssociate 



editor of "The Alexandria Gazette." Subse- 
quently removing to Washington City, he con- 
ducted a paper there in the interest of John 
Quincy Adams for the Presidency. During the 
War of 1812-14 he served as a Captain of cavalry, 
and, for a time, as staff-officer of General Winder. 
On occasion of the visit of Marquis La Fayette to 
America (1824-25) he accompanied the distin- 
guished Frenchman from Baltimore to Rich- 
mond. In 1829 he removed to Kentucky, and, 
in 1833, to Shelby viUe, 111., where he soon after 
engaged in mercantile business, to which he 
added a banking and brokerage business in 1859, 
with which he was actively associated until his 
death. In 1836, he was appointed, by Governor 
Duncan, one of the Commissioners of the Illinois 
& Michigan Canal, serving as President of the 
Board until 1843. In 1840, he made a visit to 
London, as financial agent of the State, in the 
interest of the Canal, and succeeded in making a 
sale of bonds to the amount of §1,000,000 on what 
were then considered favorable terms. General 
Thornton was an ardent Whig until the organi- 
zation of the Republican party, when he became 
a Democrat. Died, at Shelbyville, Oct. 21, 

TILLSON, John, pioneer, was born at Halifax, 
Mass., March 13, 1796; came to Illinois in 1819, 
locating at Hillsboro, Montgomery County, where 
he became a prominent and enterprising operator 
in real estate, doing a large business for eastern 
parties ; was one of the founders of Hillsboro 
Academy and an influential and liberal friend of 
Illinois College, being a Trustee of the latter 
from its establishment until his death ; was sup- 
ported in the Legislature of 1827 for State Treas- 
urer, but defeated by James Hall. Died, at 
Peoria, May 11, 1853.— Christiana Holmes (Till- 
son), wife of the preceding, was born at Kingston, 
Mass., Oct. 10, 1798; married to John Tillson in 
1822, and immediateh' came to Illinois to reside ; 
was a woman of rare culture and refinement, and 
deeply interested in benevolent enterprises. 
Died, in New York City, May 29, 1872.— Charles 
Holmes (Tillson), son of John and Christiana 
Holmes TiUson, was born at Hillsboro, 111. , Sept. 
15, 1823; educated at Hillsboro Academy and 
Illinois College, graduating from the latter in 
1844; studied law in St. Louis and at Transyl- 
vania University, was admitted to the bar in St. 
Louis and practiced there some years — also served 
several terms in the City Council, and was a 
member of the National Guard of Missouri in the 
War of the Rebellion. Died, Nov. 25, 1865.— 
John (Tillson), Jr., another son, was born at 

Hillsboro, 111., Oct. 12, 1825; educated at Hills- 
boro Academy and Illinois College, but did not 
graduate from the latter ; graduated from Tran- 
sylvania Law School, Ky., in 1847, and was 
admitted to the bar at Quincy, 111., the same 
year; practiced two years at Galena, when he 
returned to Quincy. In 1861 he enlisted in the 
Tenth Regiment Illinois Volunteers, became its 
Lieutenant-Colonel, on the promotion of Col. J. D. 
Morgan to Brigadier-General, was advanced to 
the colonelcy, and, in July, 1865, was mustered 
out with the rank of brevet Brigadier-General; 
for two years later held a commission as Captain 
in the regular army. During a portion of 1869-70 
he was editor of "The Quincy Whig"; in 1873 
was elected Representative in the Twenty -eighth 
General Assembly to succeed Nehemiah Bushnell, 
who had died in office, and, during the same year, 
was appointed Collector of Internal Revenue for 
the Quincy District, serving until 1881. Died, 
August 6, 1892. 

TILLSON, Robert, pioneer, was born in Hali- 
fax County, Mass., August 12, 1800; came to Illi- 
nois in 1823, and was employed, for several years, 
as a clerk in the land agency of his brother, John 
Tillson, at Hillsboro. lu 1826 he engaged in the 
mercantile business with Charles Holmes, Jr., in 
St. Louis, but, in 1828, removed to Quincy, 111., 
where he opened the first general store in that 
city; also served as Postmaster for some ten 
years. During this period he built the first two- 
story frame building erected in Quincy, up to 
that date. Retiring from the mercantile business 
in 1840 he engaged in real estate, ultimately 
becoming the proprietor of considerable property 
of this character ; was also a contractor for fur- 
nishing cavalry accouterments to the Government 
during the war. Soon after the war he erected 
one of the handsomest business blocks existing 
in the city at that time. Died, in Quincy, Dec. 
27, 1892. 

TINCHER, John L., banker, was born in Ken- 
tucky in 1821 ; brouglit by his parents to Vermil- 
ion County, Ind., in 1829, and left an orphan at 
17; attended school in Coles County, 111 , and 
was employed as clerk in a store at Danville, 
1843-53. He then became a member of the firm 
of Tincher & English, merchants, later establish- 
ing a bank, which became the First National 
Bank of Danville. In 1864 Mr. Tincher was 
elected Representative in the Twenty-fourth 
General Assembly and, two years later, to the 
Senate, being re-elected in 1870. He was also a 
member of the State Constitutional Convention 
of 1869-70. Died, in Springfield, Dec. 17, 1871, 



while in atteniianee on the adjourned session of 
tliat jear. 

TIPTON, Thomas F., lawyer and jurist, was 
born in Franklin County, Ohio, August 29, 1833; 
has been a resident of JIcLean County. 111., from 
the age of 10 years, his present home being at 
Bloomington. He was admitted to the bar in 
IS.JT. and. from January, 1867, to December, 1868, 
was State's Attorney for the Eighth Judicial 
Circuit. In 1870 he was elected Judge of the 
same circuit, and under the new Constitution, 
was chosen Judge of the new Fourteenth Circuit. 
From 1877 to 1879 he represented the (then) 
Thirteenth Illinois District in Congress, but. in 
1878, was defeated by Adlai E. Stevenson, the 
Democratic nominee. In 1891 he was re-elected 
to a seat on the Circuit bench for the Bloomington 
Circuit, but resumed practice at the expiration 
of his term in 1897. 

TISKILWA, a village of Bureau County, on the 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway, 7 miles 
.M>uthwest of Princeton; has creameries and 
cheese factories, churches, school, library, water- 
works, bank and a newspaper. Pop. (1900). 965. 

TODD, (Col.) John, soldier, was born in ilont- 
gomery County, Pa., in 1750; took part in the 
battle of Point Pleasant, Va., in 1774, as Adju- 
tant-General of General Lewis; settled as a 
lawyer at Fincastle, Va. . and, in 1775, removed 
to Fayette County. Ky., the next year locating 
near Lexington. He was one of the first two 
Delegates from Kentucky County to the Virginia 
House of Burgesses, and. in 1778, accompanied 
Col. George Rogers Clark on his expedition 
against Kaskaskia and Vincennes. In Decem- 
ber, 1778, he was appointed by Gov. Patrick 
Henry, Lieutenant Commandant of Illinois 
County, embracing the region northwest of the 
Ohio River, serving two years; in 1780, was again 
a member of the Virginia Legislature, where he 
procured grants of land for public schools and 
introduced a bill for negro-emancipation. He 
was killed by Indians, at the battle of Blue 
Licks, Ky.. August 19, 1782, 

TODD, (Dr.) John, physician, born near Lex- 
ington. Ky., April 27, 1787, was one of the earli- 
est graduates of Transylvania University, also 
graduating at the Medical University of Pliila- 
delphia; was appointed Surgeon-General of Ken- 
tucky troops in the War of 1812, and captured at 
tne battle of River Raisin. Returning to Lex- 
ington after his release, he practiced there and 
at Bardstown, removed to Edwardsville, III, in 
1817, and, in 1827, to Springfield, where he had 
been appointed Register of the Land OEBce by 

President John Quincy Adams, but was removed 
by Jackson in 1829. Dr. Todd continued to reside 
at Springfield imtil his death, which occurred, 
Jan. 9, 1865. He was a grandson of John Todd, 
who was appointed Commandant of Illinois 
Covmty by Gov. Patrick Henry in 1778, and an 
uncle of Mrs. Abraham Lincoln.— John Dlair 
Smith (Todd), son of the preceding, was born at 
Lexington, Ky., April 4, 1814; came with his 
father to Illinois in 1817 ; graduated at the United 
States Military Academy in 1837, serving after- 
wards in the Florida and Mexican wars and on 
the frontier; resigned, and was an Indian-trader 
in Dakota, 1856-61 ; the latter year, took his 
seat as a Delegate in Congress from Dakota, 
then served as Brigadier-General of Volun- 
teers, 1861-62; was again Delegate in Congress 
in 1863-65, Speaker of the Dakota Legislature 
in 1867, and Governor of the Territory, 1869-71. 
Died, at Yankton City, Jan. 5, 1872. 

TOLEDO, a village and the county-seat of 
Cumberland County, on the Illinois Central Rail- 
road; founded in 1854; has five churches, a graded 
school, two banks, creamery, flour mill, elevator, 
and two weekly newspapers. There are no manu- 
factories, the leading industry in the surrounding 
country being agriculture. Pop. (1890). 676; 
(1900), 818. 

ROAD. (See Toledo. St. Louis d- Kansas Cits 

(See Toledo. Peoria ct Western Railway ) 

(See Toledo. Peoria <£• Western Railiraij.) 

a line of railroad wholly within the State of Illi- 
nois, extending from Effner. at the Indiana State 
line, west to tlie Mississippi River at Warsaw. 
The length of the whole line is 230.7 miles, owned 
entirely by the company. It is made up of a 
division from Effner to Peoria (110 9 miles) — 
which is practically an air-line throughout nearly 
its entire length — and the Peoria and Warsaw 
Division (108.8 miles) with branches from La 
Harpe to Iowa Junction (10.4 miles) and 0.6 of a 
mile connecting with the Keokuk bridge at 
Hamilton. — (History.) The original charter for 
this line was granted, in 1863. under the name of 
the Toledo, Peoria & Warsaw Railroad : the main 
line was completed in 1868. and the La Harpe & 
Iowa Junction branch in 1873. Default was 
made in 1873, the road sold under foreclosure, in 
1880. and reorganized as the Toledo. Peoria & 
Western Railroad, and the line leased for 49"^ 


years to the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway 
Company. The latter defaulted iu July, 1884, 
and, a year later, the Toledo, Peoria & Western 
was transferred to trustees for the first mortgage 
bond- holders, was sold under foreclosure in 
October, 1886, and, in March, 188T, the present 
company, under the name of the Toledo, Peoria 
& Western Railway Company, was organized for 
the purpose of taking over the property. In 1893 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company obtained a 
controlling interest in the stock, and, in 1894, an 
agreement, for joint ownership and management, 
was entered into between that corporation and 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Com- 
pany. The total capitalization, in 1898, was 
89,712,433, of which §4,076,900 was in stock and 
S4,89o,000 in bonds. 

ROAD. This line crosses the State in a northeast 
direction from East St. Louis to Humrick, near 
the Indiana State line, with Toledo as its eastern 
terminus. The length of the entire line is 450.72 
miles, of which I791/2 miles are operated in Illi- 
nois. — (History.) The Illinois portion of the 
line grew out of the union of charters granted to 
the Tuscola, Charleston & Vincennes and the 
Charleston, Neoga & St. Louis Railroad Com- 
panies, which were consolidated in 1881 with 
certain Indiana lines under the name of the 
Toledo, Cincinnati & St. Louis Railroad. During 
1882 a narrow-gauge road was constructed from 
Ridge Farm, in Vermilion County, to East St. 
Louis (172 miles). In 1885 this was sold under 
foreclosure and, in June, 1886, consolidated with 
the main line under the name of the Toledo, St. 
Louis & Kansas City Railroad. The whole line 
was changed to standard gauge in 1887-89, and 
otherwise materially improved, but, in 1893, 
went into the hands of receivers. Plans of re- 
organization have been under consideration, but 
the receivers were still in control in 1898. 

ROAD. (See Wabash Railroad.) 

TOLONO, a city in Champaign County, situ- 
ated at the intersection of the Wabash and the 
Illinois Central Railroads, 9 miles south of Cham- 
paign and 37 miles east-northeast of Decatur. It 
is the business center of a prosperous agricultural 
region. The town has five churches, a graded 
scliool. a bank, a button factory, and a weeklv 
newspaper. Population (1880), 905; (1890), 902; 
(1900). 845. 

TONICA, a village of La Salle County, on the 
lUinoi.s Central Railway, 9 miles south of La Salle ; 
the district is agricultural, but the place has some 

manufactures and a new.spaper. Population 
(1890), 473; (1900), 497. 

TONTY, Chevalier Henry de, explorer and sol 
dier, born at Gaeta. Italy, about 1050 What is 
now known as the Tontine system of insui'auce 
undoubtedly originated with his father. The 
younger Tonty was adventurous, and, even as a 
youth, took part in numerous land and naval 
encounters. In the course of his experience he 
lost a hand, which was replaced by an iron or 
copper substitute. He embarked with La Salle 
in 1678, and aided in the construction of a fort at 
Niagara. He advanced into the country of the 
Illinois and established friendly relations with 
them, only to witness the defeat of his putative 
savage allies by the Iroquois. After various 
encounters (chiefly under the direction of La 
Salle) with the Indians in Ilhnois, he returned 
to Green Bay in 1081. The same year — under La 
SaUe's orders — he began the erection of Fort St. 
Louis, on what is now called "Starved Rock" in 
La Salle County. In 1682 he descended the Mis- 
sissippi to its mouth, with La Salle, but was 
ordered back to Mackinaw for assistance. In 
1684 he returned to Illinois and successfully 
repulsed the Iroquois from Fort St. Louis. In 
1686 he again descended the Mississippi in search 
of La Salle. Disheartened by the death of his 
commander and the loss of his early comrades, 
he took up his residence with the Illinois Indians. 
Among them he was found by Iberville in 1700, 
as a hunter and fur-trader. He died, in Mobile, 
in September, 1704. He was La Salle's most effi- 
cient coadjutor, and next to his ill-fated leader, 
did more than any other of the early French 
explorers to make Illinois known to the civilized 

TOPOGRAPHY. Illinois is, generaUy speak- 
ing, an elevated table-land. If low water at 
Cairo be adopted as the maximum depression, and 
the summits of the two ridges hereinafter men- 
tioned as the highest points of elevation, the alti- 
tude of this table land above the sea-level varies 
from 300 to 850 feet, the mean elevation being 
about 600 feet. The State has no mountain 
chains, and its few hills are probably the result 
of unequal denudation during the drift epoch. 
In some localities, particularly in the valley of 
the upper Mississippi, the streams have cut 
channels from 200 to 300 feet deep through the 
nearly horizontal strata, and here are found pre- 
cipitous scarps, but. for the most part, the 
fundamental rooks are covered by a thick layer 
of detrital material. In the northwest there is a 
broken tract of uneven ground ; the central por- 



tion of the State is almost wholly flat prairie, 
ami, in the alluvial lands in the State, there are 
many deep valleys, eroded by the action of 
streams. The surface generally slopes toward 
the south and southwest, but the uniformity is 
broken by two ridges, which cross the State, one 
in either extremity. The northern ridge crosses 
the Rock River at Grand Detour and the Illinois 
at Split Rock, with an extreme altitude of 800 to 
S.W feet above sea-level, though the altitude of 
Mount Morris, in Ogle County, exceeds 900 feet. 
That in the south consists of a range of hills in 
the latitude of Jonesboro, and extending from 
Shawneetown to Grand Tower. These hills are 
also about 800 feet above the level of the ocean. 
The highest point in the State is in Jo Daviess 
County, just south of the Wisconsin State line 
(near Scale's Mound) reaching an elevation of 
1,257 feet above sea-level, while the highest in 
the south is in the northeast corner of Pope 
County— 1,0-16 feet — a spur of the Ozark moun- 
tains. The following statistics regarding eleva- 
tions are taken from a report of Prof. C. W. 
Rolfe, of the University of Illinois, based on 
observations made under the auspices of the Illi- 
nois Board of World's Fair Commissioners: The 
lowest gauge of tlie Ohio river, at its mouth 
(above sea-level), is 268.58 feet, and the mean 
level of Lake Michigan at Chicago 581.28 feet. 
The altitudes of a few prominent points are as 
follows: Highest point in Jackson County, 695 
feet; "Bald Knob" in Union County, 985; liigh- 
est point in Cook County (Barrington), 818; in La 
Salle County (Mendota), 747; in Livingston 
(Strawn), 770; in Will (Monee), 804; in Pike 
(Arden), 790; in Lake (Lake Zurich), 880; in 
Bureau. 910; in Boone, 1,010; in Lee (Carnahan), 
1,017; in Stephenson (Waddam's Grove), 1,018; 
in Kane (Briar Hill). 974; in Winnebago, 985. 
The elevations of important towns are; Peoria, 
465; Jacksonville, 602; Springfield, 596; Gales- 
burg, 755; Joliet, 537; Rockford, 728; Blooming- 
ton, 821. Outside of the immediate valleys of 
the streams, and a few isolated groves or copses. 
little timber is foiind in the northern and central 
portions of the State, and such growth as there 
is, lacks the thriftiness characteristic of the for- 
ests in the Oluo valley. These forests cover a 
belt extending some sixty miles north of Cairo, 
and, while they generally include few coniferous 
trees, they abound in various species of oak, 
black and white walnut, white and j-ellow pop- 
lar, ash, elm. sugar-maple, linden, honey locust. 
Cottonwood, mulberry, sycamore, pecan, persim- 
mon, and (in the immediate valley of the Ohio) 

the cypress. From a commercial point of view, 
Illinois loses nothing through the lack of timber 
over three-fourths of the States area. Chicago 
is an accessible market for the product of the 
forests of the upper lakes, so that the supply of 
lumber is ample, while extensive coal-fields sup- 
ply abundant fuel. The rich soil of the prairies, 
with its abundance of organic matter (see Oeo- 
logical Formations) , more than compensates for 
the want of pine forests, whose soil is ill adapted 
to agriculture. About two-thirds of the entire 
boundary of the State consists of navigable 
waters. Tliese, with their tributary streams, 
ensure sufficient drainage. 

for the registration of titles to, and incumbrances 
upon, land, as well as transfers thereof, intended 
to remove all unnecessary obstructions to the 
cheap, simple and safe sale, acquisition and 
transfer of realty. The system has been in suc- 
cessful operation in Canada, Australia, New Zea- 
land and British Columbia for many years, and 
it is also in force in some States in the American 
Union. An act providing for its introduction 
into Illinois was first passed by the Twenty- 
ninth General Assembly, and approved, June 13, 
1895. The final legislation in reference thereto 
was enacted by the succeeding Legislature, and 
was approved. May 1, 1897. It is far more elabo- 
rate in its consideration of details, and is believed 
to be, in many respects, much better adapted to 
accomplish the ends in view, than was the origi- 
nal act of 1895. The law is applicable only to 
counties of the first and second class, and can be 
adopted in no county except by a vote of a 
majority of the qualified voters of the same — the 
vote "for" or "against" to be taken at either the 
November or April elections, or at an election 
for the choice of Judges. Thus far the only 
county to adopt the system has been Cook, and 
there it encountered strong opposition on the 
part of certain parties of influence and wealth. 
After its adoption, a test case was brought, rais- 
ing the question of the constitutionality of the 
act. The issue was taken to the Supreme Court, 
which tribunal finally upheld the law.— The 
Torrens system substitutes a certificate of regis- 
tration and of transfer for the more elatorate 
deeds and mortgages in use for centuries. Under 
it there can be no actual transfer of a title until 
the same is entered upon the public land legis- 
ter, kept in the ofBce of th^ Registrar, in which 
case the deed or mortgage becomes a mere power 
of attorney to authorize the transfer to be made, 
upon the principle of an ordinary stock transfer. 


or of the registration of a United States bond, 
the actual transfer and public notice thereof 
being simultaneous. A brief sj-nopsis of the pro- 
visions of the Illinois statute is given below: 
Recorders of deeds are made Registrars, and 
required to give bonds of either §50,000 or 5200,- 
000, according to the population of the county. 
Any person or corporation, having an interest in 
land, may make application to any court having 
chancery jurisdiction, to have his title thereto 
registered. Such application must be in writ- 
ing, signed and verified by oath, and must con- 
form, in matters of specification and detail, with 
the requirements of the act. The court may refer 
the application to one of the standing examiners 
appointed bj- the Registrar, who are required to 
be competent attorneys and to give Ijond to ex- 
amine into the title, as well as the truth of the 
applicant's statements. Immediately upon the 
filing of the application, notice thereof is given 
by the clerk, through publication and the issuance 
of a summons to be served, as in other proceed- 
ings in chancery, against all persons mentioned 
in the petition as having or claiming any inter- 
est in the property described. Any person inter- 
ested, whether named as a defendant or not, may 
enter an appearance within the time allowed. A 
failure to enter an appearance is regarded as a 
confession by default. The court, in passing 
upon the application, is in no case bound by the 
examiner's report, but may require other and 
further proof ; and, in its final adjudication, passes 
upon aU questions of title and incumbrance, 
directing the Registrar to register the title in the 
party in whom it is to be vested, and making 
provision as to the manner and order in which 
incumbrances thereon shall appear upon the 
certificate to be issued. An appeal may be 
allowed to the Supreme Coui-t, if prayed at the 
time of entering the decree, upon like terms as 
in other cases in chancery; and a writ of error 
may be sued out from that tribunal within two 
years after the entry of the order or decree. 
The period last mentioned may be said to be the 
statutory period of limitation, after whicli the 
decree of the court must be regarded as final, 
although safeguards are provided for those who 
may have been defrauded, and for a few other 
cla.sses of persons. Upon the filing of the order 
or decree of the court, it becomes the duty of the 
Registrar to issue a certificate of title, the form 
oi which is prescribed by the act, making such 
notations at the end as shall show and preserve 
the priorities of all estates, mortgages, incum- 
brances and changes to which the owner's title is 

subject. For the purpose of preserving evidence 
of the owner's handwriting, a receipt for the 
certificate, duly witnessed or acknowledged, is 
required of him, which is preserved in the Regis- 
trar's office. In case any registered owner 
should desire to transfer the whole or any part of 
his estate, or any interest therein, he is required 
to execute a conveyance to the transferee, which, 
together with the certificate of title last issued, 
must be surrendered to the Registrar. That 
ofBcial thereupon issues a new certificate, stamp- 
ing the word "cancelled" across the siirrendered 
certificate, as well as upon the corresponding 
entry in his books of record. When land is first 
brought within the operation of the act, the 
receiver of the certificate of title is required to 
pay to the Registrar one-tenth of one per cent of 
the value of the land, the aggregate so received 
to be deposited with and invested by the County 
Treasurer, and reser\-ed as an indemnity fund 
for the reimbursement of persons sustaining any 
loss through any omission, mistake or malfea- 
sance of the Registrar or his subordinates. The 
advantage claimed for the Torrens system is, 
chiefly, that titles registered thereunder can be 
dealt with more safely, quickly and inexpensively 
than under the old system ; it being possible to 
close the entire transaction within an hour or 
two, without the need of an abstract of title, 
while (as the law is administered in Cook County) 
the cost of transfer is only S3. It is asserted that 
a title, once registered, can be dealt with almost 
as quickly and cheaph', and quite as safely, as 
shares of stock or registered bonds. 

TOULO>\ the county-seat of Stark County, on 
the Peoria & Rock Island Railroad, 37 miies north- 
northwest of Peoria, and 11 miles southeast of 
Galva. Besides the county court- house, the town 
has five churches and a high school, an academy, 
steam granite works, two banks, and two weekly 
papers. Population (1880), 967; (1890), 94.5; (1900), 

TOWER HILL, a village of Shelby County, on 
tlie Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis 
and the Baltimore & Ohio Soutliwestern Rail- 
roads, 7 miles east of Pana; has bank, grain ele- 
vators, and coal mine. Pop. (1900), 615. 

TOWNSHEXD. Richard TV., lawyer and Con- 
gressman, was born in Prince George's County, 
Md., April 30, 1840. Between the ages of 10 
and 18 he attended public and private schools 
at Washington, D. C. In 1858 he came to 
Illinois, where he began teaching, at the same 
time reading law with S. S. Marshall, at Mc- 
Leansboro, where he was admitted to the bar 

o ■,'.•■ 



in ISO:;;, and where he began practice. From lHU'd 
to ISGS he was Circuit Clerli of Hamilton County, 
ami, from 1808 to 1872, Prosecuting Attorney for 
the Twelfth Judicial Circuit. In 1873 he removed 
to Shawneetown, where he became an officer of 
the Gallatin National Bank. From lt64 to 1875 
he was a member of the Democratic State Cen- 
tral Committee, and a delegate to the National 
Democratic Convention at Baltimore, in 1872. 
For twelve years (1877 to 1889) he represented 
his District in Congress; was re-elected in 1888, 
but died, March 9, 1889, a few days after the 
beginning of liis seventh term. 

TRACY, John M., artist, was born in IlUnois 
about 1842; served in an IlUnois regiment during 
the Civil War; studied painting in Paris in 
1806-76: established himself as a portrait painter 
in St. Louis and, later, won a high reputation as 
a painter of animals, being regarded as an author- 
ity on the anatomy of the horse and the dog. 
Died, at Ocean Springs, Miss., March 20, 1893. 

TREASURERS. {See State Treasurers.) 

TREAT, Samuel Hubbel, lawyer and jurist, 
was born at Plainfield, Otsego County. N. Y.. 
June 21. 1811, worked on his father's farm and 
studied law at Richfield, where he was adnaitted 
to practice. In 1834 he came to Springfield, 111., 
traveling of the way on foot. Here he 
formed a partnership with George Forquer, who 
had held the offices of Secretary of State and 
Attorney-General. In 1839 he was appointed a 
Circuit Judge, and, on the reorganization of the 
Supreme Court in 1841, was elevated to the 
Supreme bench, being acting Chief Justice at the 
time of the adoption of the Constitution of 1848. 
Having been elected to the Supreme bench under 
tlie new Constitution, he remained in office until 
5Iarch, 18r).~), when he resigned to take the posi- 
tion of Judge of the United States District Court 
for the Southern District of Illinois, to which he 
had been appointed by President Pierce. This 
position he continued to occupy until his death, 
which occurred at Springfield, Marcli 27, 1887. 
Judge Treat's judicial career was cne of the long- 
est in the historj- of the State, covering a period 
of forty-eight years, of which fourteen were 
spent upon the Supreme bench, and thirty-two 
in the position of Judge of the United States Dis- 
trict Court. 

TREATIES. (See r,V.r »(•/»<•. Treat!/ nf: hidiai, 
Treat ii s. ) 

TREE, Lanibprt,, diplomat and ex-Con- 
gressman, was born in Wasliington, D. C, Nov. 
29, 1832, of an ancestry distinguished in the War 
of the Revolution. He received a superior clas- 

sical and professional education, and was admit- 
ted to the bar, at Washington, in October, 185-5. 
Removing to Chicago soon afterward, his profes- 
sional career has been chiefly connected with 
that city. In 1864 he was chosen President of 
the Law Institute, and served as Judge of the 
Circuit Court of Cook County, from 1870 to 1870, 
when he resigned. The tliree following years he 
spent in foreign travel, returning to Chicago in 
1878. In that year, and again in 1880, he was 
the Democratic candidate for Congress from the 
Fourth Illinois District, but was defeated by his 
Republican opponent. In 188.5 he was the candi- 
date of his party for United States Senator, but 
was defeated by John A. Logan, bj- one vote. In 
1884 he was a member of the National Democratic 
Convention which first nominated Grover Cleve- 
land, and, in July, 1885, President Cleveland 
appointed him Minister to Belgium, conferring 
the Russian mission upon him in September, 1888. 
On March 3. 1889, he resigned this post and 
returned home. In 1890 he was appointed by 
President Harrison a Commissioner to the Inter- 
national Monetary Conference at Washington. 
The year before he liad attended (although not as 
a delegate) the International Conference, at Brus- 
sels, looking to the suppression of the slave-trade, 
where he exerted all his influence on the side of 
Immanity. In 1892 Belgium conferred upon him 
the distinction of "Councillor of Honor" upon its 
commission to the World's Columbian Exposi 
tion. In 1896 Judge Tree was one of the most 
earnest opponents of the free-silver policy, and, 
after the Spanish- American War, a zealous advo- 
cate of the policy of retaining the territory 
acquired from Spain. 

TREMONT,a town of Tazewell County, on the 
Peoria Division of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, 
Chicago it St. Louis Railway, 9 miles southeast 
of Pekin; has two lianks, two telephone 
exchanges, and one newspaper. Pop. (1900), 768. 

TRENTON, a town of Clinton County, on the 
Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railway, 31 miles 
east of St. Louis: in agricultural district; has 
creamery, milk condensery, two coal mines, six 
churches, a public school and one newspaper 
Pop. (1890), 1,384; (1900). 1,706; (1904), about 2,000. 

TROY, a village of Madison County, on the 
Terre Haute ct Indianapolis railroad, 21 miles of St. Louit ; has churches, a bank and 
a newspaper. Pop. (1900), 1,080. 

TRUITT, James Madison, lawyer and .soldier, 
a native of Trimble County, Ky., was born Feb. 
12. 1842, but lived in Illinois since 1843, his father 
having .settled near Carrollton that year; was 



educated at Hillsboro and at McKeudree College; 
enlisted in tlie One Hundred and Seventeenth 
Illinois Volunteers in 1803, and was promoted 
from the ranks to Lieutenant. After the war he 
studied law with Jesse J. Phillips, now of the 
Supreme Court, and, in 1872, was elected to the 
Twenty -eighth General Assembly, and, in 1888, a 
Presidential Elector on the Republican ticket. 
Mr. Truitt has been twice a prominent but unsuc- 
cessful candidate for the Republican nomination 
for Attorney-General. His home is at Hillsboro, 
where he is engaged in the practice of his profes- 
sion. Died July 26, 1900. 

TRUMBrLL, Lyman, statesman, was born at 
Colchester, Conn., Oct. 12, 1813, descended from 
a historical family, being a grand-nephew of 
Gov. Jonathan Trumbull, of Connecticut, from 
whom the name "Brother Jonathan" was derived 
as an appellation for Americans. Having received 
an academic education in his native town, at the 
age of 16 he began teaching a district school near 
his home, went South four years later, and en- 
gaged in teaching at Greenville, Ga. Here he 
studied law with Judge Hiram Warner, after- 
wards of the Supreme Court, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1837. Leaving Georgia the same year, he 
came to Illinois on horseback, visiting Vandalia, 
Belleville, Jacksonville, Springfield, Tremont and 
La Salle, and finally reaching Chicago, then a 
village of four or five thousand inhabitants. At 
Jacksonville he obtained a license to practice 
from Judge Lockwood. and, after visiting Michi- 
gan and his native State, he settled at Belleville, 
which continued to be his home for twenty years. 
His entrance into public life began with his elec- 
tion as Representative in the General Assembly 
in 1840. This was followed, in February, 1841, 
by his appointment by Governor Carlin, Secre- 
tary of State, as the successor of Stephen A. 
Douglas, who, after holding the position only two 
months, had resigned to accept a seat on the 
Supreme bench. Here he remained two years, 
when he was removed by Governor Ford, March 
4, 1843, but, five years later (1848), waselected a 
Justice of the Supreme Court, was re-elected in 
1852. but resigned in 18,")3 on account of impaired 
health, A year later (18.54) he was elected to 
Congress from the Belleville District as an anti- 
Nebraska Democrat, but, before taking his seat, 
was promoted to the United States Senate, as the 
successor of General Shields in the memorable con- 
test of 185-5, which resulted in the defeat of Abra- 
ham Lincoln. Senator Trumbull's career of 
eighteen years in the United States Senate (being 
re-elected in 1861 and 1867) is one of the most 

memorable in the history of that body, covering, 
as it does, the whole historj' of the war for the 
Union, and the period of reconstruction which 
followed it. During this period, as Chairman of 
the Senate Committee on Judiciary, he had more 
to do in shaping legislation on war and recon- 
struction measures than any other single member 
of that body. While he disagreed with a large 
majority of his Republican associates on the ques- 
tion of Andrew Johnson's impeachment, he was 
always found in sympatliy with them on the vital 
questions affecting the ^-ar and restoration of the 
Union. The Civil Rights Bill and Freedmen's 
Bureau Bills were shaped by his hand. In 1872 
he joined in the "Liberal Republican" movement 
and afterwards co-operated with the Democratic 
party, being their candidate for Governor in 
1880. From 1863 his home was in Chicago, 
where, after retiring from the Senate, he con- 
tinued in the practice of his profession until his 
death, which occurred in that city, June 25, 1896, 
TUG MILLS. These were a sort of primitive 
machine used in grinding corn in Territorial and 
early State days. The mechanism consisted of an 
upright shaft, into the upper end of which were 
fastened bars, resembling those in the capstan of 
a ship. Into the outer end of each of these bars 
was driven a pin. A belt, made of a broad strip 
of ox-hide, twisted into a sort of rope, was 
stretched around these pins and wrapped twice 
around a circular piece of wood called a trundle 
head, through which passed a perpendicular flat 
bar of iron, which turned the mill- stone, usually 
about eighteen inches in diameter. From the 
upright shaft projected a beam, to which were 
hitched one or two horses, which furnished the 
motive power. Oxen were sometimes employed 
as motive power in lieu of horses. These rudi- 
mentary contrivances were capable of grinding 
about twelve bushels of corn, each, per day. 

TFLET, Murray Floyd, lawyer and jurist, was 
born at Louisville, Ky. , March 4, 1837, of English 
extraction and descended from the earh- settlers 
of "Virginia. His father died in 1832, and, eleven 
years later, his mother, having married Col. 
Richard J. Hamilton, for many years a prominent 
lawyer of Chicago, removed with her family to 
that city. Young Tuley began reading law with 
his step-father and completed his studies at the 
Louisville Law Institute in 1847. the same year 
being admitted to the bar in Chicago. About the 
same time he enlisted in the Fifth Illinois Volun- 
teers for service in the Mexican War, and was 
commissioned First Lieutenant. The war having 
ended, he settled at Santa Fe, N. M., where he 



practiced law, also served as Attorney-General 
and in the Territorial Legislature. Returning to 
Chicago in 1S54, he was associated in practice. 
successively, with Andrew Harvie, Judge Gary 
and J. X. Barker, and finally as head of the firm 
of Tuley, Stiles & Lewis. From 1869 to 1873 he 
was Corporation Counsel, and during this time 
framed the General Incorporation Act for Cities, 
under which the City of Chicago was reincor- 
porated. In 1879 he was elevated to the bench 
of the Circuit Court of Cook County, and re- 
elected every six years thereafter, his last election 
being in 1897. He is now serving his fourth 
term, some ten years of his incumbency having 
been spent in the capacity of Chief Justice. 

Tl'NMCLIFFE, Damon G., lawyer and jurist. 
was born in Herkimer County, N. Y., August 20, 
1829; at the age of 20, emigrated to Illinois, set- 
tling in Vermont, Fulton County, where, for a 
time, he was engaged in mercantile pursuits. He 
subsequently studied law, and was admitted to 
the bar in 18.53. In 1854 he established himself 
at Macomb, MoDonough County, where he built 
up a large and lucrative practice. In 1868 he 
was chosen Presidential Elector on the Repub- 
lican ticket, and, from February to June, 188.5, 
by appointment of Governor Oglesby, occupied a 
seat on the bench of the Supreme Court, vice 
Pinkney H. "Walker, deceased, who had been one 
of his first professional preceptors. 

Tl RCHIX, John Basil (Ivan Vasilevitch Tur- 
chinoff), soldier, engineer and author, was born 
in Russia, Jan. 30, 1822. He graduated from the 
artillery school at St. Petersburg, in 1841, and 
was commissioned ensign; participated in the 
Hungarian campaign of 1849, and, in 18.52, was 
assigned to the staff of the Imperial Guards; 
served through the Crimean War, rising to the 
rank of Colonel, and being made senior statT 
officer of the active corps. In 1856 he came to 
this country, settling in Chicago, and, for five 
years, was in the service of the Illinois Central 
Railway Company as topographical engineer. In 
1861 he was commissioned Colonel of the Nine- 
teenth Illinois Volunteers, and. after leading his 
regiment in Missouri, Kentucky and Alabama, 
was, on July 7, 1862, promoted to a Brigadier- 
Generalship, being attached to the Army of the 
Cumberland until 1804, when he resigned. After 
the war he wtis, for six years, solicitor of patents 
at Chicago, but. in 1873. returned to engineering. 
In 1879 he established a Polish colony at Radom, 
in Washington County, in this State, and settled 
as a farmer. He is an occasional contributor to 
the press, writini; usually on military or scientific 

subjects, and is the author of the "Campaign and 
Battle of Chickamauga" (Chicago, 1888). 

TURNER (now WEST CHICAGO), a town and 
manufacturing center in Wiufield Township, Du 
Page County, 30 miles west of Chicago, at the 
junction of two divisions of the Chicago, Burling- 
ton it Quincy, the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern and the 
Chicago & Northwestern Railroads. The town 
has a rolling mill, manufactories of wagons and 
pumps, and railroad repair shops. It also has five 
churches, a graded school and two newspapers. 
Pop. (1900), 1,877; with suburb, 2,270, 

TURNER, (Col.) Henry L., soldier and real- 
estate operator, was born at Oberlin, Ohio, 
August 26, 184.5, and received a part of his edu- 
cation in the college there. During the Civil 
War he served as First Lieutenant in the One 
Hundred and Fiftieth Ohio Volunteers, and 
later, with the same rank in a colored regiment, 
taking part in the operations about Richmond, 
the capture of Fort Fisher, of Wilmington and of 
Gen. Joe Johnston's army. Coming to Chi- 
cago after the close of the war, he became con- 
nected with the business office of "The Advance," 
but later was employed in the banking house of 
Jay Cooke & Co., in Philadelphia. On the failure 
of that concern, in 1872, he returned to Chicago 
and bought "The Advance," which he conducted 
some two years, when he sold out and engaged in 
the real estate business, with which he has since 
been identified — being President of the Chicago 
Real Estate Board in 1888. He has also been 
President of the Western Publishing Companj- 
and a Trustee of Oberlin College. Colonel Turner 
is an enthusiastic member of the Illinois National 
Guard and. on the declaration of war between the 
United States and Spain, in April, 1898. promptly 
resumed his connection with the First Regiment 
of the Guard, and finally led it to Santiago de 
Cuba during the fighting there — his regiment 
being the only one from Illinois to see actual serv- 
ice in the field during the progress of the war. 
Colonel Turner won the admiration of his com- 
mand and the entire nation by the manner in 
wliich he discharged his duty. The regiment 
was miLstered out at Chicago. Nov. 17, 1898. when 
he retired to private life. 

TURNER, John Bice, Railway President, was 
born at Colchester, Delaware County, N. Y., Jan. 
14, 179p; after a brief business career in his 
native State, he became identified with the con- 
struction and operation of railroads. Among the 
works with which he was thus connected, were 
the Delaware Division of the New York & Erie 
and the Trov &• Schenectady Roads. In 1843 he 



came to Chicago, having previously purchased a 
large body of land at Blue Island. In 1847 he 
joined with W. B. Ogden and others, in resusci- 
tating the Galena & Chicago Union Railway, 
which had been incorporated in 1836. He became 
President of the Company in 1850, and assisted in 
constructing various sections of road in Northern 
Illinois and Wisconsin, which have since become 
portions of the Chicago & Northwestern system. 
He was also one of the original Directors of the 
North Side Street Railway Company, organized 
in 1859. Died, Feb. 26, 1871. 

TURNER, Jonathan Baldwin, educator and 
agriculturist, was born in Templeton, Mass., Dec. 
7, 1805 ; grew up on a farm and, before reaching 
his majority, began teaching in a country scliool. 
After spending a short time in an academy at 
Salem, in 1837 he entered the preparatory depart- 
ment of Yale College, supporting himself, in part, 
by manual labor and teaching in a gymnasium. 
In 1829 he matriculated in the classical depart- 
ment at Yale, graduated in 1833, and the same 
year accepted a position as tutor in Illinois Col- 
lege at Jacksonville, 111. , which had been opened, 
three years previous, by the late Dr. J. M. Sturte- 
vant. In the next fourteen years he gave in- 
struction in nearly every branch embraced in the 
college curriculum, though holding, during most 
of this period, the chair of Rhetoric and English 
Literature. In 1847 he retired from college 
duties to give attention to scientific agriculture, 
in which he had always manifested a deep inter- 
est. The cultivation and sale of the Osage orange 
as a hedge- plant now occupied his attention for 
many years, and its successful introduction in 
Illinois and other Western States — where the 
absence of timber rendered some substitute a 
necessity for fencing purposes — was largely due 
to his efforts. At the same time he took a deep 
interest in the cause of practical scientific edu- 
cation for the industrial classes, and, about 1850, 
began formulating that system of industrial edu- 
cation which, after twelve years of labor and 
agitation, he had the satisfaction of seeing 
recognized in the act adopted by Congress, and 
approved by President Lincoln, in July, 1862, 
making liberal donations of pubUc lands for the 
establishment of "Indiistrial Colleges" in the 
several States, out of which grew the University 
of Illinois at Champaign. While Professor Tur- 
ner had zealous colaborers in this field, in Illinois 
and elsewhere, to him, more than to any other 
single man in the Nation, belongs the credit for 
this magnificent achievement. (See Education, 
and University of Illinois.) He was also one of 

the chief factors in founding and building up 
the Illinois State Teachers' Association, and the 
State Agricultural and Horticultural Societies. 
His address on "The Millennimn of Labor," 
delivered at the first State Agricultural Fair at 
Springfield, in 1853, is still remembered as mark- 
ing an era in industrial progress in Illinois. A 
zealous champion of free thought, in both political 
and religious affairs, he long bore the reproach 
which attached to tlie radical Abolitionist, only 
to enjoy, in later years, the respect universally 
accorded to those who had the courage and 
independence to avow their honest convictions. 
Prof. Turner was twice an unsuccessful candidate 
for Congress— once as a Republican and once as 
an "Independent" — and wrote much on political, 
religious and educational topics. The evening of 
an honored and useful Hfe was spent among 
friends in Jacksonville, which was his home for 
more than sixty years, his death taking place in 
that city, Jan. 10, 1899, at the advanced age of 
93 years.— Mrs. Mary Turner Carriel, at the pres- 
ent time (1899) one of the Trustees of the Univer- 
sity of Illinois, is Prof. Turner's only daughter. 

TURNER, Thomas J., lawyer and Congress- 
man, born in Trumbull County. Ohio. April 5, 
1815. Leaving home at the age of 18, he spent 
three years in Indiana and in the mining dis- 
tricts about Galena and in Southern Wisconsin, 
locating in Stephenson County, in 1836, where he 
was admitted to the bar in 1840, and elected 
Probate Judge in 1841. Soon afterwards Gov- 
ernor Ford appointed him Prosecuting Attorney, 
in which capacity he secured the conviction and 
punishment of the murderers of Colonel Daven- 
port. In 1846 he was elected to Congress as a 
Democrat, and, the following year, founded "The 
Prairie Democrat" (afterward "The Freeport 
Bulletin"), the first newspaper published in the 
county. Elected to the Legislature in 1854. he 
was chosen Speaker of the House, the next year 
becoming the first Mayor of Freeport. He was a 
member of the Peace Conference "of 1861, and, in 
May of that year, was commissioned, by Governor 
Yates, Colonel of the Fifteenth Illinois Volun- 
teers, but resigned in 1863. He served as a mem- 
ber of the Constitutional Convention of 1869-70, 
and, in 1871, was again elected to the Legisla- 
ture, where he received the Democratic caucus 
nomination for United States Senator against 
General Logan. In 1871 he removed to Chicago, 
and was twice an unsuccessful candidate for the 
office of State's Attorney. In February, 1874, he 
went to Hot Springs, Ark., for me<lical treatment, 
and died thei-e, April 3 following. 



TUSCOLA, a city and the county-sfiat of 
Douglas County, located at the intersection of the 
Illinois Central and two other trunk lines of r.ul- 
way, 22 miles south of Champaign, and 30 miles 
east of Decatur. Be.sides a brick court-house it 
ha.s five churches, a graded school, a national 
hank, two weekly newspapers and two establish- 
ments for the manufacture of carria.ges and 
wagons Population (1880). I.^IT; (1890), 1,897; 

(inoo). 2.rm 

RAILROAD. (See Toledo. St. Louis d- Kan-ws 
City Railroad. ) 

TUTHILL, Richard Stanley, jurist, was born 
at Vergennes, Jack.son County, 111., Nov. 10, 1841. 
After passing through the common schools of his 
native county, be took a preparat.iry course in a 
high school at St. Louis and in Illinois College, 
Jacksonville, when he entered Middlebury Col- 
lege, Vt., graduating there in 1863. Immediately 
thereafter he joined the Federal army at Vicks- 
burg, and, after serving for some time in a com- 
pany of scouts attached to General Logan's 
command, was commissioned a Lieutenant in the 
First Jlichigan Light Artillery, with which he 
served imtil the close of the war, meanwhile 
being twice promoted. During this time he was 
with General Sherman in the march to Jleridian, 
and in the Atlanta campaign, also took part with 
General Thomas in the operations against the 
rebel General Hood in Tennessee, and in the 
battle of Nashville. Having resigned his com- 
mission in May, ISC'), he took up the study of 
law, which he had prosecuted as he had opportu- 
nity while in the army, and was admitted to the 
bar at Nashville in 18C6, afterwards serving for 
a time as Prosecuting Attorney on the Nashville 
circuit. In 1873 he removed to Chicago, two 
years later was elected City Attorney and re- 
elected in 1877; was a delegate to the Republican 
National Convention of 1880 and, in 188-1, was 
appointed United States District Attorney for 
the Northern District, serving until 1886. In 
1887 he was elected Judge of the Circuit Court of 
Cook Countj- to fill the vacancy caused by the 
death of Judge Rogers, was re-elected for a full 
term in 1891, and again in 1897. 

TYXDALE, Sharon, Secretary of State, born in 
Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 19, 1816; at the age of 17 
came to Belleville, 111., and was engaged for a 
time in mercantile business, later being employed 
in a surveyor's corps under the internal improve- 
ment system of 1837. Having mariied in 1839, 
he returned soon after to Philadelphia, where he 
ensaged in mercantile Im-iiness with his father : 

then came to Illinois, a second time, in 184.j, spend- 
ing a year or two in business at Peoria. About 
1847 he returned to Belleville and entered upon a 
course of mathematical study, with a view to 
fitting himself more thoroughly for the profession 
of a civil engineer. In 18.51 he graduated in 
engineering at Cambridge, Mass. , after which he 
was employed for a time on the Sunbmy & Erie 
Railroad, and later on certain Illinois railroads. 
In 18.'57 he was elected County Surveyor of St. 
Clair County, and, in 1861, by appointment of 
President Lincoln, became Postmaster of the city 
of Belleville. He held this position until 1864, 
when he received the Republican nomination for 
Secretary of State and was elected, remaining in 
office four years. He was an earnest advocate, 
and virtually author, of the first act for the regis- 
tration of voters in Illinois, passed at the session 
of 186.5. After retiring from office in 1869, he 
continued to reside in Springfield, and was em- 
ployed for a time in the survey of the Oilman, 
Clinton & Springfield Railway — now the Spring- 
field Division of the Illinois Central. At an early 
hour on the morning of April 29, 1871, while 
going from his home to the railroad station at 
Springfield, to take the train for St. Louis, he was 
assassinated upon the street by shooting, as sup- 
posed for the purpose^f robbery — his dead body 
being found a few hours later at the scene of the 
tragedy. Mr. Tyndale %vas a brother of Gen. 
Hector Tyndale of Pennsylvania, who won a 
high reputation by his sea-vices during the war. 
His second wife, who survived him. was a 
daughter of Shadrach Penn, an editor of con- 
siderable reputation who was the contemporary 
and rival of George D. Prentice at Louisville, for 
some vears. 

histor\' of Illinois would be incomplete without 
reference to the unique system which existed 
there, as in other Northern States, from forty to 
seventy years ago, known by the somewhat mys- 
tei-ious title of "The Underground Railroad." 
The origin of the term has been traced (probably 
in a spirit of facetiousness) to the expression of 
a Kentucky planter who, having pursued a fugi- 
tive slave across the Ohio River, was so surprised 
by his sudden disappearance, as soon as he had 
reached the opposite shore, that he was led to 
remark, "The nigger must have gone off on an 
underground road." From "underground road" 
to "underground railroad," the transition would 
appear to have been easy, especially in view of 
the increased facility with which the work was 
performed when railroads came into use. For 



i of the present generation, it may be well 
to explain what ''The Underground Railroad" 
really was It may be defined as the figurative 
appellation for a spontaneous movement in the 
free States — extending, sometimes, into the 
slave States themselves^to assist slaves in their 
efforts to escape from bondage to freedom. The 
movement dates back to a period close to the 
Revolutionary War, long before it received a 
definite name. Assistance given to fugitives 
from one State by citizens of another, became a 
cause of complaint almost as soon as the Govern- 
ment was organized. In fact, the first President 
himself lost a slave who took refuge at Ports- 
mouth, N. H., where the public sentiment was 
so strong against his return, that the patriotic 
and philosophic "Father of his Country" chose 
to let him remain unmolested, rather than "excite 
a mob or riot, or even uneasy sensations, in the 
minds of well-disposed citizens. " That the mat- 
ter was already one of concern in the minds of 
slaveholders, is shown by the fact that a provision 
was inserted in the Constitution for their coucili- 
ation. guaranteeing the return of fugitives from 
labor, as well as from justice, from one State to 

In 1793 Congress passed the first Fugitive Slave 
Law, which was signed by President Washing- 
ton. This law provided that the owner, his 
agent or attorney, might follow the slave into 
any State or Territory, and. upon oath or afl3- 
davit before a court or magistrate, be entitled 
to a warrant for his return. Any person who 
should hinder the arrest of the fugitive, or who 
should harbor, aid or assist him, knowing him 
to be such, was subject to a fine of SoOO for each 
offense.— In 1850, fifty-seven years later, the first 
act having proved inefficacious, or conditions 
having changed, a second and more stringent 
law was enacted. This is the one usually referred 
to in discussions of the subject. It provided for 
an increased fine, not to exceed 81,000, and im- 
prisonment not exceeding six months, with 
liability for civil damages to the party injured. 
No proof of ownership was required beyond the 
statement of a claimant, and the accused was not 
permitted to testify for himself. The fee of the 
United States Commissioner, before whom the 
case was tried, was ten dollars if he found for 
the claimant: if not, five dollars. This seemed 
to many an indirect form of bribery: clearly, it 
made it to the Judge's pecuniary advantage to 
decide in favor of the claimant. The law made 
it possible and easy for a white man to arrest. 
and carry into slavery, any free negro who could 

not immediately prove, by other witnesses, that 
he was born free, or had purchased his freedom. 

Instead of discouraging the disposition, on 
the part of the opponents of slavery, to aid fugi- 
tives in their efforts to reach a region where 
they would be secure in their freedom, the effect 
of the Fugitive Slave Law of 18.50 (as that of 1790 
had been in a smaller degree) was the very oppo- 
site of that intended by its authors — unless, 
indeed, they meant to make matters worse. The 
provisions of the act seemed, to many people, so 
imfair, so one-sided, that they rebelled in spirit 
and refused to be made parties to its enforce 
ment. The la%v aroused the anti-slavery senti- 
ment of the North, and stimulated the active 
friends of the fugitives to take greater risks in 
their behalf. New efforts on the part of the 
slaveholders were met by a determination to 
evade, hinder and nullify the law. 

And here a strange anomaly is presented. The 
slaveholder, in attempting to recover his slave, 
was acting within his constitutional and legal 
rights. The slave was his property in law. He 
had purchased or inherited his bondman on the 
same plane with his horse or his land, and, apart 
from the right to hold a hviman being in bond- 
age, regarded his legal rights to the one as good 
as the other. From a legal standpoint his posi- 
tion was impregnable. The slave was his, repre- 
senting so much of money value, and whoever 
was instrumental in the loss of that slave was, 
both theoreticallj- and technici.lly, a partner in 
robbery. Therefore he looked on "The Under- 
ground Railway" as the work of thieves, and en 
tertained bitter hatred toward all concerned in its 
operation. On the other hand, men who were. 
in all other respects, good citizens — often relig 
iously devout and pillars of the church — became- 
bold and flagrant violators of the law in relation 
to this sort of property. Thej' set at nought a 
plain provision of the Constitution and the act of 
Congress for its enforcement. Without hope of 
personal gain or reward, at the risk of fine a:nd 
imprisonment, with the certainty of social ostra- 
cism and bitter opposition, they harbored the 
fugitive and helped him forward on every 
occasion. And wliy? Because they saw in him 
a man. with the same inherent right to "life, 
liberty and the pursuit of happiness" that they 
themselves possessed. To them this was a higher 
law than any Legislature, State or National, could 
enact. They denied that there could be truly 
such a thing as property in man. Believing that 
the law violated human rights, they justified 
themselves in rendering it null and void. 



For the most pait, the "Underground Rail- 
road" opprators and promoters were plain, 
obscure men, without hope of fame or desire for 
notoriety. Yet there were some whose names 
are conspicuous in history, such as Wendell 
Phillips, Thomas Wentworth Higginson and 
Theodore Parker of Massachusetts ; Gerrit Smith 
and Thurlow Weed of New York: Joshua R. 
Giddintjs of Ohio, and Owen Lovejoy of Illmois. had their followers and sympathizers in 
all the Northern States, and even in some por- 
tions of the South It is a curious fact, that 
some of the most active spirits connected with 
the "Underground Railroad" were natives of the 
South, or had resided there long enough to 
become thoroughly acquainted with the "insti- 
tution. " Levi Coffin, who had the reputation of 
being the "President of the Underground Rail- 
road" — at least so far as the region west of the 
Ohio was concerned — was an acti\;e operator on 
the line in North Carolina before his removal 
from that State to Indiana in 1836. Indeed, as a 
system, it is claimed to have had its origin at 
Guilford College, in the "Old North State" in 
1S19, though the evidence of this may not be 

Owing to the peculiar nature of their business, 
no official reports were made, no lists of officers, 
conductors, station agents or operators preserved, 
and few records kept which are now accessible. 
Consequently, we are dependent chiefly upon the 
personal recollection of individual operators for 
a history of their transactions. Each station on 
the road was the house of a "friend" and it is 
significant, in this connection, that in every 
settlement of Friends, or Quakers, there was 
sure to be a house of refuge for the slave. For 
this rea.son it was. perhaps, that one of the most 
frequently traveled lines extended from Vir- 
ginia and JIaryland tliruugh Eastern Pennsyl- 
vania, and then on towards New York or directly 
to Canada. From tlie proximity of Ohio to 
Virginia and Kentucky, and the fact that it 
offered the shortest route through free soil to 
Canada, it was traversed by more lines than any 
other State, although Indiana was pretty 
thoroughly "grid-ironed" by roads to freedom. 
In all. however, the routes were irregular, often 
zigzag, for purposes of security, and the "con- 
ductor" was any one who conveyed fugitives from 
one station to another The "train" was some- 
times a farm-wagon, loaded with produce for 
market at some town (or depot) on the line, fre- 
((uently a closed carriage, and it is related that 
once, in Ohio, a number of carriages conveying 

a large party, were made to represent a funeral 
procession. Occasionally the train ran on foot, 
for convenience of side-tracking into the woods 
or a cornfield, in case of pursuit by a wild loco- 

Then, again, there were not wanting lawyers 
who, in case the operator, conductor or station 
agent got into trouble, were ready, without fee or 
reward, to defend either him or his human 
freight in the courts. These included such 
names of national repute as Salmon P. Chase, 
Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner, William H. 
Seward, Rutherford B. Hayes, Richard H. Dana, 
and Isaac N. Arnold, while, taking the whole 
country over, their "name was legion." And 
there were a few men of wealth, like Thomas 
Garrett of Delaware, willing to contribute money 
by thousands to their assistance. Although 
technically acting in violation of law — or, as 
claimed by themselves, in obedience to a "higher 
law" — the time has already come when there is a 
disposition to look upon the actors as, in a certain 
sense, heroes, and their deeds as fitly belonging 
to the field of romance. 

The most comprehensive collection of material 
relating to the history of this movement has 
been furnished in a recent volume entitled, "The 
Underground Railroad from Slavery to Free- 
dom," by Prof. Wilbur H. Siebert, of Ohio State 
University ; and, while it is not wholly free from 
errors, both as to individual names and facts, it 
will probably remain as the best compilation of 
history bearing on this subject — especially as the 
principal actors are fast passing away. One of 
the interesting features of Prof. Sieberfs book is 
a map purporting to give the principal routes 
and stations in the States northwest of the Ohio, 
yet the accuracy of this, as well as the correct- 
ness of personal names given, has been questioned 
by some best informed on the subject. As 
might be expected from its geographical position 
between two slave States — Kentucky and Mis- 
souri — on the one hand, and the lakes offering a 
highway to Canada on the other, it is naturally 
to be assumed that Illinois would be an attract- 
ive field, both for the fugitive and his sympa- 

The period of greatest activity of the system in 
this State was between 1840 and 1801 — the latter 
being the j'ear when the pro-slavery party in the 
South, by their attempt forcibly to dissolve the 
Union, took the business out of the hands of the 
secret agents of the "Underground Railroad." 
and— in a certain sense — placed it in the hands 
of the Union armies. It was in 1841 that Abra- 



ham Lincoln — then a conservative opponent of 
the extension of slavery — on an appeal from a 
judgment, rendered by the Circuit Court in Taze- 
well County, in favor of the holder of a note 
given for the service of the indentured slave- 
girl "Nance," obtained a decision from the 
Supreme Court of IlUnois upholding the doctrine 
that the girl was free under the Ordinance of 
1787 and the State Constitution, and that the 
note, given to the person who claimed to be her 
owner, was void. And it is a somewhat curious 
coincidence that the same Abraham Lincoln, as 
President of the United States, in the second 
year of the War of the Bebellion, issued the 
Proclamation of Emancipation which finaUy 
resulted in striking the shackles from the limbs 
of every slave in the Union. 

In the practical operation of aiding fugitives 
in lUinois, it was natural that the towns along 
the border upon the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, 
should have served as a sort of entrepots, or 
initial stations, for the reception of this class of 
freight — especially if adjacent to some anti- 
slavery community. This was the case at Ches- 
ter, from which access was easy to Sparta, where 
a colony of Covenanters, or Seceders, was 
located, and whence a route extended, by way of 
Oakdale, Nashville and Centralia, in the direction 
of Chicago. Alton offered convenient access to 
Bond County, where there was a community of 
anti-slavery people at an early day, or the fugi- 
tives could be fo)-warded northward by way of 
JerseyviUe, Waverly and Jacksonville, about 
each of which there was a strong anti-slavery 
sentiment. Quincv, in spite of an intense hos- 
tility among the mass of the commimity to any- 
thing savoring of abolitionism, became the 
theater of great activity on the part of the 
opponents of the institution, especially after the 
advent there of Dr. David Nelson and Dr. Rich- 
ard Eells, both of whom had rendered themselves 
obnoxious to the people of Missouri by extending 
aid to fugitives. The former was a practical 
abolitionist who, having freed his slaves in his 
native State of Virginia, removed to Missouri and 
attempted to establish Marion College, a few miles 
from Palmyra, but was soon driven to Illinois. 
Locating near Quincy, he founded the "Mission 
Institute" there, at which lie continued to dis- 
seminate his anti-slavery views, while educating 
young men for missionary work. The "Insti- 
tute" was finally burned by emissaries from Mis- 
souri, whUe three young men who had been 
connected with it, having been caught in Mis- 
souri, were condemned to twelve years' confine- 

ment in the penitentiary of that State — partly on 
the testimony of a negro, although a negro was 
not then a legal witness in the courts against a 
white man. Dr. Eells was prosecuted before 
Stephen A. Douglas (then a Judge of the Circuit 
Court), and fined for aiding a fugitive to escape, 
and the judgment against him was finally con- 
firmed by the Supreme Court after his death, in 
1852, ten years after the original indictment. 

A map in Professor Siebert's book, showing the 
routes and principal stations of the "Undergound 
Railroad," makes mention of the following places 
in Illinois, in addition to those already referred 
to. Carlinville, in Macoupin County; Payson 
and Mendon, in Adams; Washington, in Taze- 
well ; Metamora, in Woodford ; Magnolia, in Put- 
nam; Galesburg, in Knox; Princeton (the home 
of Owen Lovejoy and the Bryants), in Bureau; 
and many more. Ottawa appears to have been 
the meeting point of a number of lines, as well 
as the home of a strong colony of practical abo- 
litionists. Cairo also became an important 
transfer station for fugitives arriving by river, 
after the completion of the Illinois Central Rail- 
road, especially as it offered the speediest way of 
reaching Chicago, towards which nearly all the 
lines converged. It was here that the fugitives 
could be most safely disposed of by placing them 
upon vessels, which, without stopping at inter- 
mediate ports, could soon land them on Canadian 

As to methods, these diflEered according to cir- 
cumstances, the emergencies of the occasion, or 
the taste, convenience or resources of the oper- 
ator. Deacon Levi Morse, of Woodford County, 
near Metamora, had a route towards Magnolia, 
Putnam County; and his favorite "car" was a 
farm wagon in which there was a double bottom. 
The passengers were snugly placed below, and 
grain sacks, fiUed with bran or otlier light material, 
were laid over, so that the whole presented the 
appearance of an ordinary load of grain on its 
way to market. The same was true as to stations 
and routes. One, who was an operator, says: 
"Wherever an abolitionist happened on a fugi- 
tive, or the converse, there was a station, for the 
time, and the route was to the next anti-slavery 
man to the east or the north. As a general rule, 
the agent preferred not to know anything beyond 
the operation of his own immediate section of the 
road. If he knew nothing about tlie operations 
of another, and the other knew nothing of his, 
they could not be witnesses in court. 

We have it on the authority of Judge Harvey B. 
Hurd. of Chicago, that runaways were usually 



forwarded from that citj- to Canada Ijy \va_v of the 
Lakes, there being several steamers available for 
that purpose. On one occasion thirteen were 
put aboard a vessel under the eyes of a United 
States Marshal and his deputies. The fugitives. 
secreted in a woodshed, one by one took the 
places of colored stevedores carrying wood 
aboard the ship. Possibly the term, "There's a 
nigger in the woodpile," may have originated in 
this incident. Thirteen was an "unlucky num- 
ber" in this instance — for tlie masters. 

Among the notable trials for assisting runaways 
in violation of the Fugitive Slave Law, in addi- 
tion to the case of Dr. Eells, already mentioned, 
were those of Owen Lovejoy of Princeton, and 
Deacon Gushing of Will County, both of whom 
were defended by Judge James Collins of Chi- 
cago. John Hossack and Dr. Joseph Stout of 
Ottawa, with some half-dozen of their neighbors 
and friends, were tried at Ottawa, in 1859, for 
assisting a fugitive and acquitted on a techni- 
cality. A strong array of attorneys, afterwards 
widely known through the northern part of the 
State, appeared for the defense, including Isaac 
X. Arnold, Joseph Knox, B. C. Cook, J. V. Eus- 
tace, Edward S. Leland and E. C. Earned. Joseph 
T. Morse, of Woodford County, was also arrested, 
taken to Peoria and committed to jail, but 
acquitted on trial. 

Another noteworthy case was that of Dr. 
Samuel Willard (now of Chicago) and his father, 
Julius A. AVillard, charged with assisting in the 
escape of a fugitive at Jacksonville, in 18-13, when 
the Doctor was a student in Illinois College. 
"The National Corporation Reporter," a few 
years ago. gave an account of this affair, together 
with a letter from Dr. Willard, in which he states 
that, after protracted litigation, during which 
the case was carried to the Supreme Court, it was 
ended by his pleading guilty before Judge Samuel 
D. Lockwood, when he was fined one dollar and 
costs —the latter amounting to twenty dollars. 
The Doctor frankly adds; "Jly father, as well 
as myself, helped many fugitives afterwards." 
It did not always happen, however, that offenders 
escaped so easily. 

Judge Harvey B. Hurd. already referred to, 
and an active anti-slavery man in the days of the 
Fugitive Slave Law. relates the following: Once, 
when the trial of a fugitive was going on before 
Justice Kercheval, in a room on the second floor 
of a twostory frame building on Clark Street in 
the city of Chicago, the crowd in attendance 
filled the room, the stairway and the adjoining 
sidewalk. In some way the prisoner got mixed 

in with the audience, and passed down over the 
heads of those on the stairs, where the officers 
were unable to follow. 

In another case, tried before United States 
Commissioner Geo. W. ileeker, the result was 
made to hinge upon a point in the indictment to 
the effect that the fugitive was "copper-colored." 
The Commissioner, as the story goes, being in- 
clined to favor public sentiment, called for a large 
copper cent, that he might make comparison. 
The decision was, that the prisoner was "off 
color," so to speak, and he was hustled out of the 
room before the officers could rearrest him, as 
they had been instructed to do. 

Dr. Samuel Willard, in a review of Professor 
Sieberfs book, published in "The Dial" of Chi 
cago, makes mention of Henry Irving and Will- 
iam Chauncey Carter as among his active aUies 
at Jacksonville, with Rev. Bilious Pond and 
Deacon Lyman of Farmiugton (near the present 
village of Farmingdale in Sangamon County). 
Luther Ransom of Springfield, Andrew Borders 
of Randolph Countj'. Joseph Gerrish of Jersey 
and William T. Allan of Henr.v. as their coadju- 
tors in other parts of the State. Other active 
agents or promoters, in the same field, included 
such names as Dr. Charles V. Dyer, Philo Carpen- 
ter, Calvin De Wolf. L. C. P. Freer, Zebina East- 
man. James H. Collins, Harvey B. Hm-d, J. Young 
Scammon, Col. J. F. Farusworth and others of 
Chicago, whose names have already been men- 
tioned; Rev. Asa Turner, Deacon Ballard, J. K. 
Van Dorn and Erastus Benton, of Quincy and 
Ailams County; President Rufus Blanchard of 
Eaiox College, Galesburg; John Leeper of Bond; 
the late Prof. J. B. Turner and EUlm Wolcott of 
Jacksonville; Capt. Parker Morse and his four 
sons — Joseph T.. Levi P., Parker. Jr., and Mark 
— of Woodford County; Rev. William Sloane of 
Randolph ; William Strawn of La Salle, besides a 
host who were willing to aid their fellow men in 
their asjjirations to freedom, without advertising 
their own exploits. 

Among the incidents of "Underground Rail- 
road" in Illinois is one which had some importance 
politically, having for its climax a dramatic scene 
in Congress, but of which, so far as known, no 
full account has ever been written. About 18.55, 
Ephraim Lombard, a Mississippi planter, but a 
New Englander by birth, purchased a large body 
of prairie land in the northeastern part of Stark 
County, and, taking up his residence temporarily 
in the village of Bradford, began its improve- 
ment. He had brought with him from Mississippi 
a negro, gray-haired and bent with age. a slave 



of probably no great value. "Old Mose, '" as he 
■was called, soon came to be well known and a 
favorite in the neighborhood. Lombard boldly 
stated that he had brought him there as a slave ; 
that, by virtue of the Dred Scott decision (then 
of recent date), he had a constitutional right to 
take his slaves wherever he pleased, and that 
"Old Mose"' was just as much his property in 
Illinois as in Mississippi. It soon became evident 
to some, that his bringing of the negro to Illinois 
was an experiment to test the law and the feel- 
ings of the Northern people. This being the case, 
a shrewd play would have been to let him have 
his way till other slaves should have been 
brought to stock the new plantation But this 
was too slow a process for the abolitionists, to 
whom the holding of a slave in the free State of 
Illinois appeared an unbearable outrage. It was 
feared that he might take the old negro back to 
Mississippi and fail to bring any others. It was 
reported, also, that "Old" was ill-treated; 
that he was given only the coarsest food in a 
back shed, as if he were a horse or a dog, instead 
of being permitted to eat at table with the family. 
The prairie citizen of that time was very par- 
ticular upon this point of etiquette. The hired 
man or woman, debarred from the table of his or 
her employer, would not have remained a day. 
A quiet consultation with "Old Mose" revealed 
the fact that he would hail the gift of freedom 
joyously. Accordingly, one Peter Risedorf, and 
another equally daring, met him by the light of 
the stars and, before morning, he was placed iu 
the care of Owen Lovejoy. at Princeton, twenty 
miles away. From there he was speedily 
"franked" by the member of Congress to friends 
in Canada. 

There was a great commotion in Bradford over 
the "stealing" of "Old Mose. " Lombard and his 
friends denounced the act in terms bitter and 
profane, and threatened vengeance upon the per- 
petrators. The conductors were known only to a 
few, and they kept their secret well. Lovejoy's 
part in the affair, however, soon leaked out. 
Lombard returned to Mississippi, where he 
related his experiences to Mr. Singleton, the 
Representative in Congress from liis district. 
During the next session of Congress, Singleton 
took occasion, in a speech, to sneer at Lovejoy as a 
"nigger-stealer," citing the case of "Old Mose." 
Mr. Lovejo}' replied in his usual fervid and 
dramatic style, making a speech which ensured 
his election to Congress for life — "Is it desired to 
call attention to this fact of my assisting fugitive 
slaves?" he said. "Owen Lovejov lives at Prince- 

ton, 111., three-quarters of a mile east of the 
village, and he aids every slave that comes to his 
door and asks it. Thou invisible Demon of 
Slavery, dost thou think to cross my humble 
threshold and forbid me to give bread to the 
hungry and shelter to the homeless? I bid you 
defiance, in the name of my God!" 

With another incident of an amusing charac- 
ter this article may be closed; Hon. J. Young 
Scammon, of Chicago, being accused of conniving 
at the escape of a slave from officers of the law, 
was asked by the court what he would do if sum- 
moned as one of a posse to pursue and capture a 
fugitive. "I would certainly obey the summons, " 
he replied, "but — I should probably stub my toe 
and fall down before I reached him." 

Note.— Those who wish to pursue the subject of the 
"Underground Railroad " in Illinois further, are referred 
to the work of Dr. Siebert, already mentioned, and to the 
various County Histories which have been issued and may 
be found in the pubhc hbraries; also for interesting inci- 
dents, to •'Reminiscences of Levi Coflin," Jolinson's 
" From Dixie to Canada," Petifs Sketches, "Still, Under- 
ground Railroad," and a pamphlet of the same title by 
James H. Fairchild, ex-President of Oberlin College. 

UKDERWOOD, WiUiam H., lawyer, legislator 
and jurist, was born at Schoharie Court House, 
N. Y., Feb. 31, 1818, and, after admission to the 
bar, removed to BeUeviUe, 111., where he began 
practice in 1840 The following year he was 
elected State's Attorney, and re-elected in 1843. 
In 1846 he was chosen a member of the lower 
house of the General Assembly, and, in 1848-54, 
sat as Judge of the Second Circuit. During this 
period he declined a nomination to Congress, 
although equivalent to an election. In 1856 he 
was elected State Senator, and re-elected in 1860. 
He was a member of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1869-70, and, in 1870. was again elected to 
the Senate, retiring to private life in 1873. Died, 
Sept. 23, 1875. 

UNION COUNTY, one of the fifteen counties 
into which Illinois was divided at the time of its 
admission as a State — having been organized, 
under the Territorial Government, iu January, 
1818. It is situated in the southern division of 
the State, bounded on the west by the Mississippi 
River, and has an area of 400 square miles. The 
eastern and interior portions are drained by the 
Cache River and Clear Creek. The western part 
of the county comprises the broad, rich bottom 
lands Ij'ing along the Mississippi, but is subject 
to frequent overflow, while the eastern portion is 
hilly, and most of its area originally heavily tim- 
bered. The county is especially ricli in minerals. 
Iron-ore, lead, bituminous coal, chalk, alum and 



potter's clay are found in considerable abun- 
dance. Several lines of railway (the most impor 
tant being the Illinois Central) either cross or 
tap the county. The chief occupation is agri- 
culture, altliougli manufacturing is carried on to 
a limited extent. Fruit is extensively cultivated. 
Jonesboro is the count>-seat, and Cobden and 
Anna important shipping stations. The latter is 
the location of the Southern Hospital for the 
Insane. The jxipulation of the county, in 1890, 
was 21,539. Being next to St. Clair, Randolph 
and Gallatin, one of the earliest settled counties 
in the State, many prominent men found their 
first home, on coming into the State, at Jones- 
boro, and this region, for a time, exerted a strong 
influence iu public affairs. Pop. (1900), 22,610. 

UMOX LE.AGUE OF AMERICA, a secret poUt- 
ical and patriotic order which had its origin 
early in the late Civil War, for the avowed pvir- 
pose of sustaining the cause of the Union and 
counteracting the machinations of the secret 
organizations designed to promote the success of 
the Rebellion. The first regular Council of the 
order was organized at Pekin, Tazewell County, 
June 25, 1862, consisting of eleven members, as 
follows: John \V. Glasgow, Dr. D. A. Cheever, 
Hart Montgomery, Maj. Richard N. Cullom 
(father of Senator Cullom), Alexander Small, 
Rev. J. W. M. Vernon, George H. Harlow (after- 
ward Secretary of State), Charles Turner, Col. 
Jonathan Merriam, Henry Pratt and L. F. Gar- 
rett. One of the number was a Union refugee 
from Tennessee, who dictated the first oath from 
memorj', as administered to members of a some- 
what similar order which had been organized 
among the Unionists of his own State. It sol- 
emnly pledged the taker, (1) to preserve invio- 
late the secrets and business of the order; (2) to 
"support, maintain, protect and defend the civil 
liberties of the Union of these United States 
against all enemies, either domestic or foreign, 
at all times and under all circumstances," even 
"if necessary, to the sacrifice of life"; (3) to aid 
in electing only true Union men to offices of 
trust in the town, county. State and General 
Government; (4) to assist, protect and defend 
any member of the order who might be in peril 
from his connection with the order, and (5) to 
obey all laws, rules or regulations of any Council 
to which the taker of the oath miglit be attached. 
The oath was taken upon the Bible, the Decla- 
ration of Independence and Constitution of the 
United States, the taker pledging his sacred 
honor to its fulfillment. A special reason for the 
organization existed in the activity, about this 

time, of the "Knights of the Golden Circle," a 
disloyal organization which had been introduced 
from the South, and which afterwards took the 
name, in the North, of "American Knights" and 
"Sons of Liberty. ' " (See Secret Treasonable Soci- 
eties.) Three months later, the organization had 
extended to a number of other counties of the 
State and, on the 25th of September following, 
the first State Council met at Bloomington — 
twelve counties being represented — and a State 
organization was effected. At this meeting the 
following general oflScers were chosen: Grand 
President — Judge Mark Bangs, of Marshall 
County (now of Chicago) ; Grand Vice-President 
— Prof. Daniel Wilkin, of McLean ; Grand Secre- 
tary — George H. Harlow, of Tazewell; Grand 
Treasurer — H. S. Austin, of Peoria, Grand Mar- 
shal— J. R. Gorin, of Macon; Grand Herald— 
A. Gould, of Henry; Grand Sentinel — John E. 
Rosette, of Sangamon. An Executive Committee 
was also appointed, consisting of Joseph Medill 
of "The Chicago Tribune"; Dr. A. J. McFar- 
land, of Morgan County; J. K. Warren, of Macon; 
Rev. J. C. Rybolt, of La SaUe; the President, 
Judge Bangs; Enoch Emery, of Peoria; and 
John E. Rosette. Under the direction of this 
Committee, with Mr. Medill as its Chairman, 
the constitution and by-laws were thoroughly 
revised and a new ritual adopted, which materi- 
ally changed the phraseology and removed some 
of the crudities of the original obligation, as well 
as increased the beauty and impressiveness of 
the initiatory ceremonies. Kew signs, grips and 
pass-words were also adopted, wliich were finally 
accepted by the various organizations of the 
order throughout the Union, which, by this time, 
included many soldiers in the army, as well as 
civilians. The second Grand (or State) Council 
was held at Springfield, January 14, 1863, with 
only seven counties represented. The limited 
representation was discouraging, but the mem- 
bers took heart from the inspiring words of Gov- 
ernor Yates, addressed to a committee of the 
order who waited upon him. At a special ses- 
sion of the Executive Committee, held at Peoria, 
six days later, a vigorous campaign was 
mapped out, under which agents were sent 
into nearly every county in the State. In Oc- 
tober, 1862, the strength of the order in Illi- 
nois was estimated at three to five thousand; 
a few months later, the number of enrolled 
members had increased to 50,000 — so rapid 
had been the growth of the order. On March 
25, 1863, a Grand Council met in Cliicago — 
404 Councils in Illinois being represented, with 



a number from Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Wiscon- 
sin, Iowa and Minnesota. At this meeting a 
Committee was appointed to prepare a plan of 
organization for a National Grand Council, which 
was carried out at Cleveland, Ohio, on the 20th 
of May following — the constitution, ritual and 
signs of the Illinois organization being adopted 
with sUght modifications. The icvised obligation 
— taken upon the Bible, the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence and the Constitution of the United 
States — bound members of the League to "sup- 
port, protect and defend the Government of the 
United States and the flag thereof, against all 
enemies, foreign and domestic,'" and to" "bear true 
faith and allegiance to the same"; to "defend 
the State against invasion or insurrection"; to 
support only "true and reliable men" for offices 
of trust and profit; to protect and defend 
worthy members, and to preserve inviolate the 
secrets of the order. The address to new mem- 
bers was a model of impressiveness and a powerful 
appeal to their patriotism. The organization 
extended rapidly, not only throughout the North- 
west, but in the South also, especially in the 
army. In 1864 the number of Councils in Illinois 
was estimated at 1,300, with a membership of 
175,000; and it is estimated that the total mem- 
bership, throughout the Union, was 2,000,000. 
The influence of the silent, but zealous and effect- 
ive, operations of the organization, was shown, 
not only in the stimulus given to enlistments and 
support of the war policy of the Government, 
but in the raising of supplies for the sick and 
wounded soldiers in the field. Within a few 
weeks before the fall of Vicksburg, over .?2.5,000 in 
cash, besides large quantities of stores, were sent 
to Col. John Williams (then in charge of the 
Sanitary Bureau at Springfield), as the direct 
result of appeals made through circulars sent out 
by the officers of the "League." Large contri- 
butions of money and supplies also reached the 
sick and wounded in hospital through the medium 
of the Sanitarj- Commission in Chicago. Zealous 
efforts were made by the opposition to get at the 
secrets of the order, and, in one case, a complete 
copy of the ritual was published by one of their 
organs ; but the effect was so far the reverse of 
what was anticipated, that this line of attack was 
not continued. During the stormy session of the 
Legislature in 1863, the League is said to Iiave 
rendered effective service in protecting Gov- 
ernor Yates from threatened assassination. It 
continued its silent but effective operations until 
the complete overthrow of the rebellion, when it 
ceased to e.xlst as a political organization. 

ing is a list of United States senators from Illinois, 
from the date of the admission of the State into 
the Union until 1899, with the date and duration 
of the term of each: Niniau Edwards, 1818-24; 
Jesse B. Thomas, Sr., 1818-29; John McLean, 
1824-25 and 1829-30; Elias Kent Kane, 1825-35; 
David Jewett Baker, Nov. 12 to Dec. 11, 1830; 
John M. Robinson, 1830-41 ; William L. D. Ewing, 
1835-37; Richard M. Young, 1837-43; Samuel Mc- 
Roberts, 1841-43; Sidney Breese, 1843-49; James 
Semple, 1843-47; Stephen A. Douglas, 1847-61; 
James Shields, 1849-55 ; Lyman Trumbull, 1855-73 ; 
Orville H. Browning, 1861-63; William A. Rich- 
ardson, 1863-65 ; Richard Yates, 1865-71 ; John A. 
Logan, 1871-77 and 1879-86; Richard J. Oglesby, 
1873-79; David Davis, 1877-83; Shelby M. Cullom, 
first elected in 1883, and re-elected in "89 and '95, 
his third term expiring in 1901 ; Charles B. Far- 
well, 1887-91; John McAuley Palmer, 1891-97; 
William E. Mason, elected in 1897, for the term 
expiring, March 4, 1903. 

of the leading educational institutions of the 
country, located at Chicago. It is the outgrowth 
of an attempt, put forth by the American Educa- 
tional Society (organized at Washington in 1888). 
to supply the place which the original institution 
of the same name had been designed to fill. (See 
University of Chicago— TIte Old.) The foUowing 
year, Mr. John D. Rockefeller of New York ten- 
dered a contribution of 6600,000 toward the endow- 
ment of the enterprise, conditioned upon securing 
additional pledges to the amount of .$400,000 by 
June 1, 1890. The offer was accepted, and the 
sum promptly raised. In addition, a site, covering 
four blocks of land in the city of Chicago, was 
secured — two and one-half blocks being acquired 
by purchase for §282,500, and one and one-half 
(valued at $125,000) donated by Mr. Marshall 
Field. A charter was secured and an organiza- 
tion effected. Sept. 10, 1890. The Presidency of 
the institution was tendered to, and accepted by. 
Dr. William R. Harper. Since that time the 
University has been the recipient of other gener- 
ous benefactions by Mr. Rockefeller and others, 
until the aggregate donations (1898) exceed $10,- 
000,000. Of this amount over one-half has been 
contributed by Mr. Rockefeller, while he has 
pledged himself to make additional contributions 
of 82,000,000, conditioned upon the raising of a 
like sum, from other donors, by Jan. 1, 1900. The 
buildings erected on the campus, prior to 1890. 
include a chemical laboratory costing $182,000; a 
lecture hall, 8150,000; a physical laboratory 



?1.")0,000; a museum, .?1(X1,000; an academy dor- 
uiitoiy, §30,000; three dormitories for women, 
SloU.UOO; two dormitories for men, §100,000, to 
which several important additions were made 
during 1896 and 97. The faculty enibraces over 
150 instructors, selected with reference to their 
fitness for their respective departments from 
among the most eminent scholars in America and 
Europe. Women are admitted as students and 
graduated upon an equality with men. The work 
of practical instruction began in October, 1893, 
with 089 registered students, coming from nearly 
everi' Northern State, and including 250 gradu- 
ates from otlier institutions, to which accessions 
were made, during the year, raising the aggregate 
to over 900. The second year the number ex- 
ceeded 1,100; the third, it rose to 1,750, and the 
fourth (1895-96), to some 2,000, including repre- 
sentatives from every State of the Union, besides 
many from foreign countries. Special features 
of the institution include the admission of gradu- 
ates from other institutions to a post-graduate 
course, and the University Extension Division, 
which is conducted largely by means of lecture 
courses, in other cities, or through lecture centers 
in the vicinity of tlie University, non-resident 
students having the privilege of written exami- 
nations. The various libraries embrace over 
;;uiMi()ii volumes, of which nearly 60,000 belong 
1(1 what are called the ''Departmental Libraries,"' 
besides a large and valuable collection of maps 
and pamphlets. 

educational institution at Chicago, under the 
care of the Baptist denomination, for some years 
known as the Douglas University. Senator 
Stephen A. Douglas offered, in 1854, to donate ten 
acres of land, in what was then near the southern 
I)order of the city of Chicago, as a site for an 
iiistitiitiiin of learning, provided buildings cost- 
in;; ^100,000, be erected thereon within a stipu- 
late! lime. The corner-stone of the main building 
was laid, July 4, 1857, but the financial panic of 
that year prevented its completion, and Mr. Doug- 
las extended the time, and finally deeded the 
land to the trustees without reserve. For eighteen 
years the institution led a precarious existence, 
struggling under a heavy debt. By 1885, mort- 
gages to the amount of §320,000 having accumu- 
Uiti'il. the trustees abandoned further effort, and 
acquiesc'ed in the sale of the property under fore- 
closure proceedings. The original plan of the 
institution contemplated preparatory and col- 
legiate departments, together with a college of 
law and a theological school. 

UMVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, the leading edu- 
cational institution under control of the State, 
located at Urbana and adjoining the city of 
Champaign. The Legislature at the session of 1863 
accepted a grant of 480,000 acres of land under 
Act of Congress, approved July 2, 1862, making an 
appropriation of public lands to States — 30,000 
acres for each Senator and each Kepresentative in 
Congress — establishing colleges for teaching agri- 
culture and the mechanic arts, though not to the 
exclusion of classical and scientific studies. Land- 
scrip under this grant was issued and placed in 
the hands of Governor Yates, and a Board of 
Trustees appointed under the State law was organ- 
ized in March, 1867, the institution being located 
tlie same year. Departments and courses of study 
were established, and Dr. John M. Gregory, of 
Michigan, was chosen Eegent (President). ^The 
landserip issued to Illinois was sold at an early 
day for wliat it wonld bring in open market, 
except 25,000 acres, which was located in Ne- 
braska and Minnesota. This has recently been 
sold, realizing a larger sum than was received 
for all the scrip otherwise disposed of. The entire 
sum thus secured for permanent endowment ag- 
gregates §613,026. The University revenues were 
further increased by donations from Congress to 
each institution organized under the Act of 1862, 
of §15,000 per annum for the maintenance of an 
Agricultural Experiment Station, and, in 1890, of 
a similar amount for instruction — the latter to be 
increased §1.000 annually until it should reach 
§25,000. — A mechanical building was erected in 
1871, and this is claimed to have been the first of 
its kind in America intended for strictly educa- 
tional purposes. What was called "the main 
building" was formall}' opened in December, 
1873. Other buildings embrace a "Science Hall," 
opened in 1892; anew "Engineering Hall," 1894; 
a fine Library Building, 1897. Eleven other prin- 
cipal structutes and a number of smaller ones 
have been erected as conditions required. The 
value of property aggregates nearly §2,500,000, and 
appropriations from the State, for all purposes, 
previous to 1904, foot up §5,123,517.90.— Since 
1871 the institution has been open to women. 
The courses of study embrace agriculture, chem- 
istry, polytechnics, military tactics, natural and 
general sciences, languages and literatm-e, eco- 
nomics, household science, trade and commerce. 
The Graduate School dates from 1891. In 1890 
the Cliicago College of Pharmacy was connected 
with the University: a College of Law and a 
Library School were opened in 1897, and the same 
year the Chicago College of Physicians and Sur- 


cr c 




geons «-as affiliated as the College of Medicine — a 
Scliool of Dentistry being added to the latter in 
1901. In 1885 the State Laboratory of Natural 
History was transferred from Normal, 111., and an 
Agricultural Experiment Station entablished in 
1888, from which bulletins are sent to farmers 
throughout the State who may desire them. — The 
first name of the Institution was "Illinois Indus- 
trial University," but, in 1885, this was changed 
to "University of Illinois." In 1887 the Trustees 
(of whom there are nine) were made elective by 
popular vote — three being elected every tv,-o 
years, each holding office six years. Dr. Gregory, 
having resigned the office of Regent in 1880, was 
succeeded by Dr. Selim H. Peabody, who had 
been Professor of Mechanical and Civil Engineer- 
ing. Dr. Peabody resigned in 1891. The duties 
of Regent were then discharged by Prof. Thomas 
J. Burrill until August, 1894, when Dr. Andrew 
Sloan Draper, former State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction of the State of New York, was 
installed as President, serving until 1904. — The 
corps of instruction (1904) includes over 100 Pro- 
fessors, 60 Associate and Assistant Professors and 
200 Instructors and Assistants, besides special 
lecturers, demonstrators and clerks. The num- 
ber of students has increased rapidly in recent 
years, as shown by the following totals for suc- 
cessive years from 1890-91 to 1903-04, inclusive: 
519; 583; 714; 748; 810; 852; 1,075; 1,582; 1,824; 
2,234; 2,505; 2,932; 3,289; 3,589. Of the last num- 
ber, 2,271 were men and 718 women. During 
1903-04 there were in all departments at Urbana, 
2 547 students (256 being in the Preparatory Aca- 
demy) ; and in the three Professional Departments 
in Chicago, 1,042, of whom 694 were in the Col- 
lege of Jledicine, 185 in the School of Pharmacy, 
and 163 in the School of Dentistry. The Univer- 
sity Library contains 63,700 volumes and 14,500 
pamphlets, not includiug 5,350 volumes and 
15 850 pamphlets in the State Laboratory of Nat- 
ural History. — The University occupies a con- 
spicuous and attractive site, embracing 220 acres 
adjacent to the line between Uibana and Cham- 
paign, and near the residence portion of the two 
cities. The athletic field of 11 acres, on which 
stand the gymnasium and armory, is enclosed 
with an ornamental iron fence. The campus,, is an open and beautiful park with 
fine landscape effects. 

the 102 counties into which Illinois is divided, 
acts were passed by the General Assembly, 
at different times, providing for the organiza- 
tion of a number of others, a few of which 

were subsequently organized under different 
names, but the majority of which were never 
organized at all— the proposition for such or- 
ganization being rejected by vote of the people 
within the proposed boundaries, or allowed to 
lapse by non-action. These unorganized coun- 
ties, with the date of the several acts authorizing 
them, . nd the territory which they were in- 
tended to include, were as follows: Allen 
County (1841) — comprising portions of Sanga- 
mon, Morgan and Macoupin Counties ; Audobon 
(Audubon) Coimty (1843) — from portions of Mont- 
gomery, Fayette and Shelby ; Benton County 
(1843) — from Morgan, Greene and Macoupin; 
Coffee County (1837) — with substantially the 
same territory now comprised within the bound- 
aries of Stark County, authorized two years 
later; Dane County (1839) — name changed to 
Christian in 1840; Harrison County (1855)— 
from McLean, Champaign and Vermilion, com- 
prising territory since partially incorporated 
in Ford County; Holmes County (1857) — from 
Champaign and Vermilion; Marquette County 
(1843), changed (1847) to Highland— compris- 
ing the northern portion of Adams, (this act 
was accepted, with Columbus as the county- 
seat, but organization finally vacated) ; Michi- 
gan County (1837)— from a part of Cook; Milton 
County (1843) — from the south part of Vermil- 
ion; Okaw County (1841) — comprising substan- 
tially the same territory as Moultrie, organized 
under act of 1843; Oregon County (1851) — from 
parts of Sangamon, Morgan and Macoupin Coun- 
ties, and covering substantially the same terri- 
tory as proposed to be incorporated in Allen 
Coimty ten years earUer. The last act of this 
character was passed in 1867, when an attempt 
was made to organize Lincoln County out o. 
parts of Champaign and Vermilion, but whicu 
failed for want of an affirmative vote. 

UPPER ALTON, a city of Madison County, 
situated on the Chicago & Alton Railroad, about 
1^ miles northeast of Alton— laid out in 1816. It 
has several churches, and is the seat of Shurtleff 
College and the Western Military Academy, the 
former founded about 1831, and controlled by the 
Baptist denomination. Beds of excellent clay are 
found in the vicinity and utilized in pottery 
manufacture. Pop. (1890), 1,803; (1900), 2.373. 

UPTON, George Putnam, journalist, was born 
at Roxbury, Mass., Oct. 25, 1834; graduated from 
Brown University in 1854, removed to Chicago 
in 1855, and began newspaper work on "The 
Native American," the following year taking 
the place of citj- editor of "The Evening Jom'- 



nal." In 1862. Mr. Upton became musical critic 
on "The Chicago Tribune," serving for a time 
also as its war correspondent in the field, later 
(about 1881) taking a place on the general edi- 
torial staff, which he still retains. He is regarded 
as an authority on musical and dramatic topics. 
Mr. Upton is also a stockholder in, and, for sev- 
eral years, has been Vice-President of the "Trib- 
une"' Company. Besides numerous contributions 
to magazines, his works include: "Letters of 
Peregrine Pickle"' (1869) ; "Memories, a Story of 
German Love," translated from the German of 
Ma.x MuUer (1879); "Woman in Music" (1880); 
"Lives of German Composers" (3 vols.— 1883-84) ; 
besides four volumes of standard operas, oratorios, 
cantatas, and symphonies (1885-88). 

CBB.4NA, a flourishing city, the county-seat 
of Clnmpnign Count.v, on the "Big Four." the 
Illinois Central and the Wiibasli Railways: 130 
miles south of Chicago and 31 miles west of Dan- 
ville; in agricultural and coal-mining region. 
The mechanical industries include extensive rail- 
road shops, manufacture of brick, suspenders and 
lawn-mowers. The Cunningham Deaconesses' 
Home and Orphanage is located here. The city 
has water-works, gas and electric light plants, 
electric cardines (local and interurban), superior 
schools, nine churches, three banks and three 
newspapers Urbana is the seat of the University 
of Illinois. Pop. (1890), 3,511; (1900), 5,728. 

DSRET, WilUam J., editor and soldier, was 
born at Washington (near Natchez), Miss., May 
16. 1827; was educated at Natchez, and, before 
reaching manhood, came to Macon County, 111., 
where he engaged in teaching until 1846, when 
he enlisted as a private in Company C, Fourth 
Illinois Volunteers, for the Mexican War. In 
1855, he joined with a Mr. Wingate in the estab- 
lishment, at Decatur, of "Tlie Illinois State Chron- 
icle," of which he soon after took sole charge, 
conducting the paper until 1861, when he enlisted 
in the Thirty-fifth Illinois Volunteers and was 
appointed Adjutant. Although born and edu- 
cated in a slave State, Mr. Usrey was an earnest 
opponent of slavery, as proved by the attitude of 
his paper in opposition to the Kansas-Nebraska 
Bill. He was one of the most zealous endorsers 
of the proposition for a conference of the Anti- 
Nebraska editors of the State of Illinois, to agree 
upon a line of policy in opposition to the further 
extension of slavery-, and, when that body met at 
Decatur, on Feb. 22, 1856, he served as its Secre- 
tarj-, thus taking a prominent part in the initial 
steps which resulted in the organization of the 
Republican iiarty in Illinois. (See Anti-Xebratika 

Editorial Convention.) After returning from 
the war he resumed his place as editor of "The 
Chronicle," but finally retired from newspaper 
work in 1871. He was twice Postmaster of the 
city of Decatur, first previous to 1850, and again 
under the administration of President Grant; 
served also as a member of the City Council and 
was a member of the local Post of the G. A . R. , 
and Secretary of the Macon County Association 
of Mexican War Veterans. Died, at Decatur, 
Jan. 20, 1894. 

UTIC.4, (also called North Utica), a village of 
La Salle County, on the Illinois & Michigan J 

Canal and the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific 
Railway, 10 miles west of Ottawa, situated on the 
Illinois River opposite "Starved Rock," also 
believed to stand on the site of the Kaskaskia 
village found by the French Explorer, La Salle, 
when he first visited Illinois. "LTtica cement" is 
produced here; it also has several factories or 
mills, besides banks and a weekly paper. Popu- 
lation (1880), 767; (1890), 1,094; (1900), 1,150. 

VAX ARNAM, John, lawyer and soldier, was 
born at Plattsburg, N. Y., March 3, 1820. Hav- 
ing lost his father at five years of age, he went to 
live with a farmer, but ran away in his boyhood; 
later, began teaching, studied law, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in New York City, beginning 
practice at Marshall, Mich. In 1858 he removed 
to Chicago, and, as a member of the firm of 
Walker, Van Arnam & Dexter, became promi- 
nent as a criminal lawyer and railroad attorney, 
being for a time Solicitor of the Chicago, Burling- 
ton & Quiney Railroad. In 1862 he assisted in 
organizing the One Hundred and Twenty-seventh 
Illinois Volunteer Infantry and was commissioned 
its Colonel, but was compelled to resign on 
account of illness. After spending some time in 
California, he resmned practice in Chicago in 
1865. His later years were spent in California, 
dying at San Diego, in that State, April 6, 1890. 

VAXDALIA, the principal city and county-seat 
of Fayette County. It is situated on the Kas- 
kaskia River, 30 miles north of Centralia, 62 
miles south by west of Decatur, and 68 miles 
east-northeast of St. Louis. It is an intersecting 
point for the Illinois Central and the St. Louis, 
Vandalia and Terre Haute Railroads. It was the 
capital of the State from 1820 to 1839, the seat of 
government being removeil to Springfield, the 
latter year, in accordance with act of the General 
Assembly passed at the session of 1837. It con- 
tains a court house (old State Capitol building), 
six churches, two banks, three weekly papers, a 



graded school, flour, saw and paper mills, foundry, 
stave and heading mill, carriage and wagon 
and brick works. Pop. (1890), 3,144; (1900), 3 665. 

VANDEVEEK, Horatio 51., pioneer lawyer, 
was born in Washington County, Ind., March 1, 
1816; came with his family to Illinois at an early 
age, settling on Clear Creek, now iu Christian 
County; taught school and studied law, using 
books borrowed from the late Hon. John T. Stuart 
of Springfield ; was elected first County Recorder 
of Christian County and, soon after, appointed 
Circuit Clerk, filling both offices three years. 
He also held the office of County Judge from 1848 
to 1857; was twice chosen Representative in the 
General Assembly (1843 and 1800) and once to the 
State Senate (1863); in 1846, enlisted and was 
chosen Captain of a company for the Mexican 
War, but, having been rejected on account of the 
quota being full, vras appointed Assistant-Quarter- 
master, in this capacity serving on the stall of 
General Taylor at the battle of Buena Vista. 
Among other offices held by Mr. Vandeveer, were 
those of Postmaster of Taylorville, Master in 
Chancery, Presidential Elector (1848), Delegate 
to the Constitutional Convention of 18C3, and 
Judge of the Circuit Court (1870-79). In 1868 
Judge Vandeveer established the private banking 
firm of H. M. Vandeveer & Co., at Taylorville, 
which, in conjunction with his sons, he continued 
successfully during the remainder of his life. 
Died, March 13, 1894. 

VAN HOliXE, William C, Railway Manager 
and President, was born in Will County, 111., 
February, 1843 ; began his career as a telegraph 
operator on the Illinois Central Railroad in 1856, 
was attached to the Michigan Central and Chi- 
cago & Alton Railroads (18.58-73), later being 
General Manager or General Superintendent of 
various other lines (1873-79). He next served as 
General Superintendent of the Chicago, Milwau- 
kee & St. Paul, but soon after became General 
r of the Canadian Pacific, which he 
to construct to the Pacific Coast; was 
elected Vice-President of the line in 1884, and its 
President in 1888. His services have been recog- 
nized by conferring ujjon him the order of 
knighthood by the British Government. 

VASSEUR, Xoel C, pioneer Indian-trader, was 
born of French parentage in Canada, Dec. 35, 
1799; at the age of 17 made a trip with a trading 
party to the West, crossing Wisconsin by way of 
the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers, the route pursued 
by Joliet and Marquette in 1673 ; later, was associ- 
ated with Gurdon S. Hubbard in the servi.ce of 
the American Fur Company, in 1830 visiting the 

region now embraced in Iroquois County, where 
he and Hubbard subsequently established a trad- 
ing post among the Pottawatomie Indians, 
believed to have been the site of the present town 
of Iroquois. The way of reaching their station 
from Chicago was by the Chicago and Des 
Plaines Rivers to the Kankakee, and ascending 
the latter and the Iroquois. Here Vassem- re- 
mained in trade until the removal of the Indians 
west of the Mississippi, in which he served as 
agent of the Government. While in the Iroquois 
region he married Watseka, a somewhat famous 
Pottawatomie woman, for whom the town of 
Watseka was named, and who had previously 
been the Indian wife of a fellow-trader. His 
later years were spent at Bourbonnais Grove, in 
Kankakee County, where he died, Dec. 13, 1879. 

VENICE, a city of Madison County, on the 
Mississippi River opposite St. Louis and 3 miles 
north of East St. Louis; is touched by six trunk 
lines of railroad, and at the eastern approach to 
the new "Merchants' Bridge," with its round- 
house, has two ferries to St. Louis, street car line, 
electric lights, water-works, some manufactures 
and a newspaper. Pop. (1890), 933; (1900), 3,450. 

Luuisrille, EvansvilU- d- St. Louis (Consolidated) 

VERMILION COUNTY, an eastern county, 
bordering on the Indiana State line, and drained 
by the Vermilion and Little Vermilion Rivers, 
from which it takes its name. It was originally 
organized in 1836. when it extended north to 
Lake Michigan. Its present area is 936 square 
miles. The discovery of salt springs, in 1819, 
aided in attracting immigration to this region, 
but the manufacture of salt was abandoned 
many years ago. Early settlers were Seymour 
Treat, James Butler, Henry Johnston, Harvey 
Lidington, Gurdon S. Hubbard and Daniel W. 
Beckwith. James Butler and Achilles Morgan 
were the first County Commissioners. Many 
interesting fossil remains have been found, 
among them the skeleton of a mastodon (1868). 
Fire clay is found in large quantities, and two 
coal seams cross the county. The surface is level 
and the soil fertile. Corn is the chief agricultural 
product, although oats, wheat, rye, and potatoes 
are extensively cultivated. Stock-raising and 
wool-growing are important industries. There 
are also several manufactories, chiefly at Dan- 
ville, which is the county-seat. Coal mining 
is carried on extensively, especially in the vicin- 
ity of Danville. Population (1880), 41,588; (1890), 
49.905; (1000), 65,635. 



TERMILION RIVER, a tributary of the Illi- 
nois; rises in Ford and the northern part of 
McLean County, and. running northwestward 
through Livingston and the southern part of 
La Salle Counties, enters the Illinois River 
nearly opposite the city of La Salle ; has a length 
of about 80 miles. 

VERMILION RIVER, an affluent of the Wa- 
bash, formed by the union of the North. Middle 
and South Forks, which rise in Illinois, and 
come together near Danv-.lle in this State. It 
flows southeastward, and enters the Wabash in 
VermiUon County, Ind. The main stream is 
about 28 miles long. The South Fork, however, 
which rises in Champaign County and runs east- 
ward, has a length of nearly 75 miles. The 
Little Vermilion River enters the Wabash about 
7 or 8 miles below the Vermilion, which is some- 
times called the Big Vermilion, by way of 

VER.nONT, a village in Fulton County, at 
junction of Galesburg and St. Louis Division of 
the Cliicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, 24 
miles noi-tli of Beardstown; has a carriage manu- 
factory flour and saw-mills, brick and tile works, 
electric light plant, besides two banks, four 
churches, two graded schools, and one weekly 
newspaper. An artesian well has been sunk here 
to the depth of 2 600 feet Pop. (1900), 1,195. 

VERSAILLES, a town of Brown County, on 
the Wabash Railway, 48 miles east of Quincy; is 
in a timber and agricultural district ; has a bank 
and weekly newspaper. Population (1900), 524. 

VIENN.'l, the county-seat of Johnson County, 
situated on the Cairo and Vincennes branch of 
the Clevelanil, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis 
Railroad, 36 :ailes nortli-northwest of Cairo. It 
has a court house, several churches, a graded 
school, banks and two weekly newspapers. 
Population (1880), 494; (1890), 828: (1900), 1,217, 

VIGO, Francois, pioneer and early Indian- 
trader, was born_at Mondovi, Sardinia (Western 
Italy), in 1747, served as a jjrivate soldier, first at 
Havana and afterwards at New Orleans. When 
he left the Spanish army lie came to St. Louis, 
then the military headquarters of Sijain for Upper 
Louisiana, where he became a partner of Com- 
mandant de Leba, and was extensively engaged 
in the fur-trade among the Indians on the Ohio 
and Mississippi Rivers. On the occupation of 
Kaskaskia by Col. George Rogers Clark in 1778, 
he rendered valuable aid to tlie Americans, turn- 
ing out supplies to feed Clark's destitute soldiers, 
and accepting Virginia Continental mone)", at 
par, in payment, incurring liabilities in excess of 

§20,000. This, followed hj the confiscation policy 
of the British Colonel Hamilton, at Vincennes, 
where Vigo had considerable property, reduced 
him to extreme penury. H. W. Beckwith says 
that, towards the close of his life, he lived on his 
little homestead near Vincennes, in gi-eat poverty 
but cheerful to the last He was never recom- 
pensed during his life for his sacrifices in behalf 
of the American cause, though a tardy restitution 
was attempted, after his death, by the United 
States Government, for the benefit of his heirs. 
He died, at a ripe old age, at Vincennes, Ind., 
March 22, 1835. 

VILLA RIDGE, a village of Pulaski County, 
on the Illinois Central Railway, 10 miles north of 
Cairo. Population, 500. 

VINCENNES, Jean Baptiste Bissot, a Canadian 
explorer, born at Quebec, January, 1688, of aris- 
tocratic and wealthy ancestry. He was closely 
connected with Louis Joliet — probably his 
brother-in-law, although some liistorians say that 
he was the latter's nephew. He entered the 
Canadian army as ensign in 1701, and had a long 
and varied experience as an Indian fighter. 
About 1725 he took up his residence on what is 
now the site of the present city of Vincennes, 
Ind., which is named in his honor. Here he 
erected an earth fort and established a trading- 
post. In 1726, under orders, he co-operated with 
D'Artaguiette (then the French Governor of Illi- 
nois) in an expedition against the Chickasaws. 
The expedition resulted disastrously. Vincennes 
and D'Artaguiette were captured and burned 
at the stake, together with Father Senat (a 
Jesuit priest) and others of the command. 
(See also D'Artaguiette: French Governors of 
lUhwi.-'. ) 

VIRDEN, a city of Macoupin County, on the 
Chicago & Alton and the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy Railroads, 21 miles south by west from 
Springfield, and 31 miles east-southeast of Jack- 
sonville. It has five churches, two banks, two 
newspapers, telephone service, electric lights, 
grain elevators, machine shop, and extensive coal 
mines. Pop (1900), 2,280 ; (school censusl903),3,651. 

VIR(wIM.4,an incorporated city, the county- 
seat of Cass County, situated at the intersection of 
the Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis, with the Spring- 
field Division of tlie Baltimore & Ohio South- 
western Railroad, 15 miles north of Jacksonville, 
and 33 miles west-northwest of Springfield. It 
lies in the heart of a rich agricultural region. 
There is a flouring mili here, besides manu- 
factories of wagons and cigars. The city has two 
National and one State bank, five churches, a 



high school, and two weekl)' papers. Pop (1890), 
1.603; (1900), 1,600. 

VOCKE, WilUam, lawyer, was boru at Min- 
den, WestphaUa (Germany), in 1839, the son of a 
Government Secretary in the Prussian service. 
Having lost his father at an early age, he emi- 
grated to America in 1856, and, after a short 
stay in New York, came to Chicago, where he 
found employment as a paper-carrier for "The 
Staats-Zeitung," meanwhile giving his attention 
to the study of law. Later, he became associated 
with a real-estate firm; on the commencement 
of the Civil War, enlisted as a private in a 
three-months' regiment, and, finally, in the 
Twenty-fourth Illinois (the first Hecker regi- 
ment), in which he rose to the rank of Captain. 
Returning from the army, he was employed as 
city editor of "The Staats-Zeitung,"" but, in 
1865, became Clerk of the Chicago Police Court, 
serving until 1869. Meanwhile he had been 
admitted to the bar, and, on retirement from 
office, began practice, but, in 1870, was elected 
Representative in the Twenty-seventh General 
Assembly, in which he bore a leading part in 
framing "the burnt record act" made necessary 
by the fire of 18T1. He has since been engaged 
in the practice of his profession, having been, 
for a number of years, attorney for the German 
Consulate at Chicago, also serving, for several 
years, on the Chicago Board of Education. Mr. 
Vocke is a man of high literary tastes, as shown 
by his publication, in 1869, of a volume of poems 
translated from the German, which has been 
highly commended, besides a legal work on 
"The Administration of Justice in the United 
States, and a Synopsis of the Mode of Procedure 
in om- Federal and State Coui-ts and All Federal 
and State Laws relating to Subjects of Interest 
to Aliens,"' which has been pubhshed in the Ger- 
man Language, and is highly valued by German 
lawyers and business men. Mr. "Vocke was a 
member of the Republican National Convention 
of 1872 at Philadelphia, which nominated General 
Grant for the Presidency a second time. 

YOLK, Leonard 'W'ells, a distinguished IlUnois 
sculptor, born at Wellstown (afterwards "Wells), 
N. Y., Nov. 7, 1828. Later, his father, who was 
a marble cutter , removed to Pittsfield, Mass., 
and, at the age of 10, Leonard began work in his 
shop. In 1848 he came west and began model- 
ing in clay and drawing at St. Louis, being only 
self-taught. He married a cousin of Stephen A. 
Douglas, and the latter, in 1855, aided him in 
the prosecution of his art studies in Italy. Two 
years afterward he settled in Chicago, where he 

modeled the first portrait bust ever made in the 
city, having for his subject his first patron — the 
"Little Giant." The next year (1858) he made a 
life-size marble statue of Douglas. In 1860 he 
made a portrait bust of Abraham Lincoln, which 
passed into the possession of tlie Chicago His- 
torical Society and was destroyed in the great fire 
of 1871. In 1868-69, and again in 1871-73, he 
revisited Italy for purposes of study. In 1867 he 
was elected academician of the Chicago Academy, 
and was its President for eight years. He was 
genial, companionable and charitable, and always 
ready to assist his younger and less fortmiate pro- 
fessional brethren. His best known works are the 
Douglas Monument, in Chicago, several soldiers' 
monuments in different parts of the country, 
the statuary for the Henry Keep mausoleum at 
Watertown. N. Y., life-size statues of Lincoln 
and Douglas, in the State House at Springfield, 
and mmierous portrait busts of men eminent 
in political, ecclesiastical and commercial life. 
Died, at Osceola, "Wis., August 18, 1895. 

TOSS, Aruo, journalist, lawyer and soldier, 
born in Prussia, April 16, 1821 ; emigrated to the 
United States and was admitted to the bar in 
Chicago, in 1848, the same year becoming editor 
of "The Staats-Zeitung"; was elected City 
Attorney in 1852, and again m 1853; in 1861 
became Major of the Sixth Illinois Cavalry, but 
afterwards assisted in organizing the Twelfth 
Cavalry, of which he was commissioned Colonel, 
still later serving with his command in Vir- 
ginia. He was at Harper's Ferry at the time of 
the capture of that place in September, 1862, but 
succeeded in cutting his way, with his command, 
through the rebel lines, escaping into Pennsyl- 
vania. Compelled by ill-health to leave the serv- 
ice in 1863, he retired to a farm in "Will Coiuity, 
but, in 1869, returned to Chicago, where he served 
as Master in Chancery and was elected to the 
lower branch of the General Assembly in 1876, 
but declined a re-election in 1878. Died, in Chi- 
cago, March 23, 1888. 

ROAD, a railway running from Chester to Jlouut 
Vernon, 111. , 63. 33 miles, with a branch extend- 
ing from Chester to Menard. 1.5 miles; total 
mileage, 64.83. It is of standard gauge, and 
almost entirely laid with 60-pound steel rails. — 
(History.) It was organized, Feb. 30, 1878, as 
successor to the Iron Moimtain, Chester & East- 
ern Railroad. During the fiscal year 1893-94 the 
Company purchased the Tamaroa & Jlount Ver- 
non Railroad, extending from Mount Vernon to 



Tamaroa, 22.5 miles. Capital stock (1898), Sl,- 
250,000; bonded indebtedness, §690,000; total 
capitalization, §2,028,573. 

WABASH COUNTY, situated in the southeast 
corner of the State ; area 220 square miles. The 
county was carved out from Edwards in 1824, 
and the first court house built at CenterTille, in 
Ma.v, 1S2G. Later, Jlount Carmel was made the 
county -seat. (See Mount Carmd.) The "Wabash 
River drains the county on the east; other 
streams are the Bon Pas, Coffee and Crawfish 
Creeks. The surface is undulating with a fair 
growth of timber. The chief industries are the 
raising of live-stock and the cultivation of cere- 
als. The wool-crop is likewise valuable. The 
county is crossed by the Louisville, Evansville & 
St. Louis and the Cairo and Vinoennes Division 
of the Cleveland. Cincinnati, Chicago & St. 
Louis Railroads. Population (1880), 4,945; (1890), 
11,806; (1900), 12,.583. 

WABASH RAILROAD, an extensive railroad 
system connecting the cities of Detroit and 
Toledo, on the east, with Kansas City and Coimcil 
Bluffs, on the west, with branches to Chicago, St. 
Louis, Quincy and Altamont, 111., and to Keokuk 
and Des Jloines, Iowa. The total mileage (1898) 
is 1,874.96 miles, of which 677.4 miles are in Illi- 
nois — all of the latter being the property of the 
company, besides 176.7 miles of yard-tracks, sid- 
ings and spurs. T)ie company has trackage 
privileges over the Toledo, Peoria & Western (6.5 
miles) between Elvaston and Keokuk bridge, and 
over the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy (21.8 
miles) between Camp Point and Quincy. — (His- 
tory.) A considerable portion of this road in 
Illinois is constructed on the line upon which the 
Northern Cross Railroad was projected, in the 
"internal improvement" scheme adopted in 1837, 
and embraces the only section of road completed 
under that scheme — that between the Illinois 
River and Springfield. (1) The construction of 
this section was begun by the State, May 11, 
1837, the first rail laid, jiay 9, 1838, the road 
completed to Jacksonville, Jan. 1, 1840, and to 
Springfield, Jlay 13, 1842. It was operated for a 
time by "mule power," but the income was in- 
sufficient to keep the line in repair and it was 
finally abandoned. In 1S47 the line was sold for 
§21,100 to N. H. Ridgelyand Thomas Mather of 
Springfield, and by them transferred tc New 
York capitalists, who organized the Sangamon & 
Morgan Railroad Company, reconstructed the 
road from Springfield to Naples and opened it for 
business in 1849. (2) In 1853 two corporations 
were organized in Ohio and Indiana, respectively. 

under the name of the Toledo & Illinois Railroad 
and the Lake Erie, Wabash & St. Louis Railroad, 
which were consolidated as the Toledo, Wabash 
& Western Railroad, June 25, 1856. In 1858 
these lines were sold separately under foreclo- 
sure, and finally reorganized, under a special char- 
ter granted by the Illinois Legislature, under the 
name of the Great Western Railroad Company. 
(3) The Quincy & Toledo Railroad, extending 
from Camp Point to the Illinois River opposite 
Meredosia, was constructed in 1858-59, and that, 
with the Illinois & Southern Iowa (from Clay- 
ton to Keokuk), was united, July 1, 1865, with 
the eastern divisions extending to Toledo, the 
new organization taking the name of the main 
line, (Toledo, Wabash & Western). (4) The 
Hannibal & Naples Division (49.6 miles), from 
Bluffs to Hannibal, Mo., was chartered in 1863, 
opened for business in 1870 and leased to the 
Toledo, Wabash & Western. The latter defaulted 
on its interest in 1875, was placed in the hands 
of a receiver and, in 1877, was turned over to a 
new company under the name of the Wabash 
Railway Company. (5) In 1868 the company, 
as it then existed, promoted and secured the con- 
struction, and afterwards acquired the owner- 
ship, of a line extending from Decatur to East St. 
Louis (110.5 miles) under the name of the Deca- 
tur & East St. Louis Raikoad. (6) The Eel River 
Railroad, from Butler to Logansport, Ind., was 
acquired in 1877, and afterwards extended to 
Detroit under the name of the Detroit, Butler & 
St. Louis Railroad, completing the connection 
from Logansport to Detroit. — In November, 1879, 
the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Com- 
pany was organized, took the property and con- 
solidated it with certain lines west of the 
Mississippi, of which tlie chief was the St. Louis, 
Kansas City & Northern. A line had been pro- 
jected from Decatur to Chicago as early as 1870, 
but, not having been constructed in 1881, the 
Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific purchased what was 
known as the Chicago «S: Pf.ducah Railroad, 
uniting with the main line at Bement, and (by 
way of the Decatur and St. Louis Division) giv- 
ing a direct line between Chicago and St. Louis. 
At this time the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific wai 
operating the following additional leased lines: 
Pekin, Lincoln & Decatur (67.2 miles); Hannibal 
& Central Missouri (70.2 miles); Lafayette, Mun- 
cie & Bloomington (36.7 miles), and the Lafayette 
Bloomington & Muncie (80 miles). A connection 
between Chicago on the west and Toledo and 
Detroit on the east was established over the 
Grand Trunk road in 1882. but. in 1890, the com- 



pany constructed a line from Montpelier, Ohio, to 
Clark, Ind. (149.7 miles), thence by track lease 
to Chicago (17.5 miles), giving an independent 
line between Chicago and Detroit by what is 
known to investors as the Detroit & Chicago 

The total mileage of the Wabash, St. Louis & 
Pacific system, in 1884, amounted to over 3,600 
miles; but, in May of that year, default having 
been made in the payment of interest, the work 
of disintegration began. The main line east of 
the Mississippi and that on the west were sepa- 
rated, the latter taking the name of the "Wabash 
Western." The Eastern Division was placed in 
the hands of a receiver, so remaining until May, 
1889, when the two divisions, having been 
bought in by a purchasing committee, were 
consolidated under the present name. The total 
earnings and income of the road in Illinois, for 
the fiscal year 1898, were §4,402.631, and the 
expenses §4,836,110. The total capital invested 
(1898) was §139,889,643, including capital stock 
of §52,000,000 and bonds to the amount of §81,- 

WABASH EIVER, rises in northwestern Ohio, 
passes into Indiana, and runs northwest to Hun- 
tington. It then flows nearly due west to Logans- 
port, thence southwest to Covington, finally 
turning southward to Terre Haute, a few miles 
below which it strikes the western boundary of 
Indiana. It forms the boundary between Illinois 
and Indiana (taking into account its numerous 
windings) for some 200 miles. Below Vincennes 
it runs in a south-southwesterly direction, and 
enters the Ohio at the south-west extremity of 
Indiana, near latitude 37° 49' north. Its length 
is estimated at 557 miles. 

(See Illinois Central Railroad.) 

ROAD. (See Wabash Railroad.) 

Wabash Railroad.) 

WAIT, William Smith, pioneer, and original 
suggestor of the Illinois Central Railroad, was 
born in Portland, Maine, March 5, 1789, and edu- 
cated in the public schools of his native place. 
In his youth he entered a book-publishing house 
in which his father was a partner, and was for a 
time associated with the publication of a weekly 
paper. Later the business was conducted at 
id extended over the Eastern, Middle, 
Southern States, the subject of this sketch 
extensive tours in the interest of the 
firm. In 1817 he made a tour to the West, 

reaching St. Louis, and, early in the following 
year, visited Bond County, 111., where he made 
his first entry of land from the Government. 
Returning to Boston a few months later, he con- 
tinued in the service of the publishing firm until 

1820, when he again came to Illinois, and, in 

1821, began farming in Ripley Township, Bond 
County. Returning East in 1824. he spent the 
next ten years in the employment of the publish- 
ing firm, with occasional visits to Illinois. In 
1835 he located permanently near Greenville, 
Bond Coimty, and engaged extensively in farm- 
ing and fruit-raising, planting one of the largest 
apple orchards in the State at that early day. In 
1845 he presided as chairman over the National 
Industrial Convention in New York, and, in 
1848, was nominated as the candidate of the 
National Reform Association for Vice-President 
on the ticket with Gerrit Smith of New York, 
but declined. He was also prominent in County 
and State Agricultural Societies. Mr Wait has 
been credited with being one of the first (if not 
the very first) to suggest the construction of the 
Illinois Central Railroad, which he did as early 
as 1835; was also one of the prime movers in the 
construction of the Mississippi &■ Atlantic Rail- 
road — now the "Vandalia Line" — giving much 
time to the latter enterprise from 1846 for many 
years, and was one of the original incorporators 
of the St. Louis & lUinois Bridge Company. 
Died, July 17, 1865. 

WALKER, Cyrns, pioneer, lawyer, born in 
Rockbridge County, Va., May 14, 1791 ; was taken 
while an infant to Adair County, Ky., and came 
to Macomb, 111., in 1833, being the second lawyer 
to locate in McDonough County. He had a wide 
reputation as a successful advocate, especially in 
criminal cases, and practiced extensively in the 
courts of Western Illinois and also in Iowa. Died, 
Dec. 1, 1875. Mr. Walker was uncle of the late 
Pinkney H. Walker of the Supreme Court, who 
studied law with him. He was Whig candidate 
for Presidential Elector for the State-at-large in 

WALKER, James Barr, clergyman, was born 
in Philadelphia, July 29, 1805; in his youth 
served as errand-boy in a country store near 
Pittsburg and spent four years in a printing 
office ; then became clerk in the office of Mordecai 
M. Noah, in New York, studied law and gradu- 
ated from Western Reserve College, Ohio ; edited 
various religious papers, including "The Watch- 
man of the Prairies" (now "The Advance") of 
Chicago, was licensed to preach by the Presbytery 
of Chicago, and for some time was lecturer on 



■'Harmony between Science and Revealed Reli- 
gion" at Oberlin College and Chicago Theological 
Seminary. He was author of several volumes, 
one of which— 'The Philosophy of the Plan of 
Salvation." published anonymously under the 
editorship of Prof. Calvin E. Stowe (1855)— ran 
through several editions and was translated into 
five different languages, including Hindustanee. 
Died, at Wheaton. 111., March 6, 1887. 

WALKER, James Monroe, corporation lawyer 
and Railway President, was born at Claremont, 
N. H., Feb. 14. 1820. At fifteen he removed with 
his parents to a farm in Michigan; was educated 
at Oberlin, Ohio, and at the University of Michi- 
gan, Ann Arbor, graduating from the latter in 
1849. He then entered a law office as clerk and 
student, was admitted to the bar t'.ie next j'sar. 
and soon after elected Prosecutin;^ Attorney of 
Washtenaw County ; was also local attorney for 
the Michigan Central Railway, for which, after 
his removal to Chicago in 1853, he became Gen- 
eral Solicitor. Two years later the firm of Sedg- 
wick & Walker, which had been organized in 
Michigan, became attorney's for the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy Railroad, and, until his 
death, Mr. "Walker was associated with this com 
pan}-, either as General Solicitor, General Counsel 
or President, filling the latter position from 1870 
to 1875. Mr. Walker organized both the Chicago 
and Kansas City stock-yards, and was President 
of these coi-porations, as also of the Wilmington 
Coal Company, down to the time of his deatli, 
which occurred on Jan. 22, 1881, as a result of 
lieart disease. 

WALKER, (Rev.) Jesse, Methodist Episcopal 
missionary, was born in Rockingham Count}-, 
Va. , June 9, 1760; in 180.) removed to Tennessee, 
became a traveling preacher in 1802, and, in 
180G, came to Illinois under the presiding-elder- 
ship of Rev. William McKendree (afterwards 
Bishop), locating first at Turkey Hill, St. Clair 
County. In 1807 he held a camp meeting near 
Edwardsville — the first on Illinois soil. Later, 
he transferred his labors to Northern Illinois; 
was at Peoria in 1824; at Ottawa in 1825, and 
devoted much time to missionary work among 
the Pottawatomies, maintaining a school among 
them for a time. He visited Chicago in 1826, and 
there is evidence that he was a prominent resident 
there for several years, occupying a log house, 
which he used as a church and living-room, on 
'Wolf Point" at the junction of the North and 
South Branches of the Chicago River. While 
acting as superintendent of the Fox River mis- 
sion, his residence appears to have been at Plain- 

field, in the northern part of Will County. Died, 
Oct. 5, 1835. 

WALKER, Pinkney H., lawyer and jurist. 
was born in Adair County, Ky., June 18, 1815. 
His boyhood was chiefly passed in farm work and 
as clerk in a general store ; in 1834 he came to Illi- 
nois, settling at Rushville, where he worked in a 
store for four years. In 1838 he removed to 
Macomb, where he began attendance at an acad- 
emy and the study of law- with his uncle, Cyrus 
Walker, a leading lawyer of his time. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1839, practicing at Macomb 
until 1848, when he returned to Rushville. In 
1853 he was elected Judge of the Fifth Judicial 
Circuit, to fill a vacancy, and re-elected in 1855. 
This position he resigned in 1858, having been 
appointed, by Governor Bissell. to fill the vacancy 
on the bench of the Supreme Court occasioned by 
the resignation of Judge Skinner. Two months 
later he was elected to the same position, and 
re-elected in 1867 and "76. He presided as Chief 
Justice from January, 1864, to June, "67, and 
again from June, 1874, to June, "75. Before the 
expiration of his last term he died, Feb. 7, 1885. 

WALL, George Willard, lawyer, politician and 
Judge, was born at Chillicothe, Ohio, April 22, 
1839; brought to Perry County, 111., in infancy, 
and received his preparatory education at McKen. 
dree College finally graduating from the Uni- 
versity of Michigan in 1858, and from the 
Cincinnati Law School in 1859, when he began 
practice at Duquoin, 111. He was a member of 
the Constitutional Convention of 1862, and, from 
1864 to "68, served as State's Attorney for the 
Third Judicial District ; was also a Delegate to the 
State Constitutional Convention of 1869-70. In 
1872 he was an unsuccessful Democratic candi- 
date for Congress, although running ahead of his 
ticket. In 1877 be was elected to the bench of 
the Third Circuit, and re-elected in "79, "85 and 
"91, much of the time since 1877 being on duty 
upon the Appellate bench. His home is at 

WALLACE, (Rev.) Peter, D.D., clergyman 
and soldier; was born in Mason County, Ky., 
April 11 1813; taken in infancy to Brown 
County, Ohio, where he grew up on a farm until 
15 years of age, when he was apprenticed to a 
carpenter; at the age of 20 came to Illinois, 
wheie he became a contractor and builder, fol- 
lowing this occupation for a number of years. He 
was converted in 1835 at Springfield, III, and, 
some, years later, having decided to enter the 
ministry, was ailmitted to the Illinois Conference 
as a deacon by Bishop E S. Janes in 1855. and 



placed in charge of the Danville Circuit. Two 
years later he was ordained bj- Bishop Scott, and, 
in the next few years, held pastorates at various 
places in the central and eastern parts of the 
State. From 18G7 to 1874 he was Presiding Elder 
of the Mattoon and Quincy Districts, and, for six 
years, held the position of President of the Board 
of Trustees of Chaddock College at Quincy, from 
which he received the degree of D.D. in 1881. 
In the second year of the Civil War he raised a 
company in Sangamon County, was chosen 
its Captain and assigned to the Seventy-third 
Illinois Volunteers, known as the "preachers' 
regiment" — all of its officers being ministers. In 
1864 he was compelled by ill-health to resign his 
commission. While pastor of the church at Say- 
brook, 111., he was offered the position of Post- 
master of that place, which he decided to accept, 
and was allowed to retire from the active minis- 
try. On retirement from office, in 1884, he 
removed to Chicago. In 1889 he was appointed 
bj' Governor Fifer the first Chaplain of the Sol- 
diers' and Sailors' Home at Quincy, but retired 
some four years afterward, when he returned to 
Chicago. Dr. Wallace was an eloquent and 
effective preacher and continued to preac^h, at 
intervals, until within a short time of his decease, 
which occurred in Chicago, Feb. 21, 1897, in his 
84th year. A zealous patriot, he frequently 
spoke very effectively upon the political rostrum. 
Originally a Whig, he became a Republican on 
the organization of that party, and took pride in 
the fact that the first vote he ever cast was for 
Abraham Lincoln, for Representative in the Legis- 
lature, in 1834. He was a Knight Templar, Vice- 
President of the Tippecanoe Club of Chicago, 
and, at his death, Chaplain of America Post, Xo. 
708. G. A. R. 

WALLACE, William Henry Lamb, lawyer and 
soldier, was born at Urbana, Ohio, July 8, 1831 ; 
brought to Illinois in 1833, his father settling 
near La Salle and. afterwards, at Mount Morris. 
Ogle County, where young Wallace attended the 
Rock River Seminary ; was admitted to the bar in 
1845 ; in 1846 enlisted as a private in the Illi- 
nois Volunteers (Col. John J. Hardin's regiment). 
for the Mexican War, rising to the rank of Adju- 
tant and participting in the battle of Buena Vista 
(where his commander was killed), and in other 
engagements. Returning to his profession at 
Ottawa, he served as District Attorney (18.")2-56). 
then became partner of his father-in-law. Col. 
T. Lyle Dickey, afterwards of the Supreme Court. 
In April, 1861, he was one of the first to answer 
the call for troops by enlisting, and became Colo- 

nel of the Eleventh Illinois (three-months' 
men), afterwards re-enlisting for three years. 
As commander of a brigade he participated in 
the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson, in Feb- 
ruary, 1862, receiving promotion as Brigadier- 
General for gallantry. At Pittsburg Landing 
(Shiloh), as commander of Gen. C. F. Smith's 
Division, devolving on him on account of the 
illness of his superior officer, he showed great 
courage, but fell mortally wounded, dying at 
Charleston, Tenn. , April 10, 1862. His career 
promised great brilliancy and his loss was greatly 
deplored. -Martin E. M. ( Wallace), brother of 
the preceding, was born at Urbana, Ohio, Sept. 
29, 1829, came to La Salle County. Ill, . with his 
father's family and was educated in the local 
schools and at Rock River Seminary ; studied law 
at Ottawa, and was admitted to the bar in 1856, 
soon after locating in Chicago. In 1861 he 
assisted in organizing the Fourth Regiment Illi- 
nois Cavalry, of which he became Lieutenant- 
Colonel, and was complimented, in 1865, with the 
rank of brevet Brigadier-General. After the 
war he served as Assessor of Internal Revenue 
(1866-69); County Judge (1869-77); Prosecuting 
Attorney (1884); and, for many years past, has 
been one of the Justices of the Peace of tlie city 
of Chicago. 

WALNUT, a town of Bureau County, on the 
Mendota and Fulton branch of the Chicago. Bvir- 
lington ct Quincy Railroad, 26 miles west of 
Mendota; is in a farming and stock-raising di.s- 
ti'ict ; has two banks and two newspapers. Popu- 
lation (1890), 605; (1900), 791. 

WAR OF 1812. Upon the declaration of war 
by Congress, in June, 1812, the Pottawatomies, 
and most of the other tribes of Indians in the 
Territory of Illinois, strongly sympathized with 
the British. The savages had been hostile and 
restless for some time previous, and blockhouses 
and family forts had been erected at a number 
of points, especially in the settlements most 
exposed to the incursions of the savages. Gov- 
ernor Edwards, becoming apprehensive of an 
outbreak, constructed I'ort Russell, a few miles 
from Edwardsville. Taking the field in person, 
he made this his headquarters, and collected a 
force of 250 mounted volunteers,, who were later 
reinforced by two companies of rangers, under 
Col. William Russell, numbering about 100 men. 
An independent company of twenty-one spies, of 
which John Reynolds — afterwards Governor — 
was a member, was also formed and led by Capt. 
Samuel Judy. The Governor organized his little 
army into two regiments under Colonels Rector 



and Stephenson, Colonel Russell serving as 
second to the commander-in-chief, other mem- 
bers of his staff being Secretary Nathaniel Pope 
and Robert K. McLaughlin. On Oct. 18, 1812, 
Governor Edwards, with his men, set out for 
Peoria, where it was expected that their force 
would meet that of General Hopkins, who had 
been sent from Kentucky with a force of 2,000 
men. En route, two Kickapoo villages were 
burned, and a number of Indians unnecessarily 
slain by Edwards" party. Hopkins had orders to 
disperse the Indians on the Illinois and Wabash 
Rivers, and destroy their villages. He deter- 
mined, however, on reaching the headwaters of 
the Vermilion to proceed no farther. Governor 
Edwards reached the head of Peoria Lake, but, 
failing to meet Hopkins, returned to Fort Russell. 
About the same time Capt. Thomas E. Craig led 
a party, in two boats, up the Illinois River to 
Peoria. His boats, as he alleged, having been 
fired upon in the night by Indians, who were har- 
bored and protected by the French citizens of 
Peoria, he burned the greater part of the village, 
and capturing the population, carried them down 
the river, putting them on shore, in the early part 
of the winter, just below Alton. Other desultory 
expeditions marked the campaigns of 1813 and 
1814. The Indians meanwhile gaining courage, 
remote settlements were continually harassed 
by marauding bands. Later in 1814, an expedi- 
tion, led by Major (afterwards President) Zachary 
Taylor, ascended the Mississippi as far as Rock 
Island, where he found a large force of Indians, 
supported by British regulars with artillery. 
Finding himself unable to cope with so formida- 
ble a foe. Major Taylor retreated down the river. 
On the site of the present town of Warsaw he 
threw up fortifications, which he named Fort 
Edwards, from which point he was subsequently 
compelled to retreat. The same year the British, 
with their Indian allies, descended from Macki- 
nac, captured Prairie du Chien, and burned Forts 
Madison and Johnston, after which they retired 
to Cap au Gris. The treaty of Ghent, signed 
Dec. 24, 1814, closed the war, although no formal 
treaties were made with the tribes until the year 

WAR OF THE REBELLION. At the outbreak 
of the Civil War, the executive chair, in Illinois, 
was occupied by Gov. Richard Yates. Immedi- 
ately upon the issuance of President Lincoln's 
first call for troops (April 15, 1861), the Governor 
issued his proclamation summoning the Legisla- 
ture together in special session and. the same 
day, issued a call for "six regiments of militia," 

the quota assigned to the State under call of the 
President. Public excitement was at fever heat, 
and dormant patriotism in both sexes was 
aroused as never before. Party lines were 
broken down and. with comparatively few excep- 
tions, the mass of the people were actuated by a 
common sentiment of patriotism. On April 19, 
Governor Yates was instructed, by the Secretary 
of AVar, to take possession of Cairo as an important 
strategic point. At that time, the State militia 
organizations were few in number and poorly 
equipped, consisting chiefly of independent com- 
panies in the larger cities. The Governor acted 
with great promptitude, and, on April 21, seven 
companies, numbering 595 men, commanded by 
Gen. Richard K. Swift of Chicago, were en route 
to Cairo. The first volunteer compinj' to tender 
its services, in response to Governor Yates' proc- 
lamation, on April 16, was the Zouave Grays of 
Springfield. Eleven other companies were ten- 
dered the same day, and, by the evening of the 
18th, the number had been increased to fifty. 
Simultaneous!}- with these proceedings, Chicago 
bankers tendered to the Governor a war loan of 
§500,000. and those of Springfield, §100,000. The 
Legislature, at its special session, passed acts in- 
creasing the efficiency of the militia law, and 
provided for the creation of a war fund of §2,- 
000,000. Besides the six regiments already called 
for. the raising of ten additional volunteer regi- 
ments and one battery of light artillery was 
authorized. The last of the six regiments, 
apportioned to Illinois under the first presidential 
call, was dispatched to Cairo early in May. The 
six regiments were numbered the Seventh to 
Twelfth, inclusive — the earlier numbers. First to 
Sixth, being conceded to the six regiments wliich 
had served in the war with Mexico. The regi- 
ments were commanded, respectively, by Colonels 
Jolm Cook, Richard J. Oglesby, Eleazer A. Paine, 
James D. Morgan, William H. L. Wallace, and 
John McArthur, constituting the "First Brigade 
of Illinois Volunteers." Benjamin M. Prentiss, 
having been chosen Brigadier-General on arrival 
at Cairo, assumed command, relieving General 
Swift. The quota imder the second call, consist- 
ing of ten regiments, was mustered into service 
within sixty days, 200 companies being tendered 
immediately. JIany more volunteered than could 
be accepted, and large numbers crossed to Mis- 
souri and enlisted in regiments forming in that 
State. During June and July the Secretary of 
War authorized Governor Yates to recruit twenty- 
two additional regiments (seventeen infantry and 
five cavalry), which were promptly raised. On 



July 22, the day following the defeat of the Union 
army at Bull Run, President Lincoln called for 
500,000 more volunteers. Governor Yates im- 
mediately responded with an offer to the War 
Department of sixteen more regiments (thirteen 
of infantry and three of cavalry), and a battalion 
of artillery, adding, that the State claimed it as 
her right, to do her full share toward the preser- 
vation of the Union. Under supplemental author- 
ity, received from the Secretary of War in 
August, 1861, twelve additional regiments of in- 
fantry and five of cavalry were raised, and, by De- 
cember, 1861, the State had 43,000 volunteers in 
the field and 17,000 in camps of instruction. 
Other calls were made in Jul}- and August, 1802, 
each for 300,000 men. Illinois' quota, under both 
calls, was over 52,000 men, no regard being paid 
to the fact that the State had already furnished 
16,000 troops in excess of its quotas under previ- 
ous calls. Unless this number of volunteers was 
raised by September 1, a draft would be ordered. 
The tax was a severe one, inasmuch as it would 
fall chiefly upon the prosperous citizens, the float- 
ing population, the idle and the extremelj' poor 
having already followed the army's march, either 
as soldiers or as camp-followers. But recruiting 
was actively carried on, and. aided by liberal 
bounties in many of the counties, in less than a 
fortnight the 53.000 new troops were secured, the 
volunteers coming largely from the substantial 
classes — agricultural, mercantile, artisan and 
professional. By the end of December, fifty nine 
regiments and four batteries had been dispatched 
to the front, besides a considerable number to fill 
up regiments already in the field, which had suf- 
fered severely from battle, exposure and disease. 
At this time, Illinois had an aggregate of over 
135,000 enlisted men in the field. The issue of 
President Lincoln's preUminary proclamation of 
emancipation, in September, 1863, was met bj' a 
storm of hostile criticism from his political 
opponents, who — aided by the absence of so 
large a proportion of the loyal population of the 
State in the field — were able to carry the elec- 
tions of that year. Consequently, when the 
Twenty-third General Assembly convened in 
regular session at Springfield, on Jan. 5, 1863, a 
large majority of that body was not only opposed 
to both the National and State administrations, 
but avowedly opposed to the further prosecution 
of the war under the existing policy. The Leg- 
islature reconvened in June, but was prorogued 
by Governor Yates Between Oct. 1, 1863, and 
July 1, 1864, 16.000 veterans re-enlisted and 
87,000 new volunteers were enrolled; and, by the 

date last mentioned, Illinois had furnished to the 
Union army 244,496 men, being 14. .096 in ex- 
cess of the allotted quotas, constituting fifteen 
per cent of the entire population. These were 
comprised in 151 regiments of infantry, 17 of 
cavalry and two complete regiments of artillery, 
besides twelve independent batteries. The total 
losses of Illinois organizations, during the war, 
has been reported at 34,834, of which 5,874 were 
killed in battle, 4,020 died from wounds, 33,786 
frona disease and 2, 154 from other causes — being 
a total of thirteen per cent of the entire force of 
the State in the service. The part which IlUnois 
played in the contest was conspicuous for patriot- 
ism, promptness in response to every call, and 
the bravery and efficiency of its troops in the 
field — reflecting honor upon the State and its his- 
tory. Nor were its loyal citizens — who, while 
staying at home, furnished moral and material 
support to the men at the front — less worthy of 
praise than those who volunteered. By uphold- 
ing the Government — National and State — and 
by their zeal and energy in collecting and sending 
forward immense quantities of supplies— surgical, 
medical and other — often at no little sacrifice, 
they contributed much to the success of the 
Union arms. (See also Camp Douglas; Camp 
Douglas Conspiracy; Secret Treasonable Soci- 

WAR OF THE REBELLION (History of Illi- 
nois Regiments). The following is a list of the 
various military organizations mustered into the 
service during the Civil War (1861-65), with the 
terms of service and a summary of the more 
important events in the history of each, while 
in the field : 

Seventh Infantry. Illinois having sent six 
regiments to the Mexican War, by courtesy the 
numbering of the regiments which took part in 
the war for the Union began with number 
Seven. A number of regiments which responded 
to the first call of the President, claimed the right 
to be recognized as the first regiment in the 
field, but the honor was finally accorded to that 
organized at Springfield by Col. John Cook, and 
hence his regiment was numbered Seventh. It 
was mustered into the service, April 35, 1861, and 
remained at Mound City during the three months' 
service, the period of its first enlistment. It was 
subsequently reorganized and mustered for the 
three years' service, July 35, 1861, and was 
engaged in the battles of Fort Donelson, Shiloh, 
Corinth, Cherokee, AUatoona Pass, Salkahatchie 
Swamp, Bentonville and Columbia. The regi- 
ment re-enlisted as veterans at Pulaski, Tenn., 



Dec. 23, 1863; was mustered out at Loui.sville, 
July 9, 1865, and paid otf and discharged at 
Springfield, July 11. 

Eighth Infantry. Organized at Springfield, 
and mustered in for three months' service, April 
26, 1861, Richard J. Oglesby of Decatur, being 
apjx)inted Colonel. It remained at Cairo during 
its term of service, when it was mustered out. 
July 25, 1861, it was reorganized and mustered in 
for three years' service. It participated in the 
battles of Fort Donelson, Shiloh, Port Gibson, 
Thompson Hill, Raymond, Champion Hill, Vicks- 
burg, Brownsville, and Spanish Fort ; re-enlisted 
as veterans, March 24, 1864 ; was mustered out at 
Baton Rouge, May 4, 1866, paid off and dis- 
charged. May 13. having served five years. 

Ninth Infantry. Mustered into the service 
at Springfield, April 26, 1861, for the term of 
three months, under Col. Eleazer A. Paine. It 
was reorganized at Cairo, in August, for three 
years, being composed of companies from St. 
Clair, Madison, Montgomery, Pulaski, Alexander 
and Mercer Counties : was engaged at Fort Donel- 
.son, Shiloh, Jackson (Tenn.), Meed Creek 
Swamps, Salem, Wyatt, Florence. Montezuma, 
Athens and Grenada. Tlie regiment was mounted, 
March 15, 1863, and .so continued during the 
remainder of its service. Mustered out at Louis- 
ville. July 9, 186.1 

Tenth Infantry. Organized and mustered 
into the service for three months, on April 29, 
1861, at Cairo, and on July 29, 1861, was mustered 
into the service for three years, with Col. James 
D. Morgan in command. It was engaged at 
Sykeston, New Madrid, Corinth, Jlissionary 
Ridge. Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Rome, Kenesaw, 
Chattahoochie. Savannah and Bentonville. Re- 
enlisted as veterans, Jan. 1, 1864, and mustered 
out of service, July 4, 1865, at Louisville, and 
received final discharge and ]iay, July 11, 1865, 
at Chicago. 

Eleventh Infantry. Organized at Spring- 
field and mustered into service, April 30, 1861. 
for three months. July 30, the regiment was 
mustered out, and re-enlisted for three years' 
service. It was engaged at Fort Donelson, 
Shiloh, Corinth, Tallahatchie, Vicksburg, Liver- 
pool Heights, Yazoo City, Spanish Fort and 
Fort Blakely. W. H. L. " Wallace, afterwards 
Brigadier-General and killed at Shiloh, was its 
first Colonel. Mustered out of service, at Baton 
Rouge, July 14, 1865 ; paid off and discharged at 

Twelfth Infantry. Mustered into service 
f.)r three years. August 1, 1861; was engaged at 

Columbus, Fort Donelson. Shiloh, Corinth, Lay's 
Ferry, Rome Cross Roads, Dallas. Kenesaw, 
Nickajack Creek, Bald Knob, Decatur, Ezra 
Church, Atlanta, Allatooua and Goldsboro. On 
Jan. 16, 1864, the regiment re-enlisted as veter- 
ans. John McArthur was its first Colonel, suc- 
ceeded by Augustus L. Clietlain, both being 
promoted to Brigadier-Generalships. Mustered 
out of service at Louisville, Ky., July 10, 1865, 
and received final pay and discharge, at Spring- 
field, July 18. 

Thirteenth Infantry. One of the regiments 
organized under the act known as the "Ten Regi- 
ment Bill" ; was mustered into service on May 24, 
1861, for three years, at Dixon, with John B. 
Wyman as Colonel; was engaged at Chickasaw 
Bayou, Arkansas Post, Vicksburg, Jackson, Mis- 
sionary Ridge, Rossville and Ringgold Gap. 
Mustered out at Springfield. June 18, 1864, hav- 
ing served three years and two months. 

Fourteenth Infantry. One of the regiments 
raised under the "Ten Regiment Bill," which 
anticipated the requirements of the General 
Government by organizing, equipping and dril- 
ling a regiment in each Congressional District in 
the State for thirty days, unless sooner required 
for service by the United States. It was mustered 
in at Jacksonville for three years, May 25, 1861, 
under command of John M. Palmer as its first 
Colonel; was engaged at Shiloh, Corinth, Meta- 
mora, Vicksburg, Jackson, Fort Beauregard and 
Meridian ; con.solidated with the Fifteenth Infan- 
try, as a veteran battalion (both regiments hav- 
ing enlisted as veterans), on July 1, 1864. In 
October, 1864, the major part of the battalion 
was captured by General Hood and sent to 
Andersonville. The remainder participated in 
the "March to the Sea," and through the cam- 
paign in the Carolinas. In the spring of 1865 the 
battalion organization was discontinued, both 
regiments having been filled up by recruits. The 
regiment was mustered out at Fort Leaven- 
worth, Kan., Sept. 16, 1865; and arrived at 
Springfield, 111., Sept. 22, 2865, where it received 
final payment and discharge. The aggregate 
number of men who belonged to this organization 
was 1,980, and the aggregate mustered out at 
Fort Leavenworth, 480. During its four years 
and four months of service, tlie regiment 
marched 4,490 miles, traveled by rail, 2,330 miles, 
and, by river, 4,490 miles — making an aggregate 
of 11,670 miles. 

Fifteenth Infantry. Raised under the "Ten 
Regiment Act," in the (then) First Congressional 
District; was organized at Freeport. ami mr.s- 



tered into service, May 34, 1861. It was engaged 
at Sedalia, Shiloh, Corinth, Metamora Hill, 
Vicksburg, Fort Beauregard, Champion Hill, 
Allatoona and Bentonrille. In March. 1861, the 
regiment re-enlisted as veterans, and, in July, 

1864, was consolidated with the Fourteenth Infan- 
try as a Veteran Battalion. At Big Shanty and 
Ackworth a large portion of the battalion was 
captured by General Hood. At Raleigh the 
Veteran Battalion was discontinued and the 
Fifteenth reorganized. From July 1, to Sept. 1, 

1865, the regiment was stationed at Forts Leaven- 
worth and Kearney. Having been mustered out 
at Fort Leavenworth, it was sent to Springfield 
for final payment and discharge — having served 
four years and four months. Miles marched, 
4,299; miles by rail, 2,403, miles by steamer, 
4,310; men enlisted from date of organization, 
1,963; strength at date of muster-out, 640. 

Sixteenth I.nfaxtry. Organized and mus- 
tered into service at Quincy under the "Ten-Regi- 
ment Act," May 24, 1861. The regiment was 
engaged at New Madrid, Tiptonville, Corinth, 
Buzzards' Roost, Resaca, Rome, Kenesaw Moun- 
tain, Chattahoochie River, Peach Tree Creek, 
Atlanta, .Savannah, Columbia, Fayetteville, 
Averysboro and Bentonville. In December, 
1864, the regiment re-enlisted as veterans; was 
mustered out at Louisville, Ky.. July 8, 1865, 
after a term of service of four years and three 
months, and, a week later, arrived at Spring- 
field, where it received its final pay and discharge 

Seventeenth Infantry. Mustered into the 

at Peoria, 111., on May 24, 1861; was 
at Fredericktown (Mo.), Greenfield 
(Ark.), Shiloh, Corinth, Hatchie and Vicksburg. 
In May, 1864, the term of enlistment having 
expired, the regiment was ordered to Springfield 
for pay and discharge. Those men and officers 
who re-enlisted, and those whose term had not 
expired, were consolidated with the Eighth Infan- 
try, which was mustered out in the spring of 1866. 
Eighteenth Inf,a.ntry. Organized under the 
provisions of the "Ten Regiment Bill," at Anna, 
and mustered into the service on May 28, 1861, 
the term of enlistment being for three years. 
The regiment participated in the capture of Fort 
McHenry, and was actively engaged at Fort 
Donelson, Shiloh and Corinth. It was mustered 
out at Little Rock, Dec. 16, 1865, and Dec. 31, 
thereafter, arrived at Springfield, 111., for pay- 
ment and discharge. The aggregate enlistments 
in the regiment, from its organization to date of 
discharge (rank and file), numbered 2.043. 

Nineteenth Infantry. Mustered into the 
United States service for three years, June IT, 
1861, at Chicago, embracing four companies 
which had been accepted under the call for tliree 
months' men; participated in the battle of 
Stone River and in the Tullahoma and Chatta- 
nooga campaigns; was also engaged at Davis' 
Cross Roads, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge and 
Resaca. It was mustered out of service on July 
9, 1864, at Chicago. Originally consisting of 
nearly 1,000 men, besides a large number of 
recruits received during the war, its strength at 
the final muster-out was less than 350. 

Twentieth Infantry Organized, May 14. 
1861, at Joliet. and June 13. 1861, and mustered 
into the service for a term of three years. It 
participated in the following engagements, bat- 
tles, sieges, etc. : Fredericktown (Mo. ), Fort 
Donelson, Shiloh, Corinth, Thompson's Planta- 
tion, Champion Hills, Big Black River, Vicks- 
burg, Kenesaw Mountain and Atlanta. Aftei 
marching through the Carolinas, the regiment- 
was finally ordered to Louisville, where it was 
mustered out, July 16, 1865, receiving its final 
discharge at Chicago, on July 24. 

Twenty-first Infantry. Organized under 
the "Ten Regiment Bill," from the (then) Sev- 
enth Congressional District, at Mattoon, and 
mustered into service for three years, June 28. 
1861. Its first Colonel was U. S. Grant, who was 
in command until August 7, when he was com- 
missioned Brigadier-General. It was engaged 
at Fredericktown (Mo), Corinth, Perry ville. Mur- 
freesboro, Liberty Gap, Chickamauga, Jonesboro. 
Franklin and Nashville. The regiment re-enlisted 
as veterans, at Chattanooga, in February, 1864. 
From June, 1864, to December, 1865. it was on 
duty in Texas. Mustered out at San Antonio. 
Dec. 16, 1865, and paid off and discharged at 
Springfield, Jan. 18, 1866. 

Twenty-second Infantry. Organized at 
Belleville, and mustered into service, for three 
years, at Casej ville, 111., June 25, 1861; was 
engaged at Belmont, Charleston (Mo. ), Sikestown, 
Tiptonville, Farmington, Corinth, Stone River, 
Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, Resaca, New- 
Hope Church, and all the battles of the Atlanta 
campaign, except Rocky Face Ridge. It was 
mustered out at Springfield, July T, 1864. the vet- 
erans and recruits, whose term of service had not 
expired, being consolidated with the Forty -second 
Regiment Illinois Infantry Volunteers. 

Twenty-third Infantry. The organization 
of the Twenty-third Infantry Volunteers com- 
menced, at Chicago, under the popular name of 



the "Irish Brigade," immediately upon the 
opening of hostilities at Sumter. The formal 
muster of the regiment, under the command of 
Col. James A. Mulligan, was made. June 15, 1861, 
at Chicago, when it was occupying barracks 
known as Kane's brewery near the river on 
West Polk Street. It was early ordered to North- 
em Missouri, and was doing garrison duty at 
Lexington, when, in September, 1861, it surren- 
dered with the rest of the garrison, to the forces 
under the rebel General Price, and was paroled. 
From Oct. 8. 1861, to June 14, 1862, it was detailed 
to guard prisoners at Camp Douglas. Thereafter 
it participated in engagements in the Virginias, 
as follows; at South Fork, Greenland Gap, Phi- 
lippi, Hedgeville, Leetown, Maryland Heights, 
Snicker's Gap, Kernstown, Cedar Creek. Win- 
chester, Charlestown. Berryville, Opequan Creek, 
Fisher's Hill, Harrisonburg, Hatcher's Run and 
Petersburg. It also took part in the siege of 
Richmond and the pursuit of Lee, being present 
at the surrender at Appomattox. In January 
and February, 1864, the regiment re-enlisted as 
veterans, at Greenland Gap. W. Va. In August, 
1864, the ten companies of the Regiment, then 
numbering 44G. were consolidated into five com- 
panies and designated, "Battalion, Twenty-third 
Regiment. Illinois Veteran Volunteer Infantry." 
The regiment was thanked by Congress for its 
part at Lexington, and was authorized to inscribe 
Lexington upon its colors. (See also Mulligan, 
James A.) 

Twenty-fourth Infantry, (known as the 
First Hecker Regiment). Organized at Chicago, 
with two companies — to-wit: the Union Cadets 
and the Lincoln Rifles — from the three months' 
service, in June, 1861, and mustered in, Juh" 8, 
18G1. It participated in the battles of Perryville, 
JIurfreesboro, Chickamauga, Resaca. Kenesaw 
Mountain and other engagements in the Atlanta 
campaign. It was mustered out of service at 
Chicago, August 6, 1864. A fraction of the regi- 
ment, which had been recruited i^i the field, and 
whose term of service had not expired at the date 
of muster-out. was organized into one company 
and attached to the Third Brigade, First Divi- 
sion, Fourteenth Army Corps, and mustered out 
at Camp Butler, August 1, 1865. 

Twenty-fifth Infantry. Organized from 
the counties of Kankakee, Iroquois, Ford, Vermil- 
ion, Douglas, Coles, Champaign and Edgar, and 
mustered into service at St. Louis. August 4. 1861. 
It participated in the battles of Pea Ridge, Stone 
River, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, in the 
siege of Corinth, the battle of Kenesaw Moun- 

tain, the siege of Atlanta, and innumerable skir- 
mishes; was mustered out at Springfield, Sept. 5, 
1864. During its three years' service the regi- 
ment traveled 4,962 miles, of which 3,252 were on 
foot, the remainder by steamboat and railroad. 

Twenty-sixth Infantry. Mustered into serv- 
ice, consisting of seven companies, at Springfield, 
August 31, 1861. On Jan. 1, 1864, the regiment 
re-enlisted as veterans. It was authorized by the 
commanding General to inscribe upon its ban- 
ners "New Madrid" ; "Island No. 10;" "Farming- 
ton;" "Siege of Corinth;" "luka;" "Corinth— 
3d and 4th, 1862;" "Resaca;" "Kenesaw;" "Ezra 
Church;" "Atlanta;" "Jonesboro;" "Griswold- 
ville;" "McAllister;" "Savannah;" "Columbia," 
and "Bentonville." It was mustered out at 
Louisville, July 20, 1865, and paid off and 
discharged, at Springfield, July 28— the regiment 
having marched, during its four years of service, 
6,931 miles, and fought twenty -eight hard battles, 
besides innumerable skirmishes. 

Twenty-seventh Infantry. First organized, 
with only seven companies, at Springfield, 
August 10, 1861, and organization completed by 
the addition of three more companies, at Cairo, 
on September 1. It took part in the battle of Bel- 
mont, the siege of Island No. 10, and the battles 
of Farmington, Nashville Murfreesboro, Chicka- 
mauga, Missionary Ridge, Rocky Face Ridge. 
Resaca, Calhoun, Adairsville, Dallas, Pine Top 
Mountain and Kenesaw Mountain, as well as in 
the investment of Atlanta; was relieved from 
duty, August 25. 1864, while at the front, and 
mustered out at Springfield, September 30. Its 
veterans, with the recruits whose term of serv- 
ice had not expired, were consolidated with the 
Ninth Infantry. 

Twenty-eighth Infantry. Composed of 
companies from Pike, Fulton, Schuyler, Mason, 
Scott and Menard Counties; was organized at 
Springfield, August 15, 1861, and mustered into 
service for three years. It participated in the 
battles of Shiloh and Metamora, the siege of 
Vicksburg and the battles of Jackson, Mississippi, 
and Fort Beauregard, and in the capture of 
Spanish Fort, Fort Blakely and Mobile. From 
June, 1864, to March, 1866, it was stationed in 
Texas, and was mustered out at Brownsville, in 
that State, March 15. 1866, having served four 
years and seven months. It was discharged, at 
Springfield, May 13, 1866. 

Twenty-ninth Infantry. Mustered into serv- 
ice at Springfield, August 19, 1861, and was 
engaged at Fort Donelson and Shiloh, and in the 
sieges of Corinth, Vicksburg and Mobile. Eight 



companies were detailed for duty at Holly Springs, 
and were there captured by General Van Dorn, 
in December, 1862, but were exchanged, six 
months later. In January, 1864, the regiment 
re-enlisted as veterans, and, from June, 1804, to 
November, 1865, was on duty in Texas. It was 
mustered out of service in that State, Nov. 6, 
1865, and received final discharge on November 28. 

Thirtieth Infantry. Organized at Spring- 
field, August 38, 1861 ; was engaged at Belmont, 
Fort Donelson, the siege of Corinth, Medan 
Station, Raymond, Champion Hills, the sieges of 
Vicksburg and Jackson, Big Shanty, Atlanta, 
Savannah, Pocotaligo, Orangeburg, Columbia, 
Cheraw, and Fayetteville ; mustered out, July 
17, 1865, and received final payment and discharge 
at Springfield, July 27, 1865. 

Thirty-first Infantry. Organized at Cairo, 
and there mustered into service on Sept. 18, 
1861 ; was engaged at Belmont, Fort Donelson, 
Shiloh, in the two expeditions against Vicks- 
burg, at Thompson's Hill, Ingram Heights, Ray- 
mond, Jackson, Champion Hill, Big Shanty, 
Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta, Lovejoy Station and 
Jonesboro; also participated in the "March to 
the Sea" and took part in the battles and skir- 
mishes at Columbia, Cheraw, Fayetteville and 
Bentonville. A majority of the regiment re- 
enlisted as veterans in March, 1864. It was 
mustered out at Louisville, July 19, 1865, and 
finally discharged at Springfield, July 33. 

Thirty-second Infantry. Organized at 
Springfield and mustered into service, Dec. 31, 
1861. By special authority from the War Depart- 
ment, it originally consisted of ten companies of 
infantry, one of cavalry, and a battery. It was 
engaged at Fort Donelson, Shiloh, in the sieges 
of Corinth and Vicksburg, and in the battles of 
La Grange, Grand Junction, Metamora, Harrison- 
burg, Kenesaw Mountain, Nickajack Creek, 
Allatoona, Savannah, Columbia, Cheraw and 
Bentonville. In January, 1864, the regiment 
re-enlisted as veterans, and, in June, 1865, was 
ordered to Fort Leavenworth. Mustered out 
there, Sept. 16, 1865, and finally discharged at 

Thirty-third Infantry. Organized and mus- 
tered into service at Springfield in September, 
1861: was engaged at Fredericktown (Mo.), Port 
Gibson, Champion Hills, Black River Bridge, the 
assault and siege of Vicksburg, siege of Jackson, 
Fort Esperanza, and in the expedition against 
Mobile. The regiment veteranized at Vicksburg, 
Jan, 1, 1864 ; was mustered out, at the same point, 
Nov. 24, 1865, and finally discharged at Spring- 

field, Dec. 6 and 7, 1865. The aggregate enroll- 
ment of the regiment was between 1,900 and 

Thirty-fourth Infantry. Organized at 
Springfield, Sept. 7, 1861 , was engaged at Shiloh, 
Corinth, Murfreesboro, Rocky Face Ridge, Re- 
saca, Big Shanty, Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta, 
Jonesboro, and, after participating in the "March 
to the Sea" and through the Carolinas, took part 
in the battle of Bentonville. After the surrender 
of Johnston, the regiment went with Sherman's 
Army to Washington, D. C, and took part in the 
grand review. May 24, 1865; left Washington, 
June 12, and arrived at Louisville, Ky., June 18, 
where it was mustered out, on July 12 ; was dis- 
charged and paid at Chicago, July 17, 1865. 

Thirty-fifth Infantry. Organized at De- 
catur on July 3, 1861, and its services tendered to 
the President, being accepted by the Secretary of 
War as "Col. G. A. Smith's Independent Regi- 
ment of Illinois Volunteers," on July 23, and 
mustered into service at St. Louis, August 12. It 
was engaged at Pea Ridge and in the siege of 
Corinth, also participated in the battles of Perry- 
ville. Stone River, Chickamauga, Missionary 
Ridge, Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Dallas and 
Kenesaw. Its final muster-out took place at 
Springfield, Sept. 27, 1864, the regiment having 
marched (exclusive of railroad and steamboat 
transportation) 3,056 miles. 

Thirty-sixth Infantry. Organized at Camp 
Hammond, near Aurora, 111., and mustered into 
service, Sept. 23, 1861, for a term of three years. 
The regiment, at its organization, numbered 965 
officers and enlisted men, and had two companies 
of Cavalry ("A" and "B"), 186 officers and 
men. It was engaged at Leetown, Pea Ridge, 
Perryville, Stone River, Chickamauga, the siege 
of Chattanooga. Missionary Ridge, Rocky Face 
Ridge, Resaca, Adairsville, New Hope Church, 
Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Jones- 
boro, Franklin and Nashville. Mustered out, 
Oct. 8, 1865, and disbanded, at Springfield, Oct. 
27, having marched and been transported, during 
its term of service, more than 10,000 miles. 

Thirty-seventh Infantry. Familiarly known 
as "Fremont Rifles"; organized in August, 1861, 
and mustered into service, Sept. 18. The regi- 
ment was presented with battle-flags by the Chi- 
cago Board of Trade. It participated in the 
battles of Pea Ridge, Neosho, Prairie Grove and 
Chalk Bluffs, the siege of Vicksburg, and in the 
battles of Yazoo City and Morgan's Bend. In 
October, 1863, it was ordered to the defense of the 
frontier along the Rio Grande; re-enlisted as 



veterans in February, 18G4; took part in the 
siege and storming of Fort Blakely and tlie cap- 
ture of Mobile; from July. 1865, to May, 1866, 
was again on duty in Texas; was mustered out 
at Houston, May 1."). 18G6. and finally discharged 
at Springfield, May 31. having traveled .some 
IT.OOO miles, of wliich nearly 3.300 were by 

Thirty-eighth Infantry. Organized at 
Springfield, in September, 1801. The regiment 
was engaged in the battles of Fredericktown, 
Perryville, Knob Gap, Stone River. Liberty Gap, 
Chickamauga. Pine Top, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Atlanta, Jonesboro, Franklin and Nashville; 
re-enlisted as veterans in February, 1864; from 
June to December, 186.5, was on duty in Louisi- 
ana and Texas; was mustered out at Victoria, 
Te.xas, Dec. 31, 1865, and received final discharge 
at Springfield. 

Thirty-ninth Infantry. The organization of 
this Regiment was commenced as soon as the 
news of the firing on Fort Sumter reached Chi- 
cago. General Thomas O. Osborne was one of its 
contemplated field officers, and labored zealously 
to get it accepted under the first call for troops, 
but did not accomplish his object. The regiment 
had already assumed the name of the "Yates 
Phalanx" in honor of Governor Yates. It was 
accepted by the War Department on the day 
succeeding the first Bull Run di.saster (July 23, 
1861), and Austin Light, of Chicago, was appointed 
Colonel. Under his direction the organization was 
completed, and the regiment left Camp JIather. 
Chicago, on the morning of Oct. 13, 1801. It par- 
ticipated in the battles of Winchester, Malvern 
Hill (the second), Morris Island. Fort ^Vagner. 
Drury's Bluff, and in numerous engagements 
before Petersburg and Riclimond, including the 
capture of Fort Gregg, and was present at Lee's 
surrender at Appomattox. In the meantime the 
regiment re-enlisted as veterans, at Hilton Head, 
S. C, in September, 1803. It was mu.stered out 
at Norfolk, Dec. 6, 1865, and received final dis- 
charge at Chicago, December 16. 

Fortieth Infantry. Enlisted from the coun- 
ties of Franklin, Hamilton, Wayne, White. 
Wabash, Jlarion, Clay and Faj-ette. and mustered 
into service for three years at Springfield, 
August 10, 1861. It was engaged at Shiloh, in 
the siege of Corinth, at Jackson (Miss.), in the 
siege of Vicksburg, at Missionary Ridge, New 
Hope Church, Black Jack Knob, Kenesaw Moun- 
tain. Atlanta, Jonesboro, Ezra Chapel. Gris- 
woldville. .siege of .Savannah, Columbia (S. C), 
anil Bentonville. It re-enlisted, as veterans, at 

Scottsboro, Ala., Jan. 1, 1864, and was mustered 
out at Louisville, July 24, 1865, receiving final 
discharge at Springfield. 

Forty-first Infantry". Organized at Decatur 
during July and August, 1861, and was mustered 
into service, August 5. It was engaged at Fort 
Donelson. Shiloh, the siege of Corinth, tlie second 
battle of Corintli, the siege of Vicksburg and 
Jackson, in the Red River campaign, at Guntown, 
Kene.saw Mountain and Allatoona, and partici- 
pated in the "March to the Sea." It re-enlisted, 
as veterans, March 17, 1864, at Vicksburg, and 
was consolidated with tlie Fifty-third Infantr3", 
Jan. 4, 1865, forming Companies G and H. 

Forty-second Infantry. Organized at Chi- 
cago, July 22, 1861 ; was engaged at Island No. 10, 
the siege of Corinth, battles of Farmington, 
Columbia (Tenn.). was besieged at Nashville, 
engaged at Stone River, in the TuUahoma cam- 
paign, at Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, Rocky 
Face Ridge, Resaca, Adairsville, New Hope 
Church. Pine and Kenesaw Mountains, Peach 
Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro. Lovejoy Station, 
Spring Hill, Franklin and Nashville. It re- 
enlisted, as veterans, Jan. 1, 1864; was stationed 
in Texas from July to December, 1865 ; was mus- 
tered out at Indianola, in that State, Dec. 16. 
1865, and finally discharged, at Springfield, Jan. 
12. 1866. 

Forty-third Infantry. Organized at Spring- 
field in September, 1861, and mustered into 
service on Oct. 12. The regiment took part in 
the battles of Fort Donelson, Shiloh and in the 
campaigns in West Tennessee, Mississippi and; was mustered out at Little Rock. 
Nov. 30, 1865. and returned to Springfield for 
final pay and discharge, Dec. 14, 1865. 

Forty-fourth Infantry. Organized in Au- 
gust, 1861. at Chicago, and mustered into service, 
Sept. 13, 1861; was engaged at Pea Ridge, 
Perryville, Stone River. Hoover"s Gap, Shelby- 
ville, TuUahoma, Chickamauga, Missionary 
Ridge. Buzzard's Roost. Rocky Face Ridge, 
Adairsville, Dallas, New Hope Church, Kene- 
saw Mountain, Gulp's Farm, Chattahoochie 
River, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro, 
Franklin and Nashville. The regiment re-enlisted 
as veterans in Tennessee, in lanuary, 1864. 
From June to September, 1865, it was stationed 
in Louisiana and Texas, was mustered out at 
Port Lavaca, Sept. 25. 1865, and received final 
discharge, at Springfield, three weeks later. 

Forty-fifth Infantry. Originally called 
the "Washburne Lead Mine Regiment"; was 
organized at Galena. July 23, 1861. and mustered 


into service at Chicago, Dec. 25, 1861. It was 
engaged at Fort Donelson, Shiloh, the siege of 
Corinth, battle of Jledan, the campaign against 
Vicksburg, the Meridian raid, the Atlanta cam- 
paign, the "March to the Sea," and the advance 
through the Carolinas. The regiment veteran- 
ized in January, 1864; was mustered out of serv- 
ice at Louisville, Ky., July 13, 18G5, and arrived 
in Chicago, July 15, 1865, for final pay and dis- 
charge. Distance marched in four years, 1,750 

Forty-sixth Infantry. Organized at Spring- 
field, Dec. 28, 1861 ; was engaged at Fort Donel- 
son, Shiloh, the siege of Corinth, battle of 
Metamora, siege of Vicksburg (where five com- 
panies of the regiment were captured), in the 
reduction of Spanish Fort and Fort Blakeley, 
and the capture of Mobile. It was mustered in 
as a veteran regiment, Jan. 4, 1864. From May, 

1865, to January, 1866, it was on duty in Louisi- 
ana ; was mustered out at Baton Rouge, Jan. 20, 

1866, and, on Feb. 1, 1866. finally paid and dis- 
charged at Springfield. 

Forty'-seventh Infantry. Organized and 
mustered into service at Peoria, 111., on August 
16, 1861. Tlie regiment took part in the expe- 
dition against New Madrid and Island No. 10; 
also participated in the battles of Farmington, 
luka, the second battle of Corinth, tlie capture 
of Jackson, the siege of Vicksburg, the Red 
River expedition and the battle of Pleasant Hill, 
and in the struggle at Lake Chicot. It was 
ordered to Chicago to assist in quelling an antici- 
pated riot, in 1864, but, returning to the front, 
took part in the reduction of Spanish Fort and 
the capture of Jlobile; was mustered out, Jan. 
21, 1866, at Selma, Ala., and ordered to Spring- 
field, where it received final pay and discharge. 
Those members of the regiment who did not re-en- 
list as veterans were mustered out, Oct. 11, 1864. 

Forty'-eighth Infantry-. Organized at Spring- 
field, September, 1861, and participated in battles 
and sieges as follows; Fort Henry and Fort 
Donelson, Shiloh, Corinth (siege of), Vicksburg 
(first expedition against). Missionary Ridge, as 
well as in the Atlanta campaign and the "March 
to the Sea." The regiment re-enlisted as veter- 
ans, at Scottsboro, Ala., Jan. 1. 1864; was mus- 
tered out, August 15, 1865, at Little Rock, Ark., 
and ordered to Springfield for final discharge, 
arriving, August 21, 1865. The distance marched 
was 3,000 miles; moved by water, 5,000; by rail- 
road, 3,450~total, 11.4.50. 

Forty-ninth Infantry. Organized at Spring- 
field, 111.. Dec. 31, 1861; was engaged at Fort 

Donelson, Shiloh and Little Rock ; took part in 
the campaign against Meridian and in the Red 
River expedition, being in the battle of Pleasant 
Hill, Jan. 15, 1864; three-fourths of the regiment 
re-enlisted and were mustered in as veterans, 
returning to Illinois on furlough. The non- 
veterans took part in the battle of Tupelo. The 
regiment participated in the battle of Nashville, 
and was mustered out, Sept. 9, 1865. at Paducah, 
Ky., and arrived at Springfield, Sept, 15, 1865, 
for final payment and discharge. 

Fiftieth Infantry. Organized at Quincy, in 
August, 1861, and mustered into service, Sept. 13, 
1861 ; was engaged at Fort Donelson, Sliiloh, the 
siege of Corinth, the second battle of Corinth, 
Allatoona and Bentouville, besides many minor 
engagements. The regiment was mounted. Nov. 
17, 1863; re-enlisted as veterans, Jan. 1, 1864. was 
mustered out at Louisville, July 13, 1865, and 
reached Springfield, the following day, for final 
pay and discharge. 

Fifty-first Infantry-. Orgaiiized at Chi- 
cago, Dec. 24, 1861 ; was engaged at New Madrid, 
Island No. 10, Farmington, the siege of Corinth, 
Stone River, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, 
Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jones- 
boro. Spring Hill, Franklin and Nashville. The 
regiment was mustered in as veterans, Feb. 16, 
1864; from July to September, 1865, was on duty 
in Texas, and mustered out, Sept. 25, 1865, at 
Camp Irwin, Texas, arriving at Springfield, 111., 
Oct. 15, 1865, for final payment and discharge. 

Fifty-second Infantry-. Organized at Ge- 
neva in November, 1861, and mustered into serv- 
ice, Nov. 19. The regiment participated in the 
following battles, sieges and expeditions ; Shiloh, 
Corinth (siege and second battle of), luka. Town 
Creek, Snake Creek Gap, Resaca, Lay's Ferry, 
Rome Cross Roads, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Nickajack Creek. Decatur, Atlanta, Jonesboro 
and Bentonville. It veteranized, Jan. 9, 1864; 
was mustered out at Louisville, July 4, 1865, 
and received final payment and discharge at 
Springfield, July 12. 

Fifty-third Infantry. Organized at Ottawa 
in the winter of 1861-62, and ordered to Chicago, 
Feb. 27, 1862, to complete its organization. It 
took part in the siege of Corinth, and was engaged 
at Davis" Bridge, the siege of Vicksburg, in the 
Meridian campaign, at Jackson, the siege of 
Atlanta, the "March to the Sea." the capture of 
Savannah and the campaign in the Carolinas, 
including the battle of Bentonville. The regi- 
ment was mustered out of service at Loui.sville, 



July 22. 1865, and received final discharge, at 
Chicago, July 28. It marched 2,8.5.5 miles, and 
was transported bj' boat and cars, 4,108 miles. 
Over 1,800 officers and men belonged to the regi- 
ment during its term of service. 

Fifty-fourth Inf.\ntry. Organized at Anna, 
in November, 1861, as a part of the "Kentucky 
Brigade," and was mustered into service, Feb. 
18, 1862. No complete history of the regiment 
can be given, owing to the loss of its official 
records. It served mainly in Kentucky, Tennes- 
see, Mississippi and Arkansas, and always effect- 
ively. Three-fourths of the men re-enlisted as 
veterans, in January, 1864. Six companies were 
captured by the rebel General Shelby, in August, 
1864, and were exchanged, the following De- 
cember. The regiment was mustered out at 
Little Rock, Oct. 1.5, 186.5; arrived at Springfield, 
Oct. 26, and was discharged. During its organi- 
zation, the regiment had 1,342 enlisted men and 
71 commissioned officers. 

Fifty-fifth Infantry'. Organized at Chi- 
cago, and mustered into service, Oct. 31, 1801. 
The regiment originally formed a part of the 
"Douglas Brigade," being chiefly recruited from 
the young farmers of Fulton, McDonough, 
Grundy, La Salle, De Kalb, Kane and Winnebago 
Counties. It participated in the battles of Shiloh 
and Corinth, and in the Tallahatchie campaign; 
in the battles of Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas 
Post, around Vicksburg, and at Missionary Ridge ; 
was in the Atlanta campaign, notably in the 
battles of Kenesaw Mountain and Jonesboro. In 
all, it was engaged in thirty-one battles, and was 
128 days under lire. The total mileage traveled 
amounted to 11,96.5, of which 3,240 miles were 
actually marched. Re-enlisted as veterans, while 
at Larkinsville, Tenn.,was mustered out at Little 
Rock, August 14, 180.5, receiving final discharge 
at Chicago, the same month. 

Fifty'-sixth Infantry-. Organized with com- 
panies principally enlisted from the counties of 
Massac, Pope, Gallatin. Saline, "White, Hamilton, 
Franklin and Wayne, and mustered in at Camp 
Mather, near Sliawneetown. The regiment par- 
ticipated in the siege, and second battle, of 
Corinth, the Yazoo expedition, the siege of 
Vicksburg — being engaged at Champion Hills, 
and in numerous assaults ; also took part in the 
battles of Missionary Ridge and Resaca, and in 
the campaign in the Carolinas, including the 
battle of Bentonville. Some 200 members of the 
regiment perished in a wreck off Cape Hatteras, 
March 31, 1803. It was mustered out in Arkan- 
sas. August 12. 180.5. 

Fifty-seventh Infantry. Mustered mto serv- 
ice, Dec. 20, 1861, at Chicago; took part in the 
battles of Fort Donelson and Shiloh, the siege of 
Corinth, and the second battle at that point; was 
also engaged at Resaca, Rome Cross Roads and 
AUatoona; participated in the investment and 
capture of Savannah, and the campaign through 
the Carolinas, including the battle of Benton- 
ville. It was mustered out at Louisville, July 7, 
1865, and received final discharge at Chicago, 
July 14. 

FiFTY'-EiGHTH INFANTRY. Recruited at Chi- 
cago, Feb. 11, 1862; participated in the battles of 
Fort Donelson and Shiloh, a large number of the 
regiment being captured during the latter engage- 
ment, but subsequenth' exchanged. It took part 
in the siege of Corinth and the battle of luka, 
after which detachments were sent to Springfield 
for recruiting and for guarding prisoners. 
Returning to the front, the regiment was engaged 
in the capture of Meridian, the Red River cam- 
paign, the taking of Fort de Russey, and in many 
minor battles in Louisiana. It was mustered out 
at Montgomery, Ala., April 1, 1866, and ordered 
to Springfield for final payment and discharge. 

FlFTY'-NlNTH INFANTRY. Originally known as 
the Ninth Missouri Infantry, although wholly 
recruited in Illinois. It was organized at St. 
Louis, Sept. 18, 1861, the name being changed to 
the Fifty -ninth Illinois, Feb. 12, 1862, by order of 
tlie War Department. It was engaged at Pea 
Ridge, formed part of the reserve at Farmington, 
took part at Perryville, Nolansville, Knob Gap 
and Murfreesboro, in the TuUahoma campaign 
and the siege of Chattanooga, in the battles of 
Missionary Ridge, Resaca, Adairsville, Kingston, 
Dallas, Ackworth, Pine Top, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Smyrna, Atlanta, Spring Hill, Franklin and 
Nashville. Having re-enlisted as veterans, the 
regiment was ordered to Texas, in June, 1865, 
where it was mustered out, December, 1865, 
receiving its final discharge at Spfingfield. 

Sixtieth Infantry'. Organized at Anna, 111., 
Feb. IT, 1802; took part in the siege of Corinth 
and was besieged at Nashville. The regiment 
re-enlisted as veterans while at the front, in 
January, 1864; participated in the battles of 
Buzzard's Roost, Ringgold, Dalton. Resaca, 
R<3me. Dallas, New Hope Church, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Nickajack, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, 
Jonesboro, Averysboro and Bentonville; was 
mustered out at Louisville, July 31, 1865, and 
received final discharge at Springfield. 

Sixty-first Infantry. Organized at Carroll- 
ton. 111., three full companies being mustered 



in, Feb. 5, 1863. On February 21, the regiment, 
being still incomplete, moved to Benton Bar- 
racks. Mo. , where a sufficient number of recruits 
joined to make nine full companies. The regiment 
was engaged at Shiloh and Bolivar, took part 
in the Yazoo expedition, and re-enlisted as veter- 
ans early in 1864. Later, it took part in the battle 
of Wilkinson's Pike (near Murfreesboro), and 
other engagements near that point ; was mustered 
out at Nashville, Tenn., Sept. 8, ISe."), and paid 
off and discharged at Springfield, Septem- 
ber 27. 

Sixty-second Infantry. Organized at Anna, 
111., April 10, 1863; after being engaged in several 
skirmishes, the regiment sustained a loss of 170 
men, who were captured and paroled at Holly 
Springs, Miss., by the rebel General Van Dorn, 
where the regimental records were destroyed. 
The regiment took part in forcing the evacuation 
of Little Rock ; re-enlisted, as veterans, Jan. 9, 
1864 ; was mustered out at Little Rock, March 6, 
1866, and ordered to Springfield for final payment 
and discharge. 

Sixty-third Infantry. Organized at Anna, 
in December, 1861, and mustered into service, 
April 10, 1862. It participated in the first invest- 
ment of Vicksburg, the capture of Richmond 
Hill, La., and in the battle of Missionary Ridge. 
On Jan. 1, 1864, 273 men re-enlisted as veterans. 
It took part in the capture of Savannah and in 
Sherman's march through the Carolinas, partici- 
pating in its important battles and skirmishes; 
was mustered out at Louisville, July 13, 1865, 
reaching Springfield, July 16. The total distance 
traveled was 6,453 miles, of which 2,350 was on 
the march. 

Sixty-fourth Infantry. Organized at Spring- 
field, December, 1861, as the "First Battalion of 
Yates Sharp Shooters." The last company was 
mustered in, Dec. 31, 1861. The regiment was 
engaged at New Madrid, the siege of Corinth, 
Chambers' Creek, the second battle of Corinth, 
Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, Decatur, the 
siege of Atlanta, the investment of Savannah and 
the battle of Bentonville ; re-enlisted as veterans, 
in January, 1864; was mustered out at Louisville, 
July 11, 1865, and finally discharged, at Chicago, 
July 18. 

Sixty-fifth Infantry. Originally known as 
the "Scotch Regiment"; was organized at Chi- 
cago, and mustered in. May 1, 1863. It was cap- 
tured and paroled at Harper's Ferry, and ordered 
to Chicago; was exchanged in April, 1863; took 
part in Burnside's defense of Knoxville; re-en- 
listed as veterans in March, 1864, and participated 

in the Atlanta campaign and the "March to the 
Sea." It was engaged in battles at Columbia 
(Tenn.), Franklin and Nashville, and later near 
Federal Point and Smithtown, N. C, being mus- 
tered out, July 13, 1865, and receiving final pay- 
ment and discharge at Chicago, July 26, 1865. 

Sixty-sixth Inf.4.ntry. Organized at Benton 
Barracks, near St. Louis, Mo., during September 
and October, 1861— being designed as a regiment 
of "Western Sharp Shooters" from Illinois, Mis- 
souri, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, Indiana and 
Ohio. It was mustered in, Nov. 23, 1861, was 
engaged at Mount Zion (Mo.), Fort Donelson, 
Shiloh, the siege of Corinth, luka, the second 
battle of Corinth, in the Atlanta campaign, the 
"JIarch to the Sea" and the campaign through 
the Carolinas. The regiment was variously 
known as the Fourteenth Missouri Volunteers, 
Birge's Western Sharpshooters, and the Sixty- 
sixth I'linois Infantry. The latter (and final) 
name was conferred by the Secretary of War, 
Nov. 20, 1862. It re-enlisted (for the veteran 
service), in December, 1863, was mustered out at 
Camp Logan, Ky., July 7, 1865, and paid off and 
discharged at Springfield, July 15. 

Sixty-seventh Infantry. Organized at Chi- 
cago, June 13, 1863, for three months" service, in 
response to an urgent call for the defense of 
Washington. The Sixty -seventh, by doing guard 
duty at the camps at Chicago and Springfield, 
relieved the veterans, who were sent to the front. 

Sixty-eighth Infantry. Enlisted in response 
to a call made by the Governor, early in the sum- 
mer of 1862, for State troops to serve for three 
months as State Militia, and was mustered iu 
early in June, 1862. It was afterwards mustered 
into the United States service as Illinois Volun- 
teers, by petition of the men, and received 
marching orders, July 5, 1862 ; mustered out, at 
Springfield, Sept. 36, 1863 — many of the men re- 
enlisting in other regiments. 

Sixty-ninth Infantry. Organized at Camp 
Douglas, Chicago, and mustered into service for 
three months, June 14, 1862. It remained on 
duty at Camp Douglas, guarding the camp and 
rebel prisoners. 

Seventieth Infantry. Organized at Camp 
Butler, near Springfield, and mustered in, July 4, 
1863. It remained at Camp Butler doing guard 
duty. Its term of service was three months. 

Seventy-first Infantry. Mustered into serv- 
ice, July 26, 1863, at Chicago, for three months. 
Its service was confined to garrison duty iu Illi- 
nois and Kentucky, being mustered out at Chi- 
cago, Oct. 29, 1862. 



Seventy-second Infantry. Organized at Chi- 
cago, as the First Regiment of tlie Chicago Board 
of Trade, and mustered iiilo t-ervice for three 
years, August 23, 1862. It was engaged at Cham- 
[lion Hill, Vick.sburg. Natchez, Franklin, Nash- 
ville, Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely; mu.stered 
out of service, at Vicksburg. 6, 1865, and 
discharged at Chicago. 

Seventy-third Infantry'. Recruited from 
the counties of Adams, Champaign, Christian, 
Hancock, Jackson, Logan, Piatt, Pike, Sanga- 
mon, Tazewell and Vermilion, and mustered into 
service at Springfield, August 21, 1862, 900 strong. 
It participated in the battles of Stone River, 
Perryville, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, 
Resaca, Adairsville, Burnt Hickory, Pine and 
Lost Moimtains, New Hope Church, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Spring Hill, Frank- 
lin and Nashville ; was mastered out at Nashville. 
.Tune 12, 1865, and, a few days later, vent to 
Springfield to receive pay and final discharge. 

Seveniy-focrth Infantry'. Organized at 
Rockford, in August, 1862, and mustered into 
service September 4. It was recruited from Win- 
nebago, Ogle and Stephenson Counties. This regi- 
ment was engaged at Perryville, Murfreesboro 
and Nolansville, took part in the Tullahoma 
(Campaign, and the battles of Missionary Ridge, 
Resaca, Adairsville Dallas, Kenesaw ^Mountain, 
Tunnel Hill, and Rocky Face Ridge, the siege of 
.\tlanta. and the battles of Spring Hill, Franklin 
and Nashville. It was mustered out at Nashville. 
June 10. 1865, with 843 officers and men. the 
aggregate number enrolled having been 1,001. 

Se\t:nty-fifth Inf.yntry. Organized at 
Di.xon and mustered into service. Sept. 2, 1862. 
The regiment participated in the liattlesof Perry- 
ville, Nolansville, Stone River, Lookout Mountain, 
Dalton, Resaca, Marietta. Kenesaw, Franklin and 
Nashville; was mustered out at Nashville, June 
12, 1865, and finally discharged at Chicago, July 
1, following. 

Seventy-sixth Infantry. Organized at Kan- 
kakee, III, in August, 1862, and mustered into the 
service, August 22, 1862; took part in the siege of 
Vicksburg, the engagement at Jackson, the cam- 
paign against Meridian, the expedition to Yazoo 
City, and the capture of Mobile, was ordered to 
Texas in June, 1865. and mustered out at Gah-es- 
ton, July 22, 1865, being paid off and disbanded 
at Chicago, August 4, 1865— having traveled 
10.000 miles. 

Seventy-sevfntr Tn-fantry. Organized and 
mustered into service. Sept. 3, 1862. at Peoria; 
was engaged in the battles of Chickasaw Bayou, 

Arkansas Post, the siege of Vicksburg (including 
the battle of Champion Hills), the capture of 
Jackson, the Red River expedition, and the bat- 
tles of Sabine Cross Roads and Pleasant Hill : the 
reduction of Forts Gaines and Morgan, and the 
capture of Spanish Fort, Fort Blakely and Mobile. 
It was mustered out of service at Mobile, July 
10, 1865, and ordered to Springfield for final pay- 
ment and di.seharge. where it arrived, July 22, 1865, 
having participated in sixteen battles and sieges. 

Seventy-eighth Infantry'. Organized at 
Quincy, and mustered into service, Sept. 1, 1862; 
participated in the battles of Chickamauga, Mis- 
sionary Ridge, Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Rome, 
New Hope Church, Kenesaw Mountain, Peach 
Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Averysboro and 
Bentonville; was mustered out, June 7, 1865, and 
sent to Chicago, where it was paid off and dis- 
charged, June 12, 1865. 

Se^-enty-ninth Infantry. Organized at Mat- 
toon, in August, 1862, and mustered into service, 
August 28, 1862; participated in the battles of 
Stone River, Liberty Gap, Chickamauga, Mis- 
sionary Ridge, Rocky Face Ridge Resaca, Kene- 
saw Mountain, Dallas, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, 
Jonesboro, Lovejoy, Franklin and Nashville; was 
mustered out. June 12, 1865; arrived at Camp 
Butler. June 15, and, on June 23, received final 
pay and discharge. 

Eightieth Infantry. Organized at Centralia, 
III, in August, 1862, and mustered into service, 
August 25, 1862. It was engaged at Perryville, 
Dug's Gap, Sand Mountain and Blunt's Farm, 
surrendering to Forrest at the latter point. After 
being exchanged, it participated in the battles of 
Wauhatchie, Missionary Ridge, Dalton, Resaca, 
Adairsville, Cassville, Dallas, Pine Mountain, 
Kenesaw Mountain, Marietta, Peach Tree Creek, 
Atlanta, Jonesboro, Lovejoy Station and Nash- 
ville. The regiment traveled 6,000 miles and 
participated in more than twenty engagements. 
It was mustered out of service, June 10, 1865, and 
proceeded to Camp Butler for final pay and 

Eighty-first Infantry. Recruited from the 
counties of Perry, Franklin, Williamson, .Jack- 
son, Union, Pulaski and Alexander, and mustered 
into service at Anna. August 26, 1862. It partici- 
pated in the battles of Port Gibson. Raymond, 
Jackson, Champion Hill, Black River Bridge, and 
in the siege and capture of Vicksburg. Later, 
the regiment was engaged at Fort de Russey, 
Ale.xandria, Guntown and Nashville, besides 
assisting in the investment of Mobile. It was 
mustered out at Chicago. August 5. 1864. 


Eighty-second Infantry. Sometimes called 
the "Second Hecker Regiment," in honor of Col- 
onel Frederick Hecker, its first Colonel, and for 
merly Colonel of the Twenty-fourth Illinois 
Infantry — being chiefly composed of German 
members of Chicago. It was organized at Spring- 
field, Sept, 26, 1863, and mustered into service, 
Oct. 33, 1862; participated in the battles of 
Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, Wauhatchie, Or- 
chard Knob, Missionary Ridge. Resaca, New 
Hope Church, Dallas, Marietta. Pine Mountain, 
Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta and Bentonville ; was 
mustered out of service, June 9, I860, and 
returned to Chicago, June 16 — having marched, 
during its time of service, 2,503 miles. 

Eighty-third Infantry. Organized at Mon- 
mouth in August, 1863, and mustered into serv- 
ice, August 21. It participated in repelling the 
rebel attack on Fort Donelson, and in numerous 
hard fought skirmishes in Tennessee, but was 
chiefly engaged in the performance of heavy 
guard duty and in protecting lines of communi- 
cation. The regiment was mustered out at Nash- 
ville, June 36, 186-5, and finally paid off and 
discharged at Chicago, July 4. following. 

Eighty-fourth Infantry. Organized at 
Quincy, in August, 1863, and mustered into serv- 
ice, Sept. 1, 1863, with 939 men and oflScers. The 
regiment was authorized to inscribe upon its 
battle-flag the names of Perryville. Stone River, 
Woodbury, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, 
Missionary Ridge, Ringgold. Dalton, Buzzard's 
Roost, Resaca, Burnt Hickory, Kenesaw Moun- 
tain, Smyrna, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Lovejoy Sta- 
tion, Franklin, and Nashville. It was mustered 
out, June 8, 1865. 

Eighty-fifth Infantry. Organized at Peoria, 
about Sept. 1, 1863. and ordered to Louisville. It 
took part in the battles of Perryville, Stone River, 
Chickamauga, Knoxville, Dalton, Rocky-Face 
Ridge, Resaca. Rome, Dallas, Kenesaw. Peach 
Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Savannah, Ben- 
tonville, Goldsboro and Raleigh; was mustered 
out at Washington. D. C, June 5, 1865, and 
sent to Springfield, where the regiment was 
paid off and discharged on the 30th of the same 

Eighty-sixth Infantry. Mustered into serv- 
ice, August 37, 1862. at Peoria, at which time it 
numbered 923 men, rank and file. It took part 
in the battles of Perryville, Chickamauga, Mis- 
sionary Ridge, Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Rome, 
Dallas, Kenesaw, Peach Tree Creek, Jonesboro, 
Averysboro and Bentonville; was mustered out 
on June 6, 1865, at Washington, D. C. arriving 

on June 11, at Cliicago, where, ten days later, the 
men received their pay and final discharge. 

Eighty-seventh Infantry. Enlisted in Au- 
gust, 1862; was composed of companies from 
Hamilton, Edwards, Wayne and White Counties; 
was organized in the latter part of August, 1863, 
at Shawneetown; mustered in, Oct. 3, 1862, the 
muster to take effect from August 2. It took 
part in the siege and capture of Warrenton and 
Jackson, and in the entire campaign through 
Louisiana and Southern Mississippi, participating 
in the battle of Sabine Cross Roads and in numer- 
ous skirmishes among the bayous, being mustered 
out, June 16, 1865, and ordered to Springfield, 
where it arrived, June 34. 1865. and was paid off 
and disbanded at Camp Butler, on July 3. 

Eighty-eighth Infantry. Organized at Chi- 
cago, in September, 1862, and known as the 
"Second Board of Trade Regiment." It was 
mustered in. Sept. 4, 1862; was engaged at Perry- 
ville, Stone River, Chickamauga, Missionary 
Ridge, Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Adairsville, 
New Hope Church, Pine Mountain. Mud Creek, 
Kenesaw Mountain. Smyrna Camp Ground, 
Atlanta, Jonesboro, Lovejoy Station, Franklin 
and Nashville; was mustered out, June 9, 1865, 
at Nashville, Tenn,, and arrived at Chicago, 
June 13, 1865. where it received final pay and 
discharge, June 33, 1865. 

Eighty-ninth Infantry. Called the "Rail- 
road Regiment"; was organized by the railroad 
companies of Illinois, at Chicago, in August, 
1863, and mustered into service on the 27th of 
that month. It fought at Stone River, Chicka- 
mauga, Missionary Ridge, Knoxville, Resaca, 
Rocky Face Ridge, Pickett's Mills, Kenesaw 
Mountain. Peach Tree Creek. Atlanta, Jonesboro, 
Lovejoy 's Station, Spring Hill, Columbia, Frank- 
lin and Nashville; was mustered out, June 10, 
1865, in the field near Nashville, Tenn. ; arrived 
at Chicago two days later, and was finally dis- 
charged, June 24, after a service of two years, 
nine months and twenty -seven days. 

Ninetieth Infantry. Mustered into service 
at Chicago, Sept. 7, 1862 ; participated in the siege 
of Vicksburg and the campaign against Jackson, 
and- was engaged at Missionary Ridge, Resaca, 
Dallas, New Hope Church. Big Shanty, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Marietta, Niokajack Creek, Rosswell, 
Atlanta, Jonesboro and Fort McAllister, After 
the review at Washington, the regiment was 
mustered out. June 6. and returned to Chicago, 
June 9, 1865, where it was finally discharged. 

Ninety-first Infantry. Organized at Camp 
Butler, near Springfield, in August, 1863, and 



mustered in on Sept. 8, 1862 ; participated in the 
campaigns against Vicksburg and New Orleans, 
and all along the southwestern frontier in 
Louisiana and Texas, as well as in the investiture 
and capture of Mobile. It was mustered out at 
Mobile, Jul}- 12, 186.5. starting for home the same 
day, and being finally paid off and discharged on 
July 28, following. 

Ninety-second Infantry (Mounted). Organ- 
ized and mustered into service, Sept. 4, 1862, 
being recruited from Ogle, Stephenson and Car- 
roll Counties. During its term of service, the 
Ninety -second was in more than sixty b:ittles and 
skirmishes, including Ringgold, Chickamauga, 
and the numerous engagements on the "3Iarch 
to the Sea," and during the pursuit of Johnston 
through the Carolinas. It was mustered out at 
Concord, N. C. , and paid and discharged from the 
service at Chicago, July 10, 1865. 

Ninety-third Infantry. Organized at Chi- 
cago, in September, 1862, and mustered in, Oct. 
13, 998 strong. It participated in the movements 
against Jackson and Vicksburg, and was engaged 
at Champion Hills and at Fort Fisher ; also was 
engaged in the battles of Missionary Ridge, 
Dallas, Resaca, and many minor engagements, 
following Sherman in his campaign though the 
Carolinas. Mustered out of service, June 23, 
186.5, and, on the 25th, arrived at Chicago, receiv- 
ing final payment and discharge, July 7, 1865, the 
regiment having marched 2,554 miles, traveled 
by water, 2,296 miles, and, by railroad, 1,237 
miles— total, 6,087 miles. 

Ninety-fourth Infantry. Organized at 
Blooniington in August, 1862, and enlisted wholly 
in McLean County. After some warm experi 
enoe in Southwest Missouri, the regiment took 
part in the siege and capture of Vicksburg. and 
was, later, actively engaged in the campaigns in 
Louisiana and Texas. It participated in the cap- 
ture of Mobile, leading the final assault. After 
several months of garrison duty, the regiment was 
mustered out at Galveston, Texas, on July 17, 
1865, reaching Blooniington on August 9, follow- 
ing, having served just three years, marched 1,200 
miles, traveled by railroad 610 miles, and, b}' 
steamer, 6,000 miles, and taken part in nine bat- 
tles, sieges and skirmishes. 

Ninety-fifth Infantry. Organized at Rock- 
ford and mustered into service, Sept. 4, 1862. It 
was recruited from the counties of McHenry and 
Boone — three companies from the latter and 
seven from the former. It took part in the cam- 
paigns in Northern Mississippi and against Vicks- 
burg in tlie Red River expedition, the campaigns 



against Price in Missouri and Arkansas, against 
Mobile and around Atlanta. Among the battles 
in which the regiment was engaged were those 
of the Tallahatchie River, Grand Gulf, Raymond, 
Champion Hills, Fort de Russey. Old River, 
Cloutierville, Mansura, Yellow Bayou, Guntown, 
Nashville, Spanish Fort, Fort Blakely, Kenesaw 
Mountain. Chattahoochie River. Atlanta, Ezra 
Church, Jonesboro, Lovejoy Station and Nash- 
ville. The distance traveled by the regiment, 
while in the service, was 9,960 miles. It was 
transferred to the Forty-seventh lUinoii 
try, August 25, 1865. 

Ninety-sixth Infantry. Recruited 
the months of July and August, 1862, and mus- 
tered into service, as a regiment, Sept. 6, 1862. 
The battles engaged in included Fort Donelson, 
Spring Hill, Franklin, Triune, Liberty Gap, 
Shelbyville. Cliickamauga, Wauhatchie, Lookout 
Mountain, Buzzard's Roost, Rockj' Face Ridge, 
Resaca, Kingston, New Hope Church, Dallas, 
Pine Mountain, Kenesaw Mountain, Smyrna 
Camp Ground, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Rough 
and Ready, Jonesboro, Lovejoy's Station, Frank- 
lin and Nashville. Its date of final pay and dis- 
charge was June 30, 1865. 

Ninety-seventh Infantry. Organized in 
August and September, 1862, and mustered in on 
Sept. 16; participated in the battles of Chickasaw 
Bluffs, Arkansas Post, Port Gibson, Champion 
Hills, Black River, Vicksburg, Jackson and 
Mobile. On July 29, 1865, it was mustered out 
and proceeded homeward, reaching Springfield, 
August 10, after an absence of three years, less a 
few days. 

Ninety-eighth Infantry. Organized at Cen- 
tralia, September, 1862, and mustered in, Sept. 3 ; 
took part in engagements at Chickamauga, Mo- 
Minnville, Farmington and Selma, besides many 
others of less note. It was mustered out. June 
27, 1865, the recruits being transferred to the 
Sixty-first Illinois Volunteers. The regiment 
arrived at Springfield, June 30, and received final 
payment and discharge, July 7, 1865. 

Nixety-ninth Inf.\ntry. Organized in Pike 
County and mustered in at Florence, August 23, 
1862; participated in the following battles and 
skirmishes: Beaver Creek, Hartsville, Magnolia 
Hills, Raymond, Champion Hills, Black River, 
Vicksburg, Jackson, Fort Esperanza, Grand 
Coteau, Fish River, Spanish Fort and Blakely: 
days under fire, 62; miles traveled, 5,900; men 
killed in battle, 38; men died of wounds and 
disease. 149; men discharged for disability, 127: 
men deserted, 35; ofiicers killed in battle. '■'>: 



officers died, 3; officers resigned, 26. The regi- 
ment was mustered out at Baton Rouge, July 31, 
1865, and paid off and discharged, August 9, 

One Hundredth Infantry. Organized at 
Joliet, in August, 1862, and mustered in, August 
30. The entire regiment was recruited in Will 
County. It was engaged at Bardstown, Stone 
River, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, and 
Nashville; was mustered out of service, June 12, 
1865, at Nashville, Tenn., and arrived at Chicago, 
June 15, where it received final payment and 

One Hundred and First Infantry. Organ- 
ized at Jacksonville during the latter part of the 
month of August, 1862, and, on Sept. 2, 1862, 
was mustered in. It participated in the battles 
of Wauhatchie, Chattanooga, Resaca, New Hope 
Church, Kenesaw and Pine Mountains, Peach 
Tree Creek, Atlanta, Averysboro and Bentonville. 
On Deo. 20, 1862, five companies were cai^tured 
at Holly Springs, Miss., paroled and sent to 
Jefferson Barracks, Mo., and formally exchanged 
in June, 1863. On the 7th of June, 1865, it was 
mustered out, and started for Springfield, where, 
on the 21st of June, it was paid off and disbanded. 

One Hundred and Second Infantry. Organ- 
ized at Knoxville. in August, 1862, and mustered 
in, September 1 and 2. It was engaged at Resaca, 
Camp Creek, Burnt Hickory, Big Shanty, Peach 
Tree Creek and Averysboro; mustered out of 
service June 6, 1865, and started home, arriving 
at Chicago on the 9th, and, June l-l, received 
final payment and discharge. 

One Hundred and Third Infantry. Re- 
cruited wholly in Fulton County, and mustered 
into the service, Oct. 2, 1862. It took part in 
the Grierson raid, the sieges of Vicksburg, Jack- 
son, Atlanta and Savannah, and the battles of 
Missionary Ridge, Buzzard's Roost, Resaca. Dal- 
las, Kenesaw Mountain and Griswoldsville; was 
also in the campaign through the Carolinas. 
The regiment was mustered out at Louisville, 
June 21, and received final discharge at Chi- 
cago, July 9, 1865. The original strength of 
the regiment was 808, and 84 recruits were 

One Hundred and Fourth Infantry. Organ- 
ized at Ottawa, in August, 1862, and composed 
almost entirely of La Salle County men. The 
regiment was engaged in the battles of Harts- 
ville, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, Mission- 
ary Ridge, Resaca, Peach Tree Creek. Utoy 
Creek, Jonesboro and Bentonville, besides many 
severe skirmishes; was mustered out at Washing- 

ton, D. C, June 6, 1865, and, a few days later, 
received final discharge at Chicago. 

One Hundred and Fifth Infantry. Mus- 
tered into service, Sept. 2, 1862, at Dixon, and 
participated in the Atlanta campaign, being 
engaged at Resaca, Peach Tree Creek and 
Atlanta, and almost constantly skirmishing; 
also took part in the "March to the Sea" and the 
campaign in the Carolinas, including the siege of 
Savannah and the battles of Averysboro and 
Bentonville. It was mustered out at Washing- 
ton, D. C, June 7, 1865, and paid off and dis- 
charged at Chicago, June 17. 

One Hundred and Sixth Infantry. Mus- 
tered into service at Lincoln, Sept. 18, 1862, 
eight of the ten companies having been recruited 
in Logan County, the other two being from San- 
gamon and Menard Counties. It aided in the 
defense of Jackson, Tenn., where Company "C" 
was captured and paroled, being exchanged in 
the summer of 1863; took part in the siege of 
Vicksburg, the Yazoo expedition, the capture of 
Little Rock, the battle of Clarendon, and per- 
formed service at various points in Arkansas. It 
was mustered out, Jul_v 12, 1865, at Pine Bluff, 
Ark. , and arrived at Springfield, July 24, 1865, 
where it received final payment and discharge 

One Hundred and Seventh Infantry. Mus- 
tered into service at Springfield, Sept. 4, 1862; 
was composed of six companies from DeWitt and 
four companies from Piatt County. It was 
engaged at Campbell's Station, Dandridge, 
Rocky-Face Ridge, Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Atlanta, Spring Hill, Franklin, Nashville and 
Fort Anderson, and mustered out, June 21, 1865, 
at Salisburj', N. C, reaching Springfield, for 
final payment and discharge, July 2, 1865. 

One Hundred and Eighth Infantry. Organ- 
ized at Peoria, and mustered into service, August 
28, 1862; took part in the first expedition against 
Vicksburg and in the battles of Arkansas Post 
(Fort Hindman), Port Gibson and Champion 
Hills ; in the capture of Vicksburg, the battle of 
Guntown, the reduction of Spanish Fort, and the 
capture of Mobile. It was mustered out at Vicks- 
burg, August 5, 1865, and received final discharge 
at Chicago. August 11. 

One Hundred and Ninth Infantry. Re- 
cruited from Union and Pulaski Counties and 
mustered into the service, Sept. 11, 1862. Owing 
to its number being greatly reduced, it was con- 
solidated with the Eleventh Infantry in April, 
1863. (See Eleventh Infantry.) 

One Hundred and Tenth Infantry. Organ- 
ized at Anna and mustered in. Sept. 11, 1862: was 



engaged at Stone Rirer. Woodbury, and in 
numerous skirmishes in Kentucky and Tennessee. 
In May, 1803, the regiment was consolidated, its 
numbers having been greatly re'luced. Subse- 
quently it participated in the battles of Chicka- 
raauga and Missionary Ridge, the battles around 
Atlanta and the campaign through the Carolinas, 
being present at Johnston's surrender. The regi- 
ment was mastered out at Washington. D. C, 
June 5, 186.5. and received final discharge at 
Chicago, June l."). The enlisted men whose term 
of service had not expired at date of mu.ster-out, 
were consolidated into four companies and trans- 
ferred to the Sixtieth Illinois Veteran Volunteer 

cruited from Marion. Clay, Washinjiton, Clinton 
and Wayne Counties, and mustered into the serv 
ice at Salem, Sept. 18, 1862. The regiment aided 
in tlie capture of Decatur, Ala. ; took part in the 
Atlanta campaign, being engaged at Resaca. 
Dallas. Kenesaw, Atlanta and Jonesboro : partici- 
pated in the "March to the Sea" and the cam- 
paign in the Carolinas, taking part in the battles 
of Fort McAllister and Bentonville. It was mus- 
tered out at Washington, D. C, June 7, i860, 
receiving final discharge at Springfield, June 27, 
having traveled 3,736 miles, of which l,s3tt was 
on the march. 

One Hundred .^.nd Twelfth Infantry. Mus- 
tered into service at Peoria. Sept. 20 and 22, 
1862; participated in the campaign in East Ten- 
nessee, under Burnside. and in that against 
Atlanta, under Sherman ; was also engaged in 
the battles of Columbia, Franklin and Nashville, 
and the capture of Fort Anderson and Wilming- 
ton. It was mustered out at Gold.sboro. N. C, 
June 20, 1865, and finally discharged at Chicago. 
July 7, 186.5. 

One Hundred and Thirteenth Infantry. 
Left Camp Hancock (near Chicago) for the front. 
Nov. 6, 1862; was engaged in the Tallahatchie 
expedition, participated in the battle of Chicka- 
saw Bayou, and was sent North to guard prison- 
ers and recruit. The regiment also took part in 
the siege and capture of Vicksburg, was mustered 
out, June 20, 1865, and finally discharged at Chi- 
cago, five days later. 

One Hundred and Fourteenth Infantry'. 
Organized in July and August, 1862, and mustered 
in at Springfield, Sept. 18, being recruited from, Menard and Sangamon Counties. The regi- 
ment participated in the battle of Jackson (Miss. ). 
the siege and capture of Vicksburg, and in the 
battles of Guntown and Ilarrisville. the pursuit 

of Price through Missouri, the battle of Nash- 
ville, and the capture of Mobile. It was mustered 
out at Vicksburg, August 3, 1863, receiving final 
payment and discharge at Springfield. August 15, 

One Hundred and Fifteenth Infantry-. 
Ordered to the front from Springfield, Oct. 4, 
1862 ; was engaged at Chickamauga, Chattanooga, 
Missionary Ridge, Tunnel Hill, Re.saca and in all 
the principal battles of the Atlanta campaign, 
and in the defense of Nashville and pursuit of 
Hood; was mustered out of service, June 11, 
1865, and received final pay and discharge, June 
23. 1863, at Springfield. 

One Hundred and Sixteenth Infantry. 
Recruited almost wholly from Macon County, 
numbering t)80 officers and men when it started 
from Decatur for the front on Nov. 8, 1862. It 
particiijated in the battles of Cliickasaw Bayou, 
Arkansas Post, Champion Hills, Black River 
Bridge, Missionary Ridge, Resaca, Dallas, Big 
Shanty, Kenesaw Mountain, Stone Mountain. 
Atlanta, Fort McAllister and Bentonville, and 
was mastered out, June 7, 18C3, near Washington. 
D. C. 

One Hundred and Seventeenth Infantry. 
Orgauized at Springfield, and mustered in, Sept. 
19, 1862; participated in the Meridian campaign, 
the Red River expedition (assisting in the cap- 
ture of Fort de Russey), and in the battles of 
Plea,sant Hill, Yellow Bayou, Tupelo, Franklin, 
Nashville, Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely. It 
was mustered out at Springfield, August 5, 1865. 
having traveled 9.276 miles, 2,307 of which were 

One Hundred and Eighteenth Infantry. 
Organized and mustered into the service at 
Springfield. Nov. 7, 1862; was engaged at Chicka- 
.saw Bluffs. Arkansas Post. Port Gibson. Cham- 
pion Hills, Black River Bridge, Jackson (Miss.), 
Grand Coteau, Jackson (La.), and Amite River. 
The regiment was mounted, Oct. 11, 1863, and 
dismounted. May 22. 1865. Oct. 1, 1865, it wa.s 
:nustered out, and finally discharged, Oct. 13. 
At the date of the muster-in. the regiment num- 
bered 820 men and officers, received 283 recruits, 
making a total of 1,103; at muster-out it num- 
bered 523. Distance marched, 2,000 miles; total 
distance traveled, 5,700 miles. 

One Hundred and Ninf,teenth Infantry. 
Organized at Quincy, in September, 1862, and 
was mustered into the United States service. 
October 10 ; was engaged in tlie Red River cam- 
jiaign and in the battles of Shreveport. Yellow 
Bayou. Tupelo. Nashville. Spanish Fort and Fort 



Blakely. . Its final muster-out took place at 
Mobile, August 26, 1865, and its discharge at 

One Hundred and Twentiety Infantry. 
Mustered into the service, Oct. 28, 1862, at Spring- 
field ; was mustered out, Sept. 7, 1865. and received 
final payment and discharge. September 10, at 

One Hundred and Twenty-first Infan- 
try. (The organization of this regiment was not 

One Hundred and Twenty-second Infan- 
try. Organized at Carlinville, in August, 1862, 
and mustered into the service, Sept. 4, with 960 
enlisted men. It participated in the battles of 
Tupelo and Nashville, and in the capture of 
Spanish Fort and Fort Blakelj', and was mustered 
out, July 15, 1865, at Blobile, and finally dis- 
charged at Springfield, August 4. 

One Hundred and Twenty-third Infan- 
try. Mustered into service at Mattoon, Sept. 6. 
1862; participated in the battles of Perry ville, 
Milton, Hoover's Gap, and Farmington ; also took 
part in the entire Atlanta campaign, marching 
as cavalry and fighting as infantry. Later, it 
served as mounted infantry in Kentucky, Tennes- 
see and Alabama, taking a prominent part in the 
capture of Selma. The regiment was discharged 
at Springfield, July 11, 1865 — the recruits, whose 
terms had not expired, being transferred to the 
Sixty-first Volunteer Infantry. 

One Hundred and Twenty-fourth Infan- 
try. Mustered into the service, Sept. 10, 1862, at 
Springfield ; took part in the Vicksburg campaign 
and in the battles of Port Gibson, Raymond and 
Champion Hills, the siege of Vicksburg, the 
Meridian raid, the Yazoo expedition, and the 
capture of Mobile. On the 16th of August, 1865, 
eleven days less than three years after the first 
company went into camp at Springfield, the regi- 
ment was mustered out at Chicago. Colonel 
Howe's history of the battle-flag of the regiment, 
stated that it had been borne 4, 100 miles, in four- 
teen skirimishes, ten battles and two sieges of 
forty-seven days and nights, and thirteen days 
and nights, respectively. 

One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Infan- 
try. Mustered into service, Sept. 3, 1862; par- 
ticipated in the battles of Perryville, Chicka- 
mauga. Missionary Ridge, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta and Jonesboro, and in 
the "Ma''ch to the Sea" and the Carolina cam- 
paign, being engaged at Averysboro and Benton- 
ville. It was mustered out at Washington, D. C. , 
June 9, 1865, and finally discharged at Chicago. 

One Hundred and Twenty-sixth Infan- 
try. Organized at Alton and mustered in, Sept. 4, 
1862, and participated in the siege of Vicksburg. 
Six companies were engaged in skirmish line, near 
Humboldt, Tena. , and the regiment took part in 
the capture of Little Rock and in the fight at 
Clarendon , Ark. It was mustered out July 1 2, 1865. 

One Hundred and Twenty-seventh Infan- 
try. Mustered into service at Chicago, Sept. 6, 
1862; took part in the first campaign against 
Vicksburg, and in the battle of Arkansas Post, 
the siege of Vicksbm-g under Grant, the captm-e 
of Jackson (Miss.), the battles of Missionary 
Ridge and Lookout Mountain, the Meridian raid, 
and in the fighting at Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Atlanta and Jonesboro; also accom- 
panied Sherman in his march through Georgia 
and the Carolinas, taking part in the battle of 
Bentonville ; was mustered out at Chicago June 
17, 1865. 

One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Infan- 
try. Mustered in, Dec. 18, 1862, but remained 
in service less than five months, wlien, its num- 
ber of officers and men having been reduced from 
860 to 161 (largely by desertions), a number of 
officers were dismissed, and the few remaining 
officers and men were formed into a detachment, 
and transferred to another Illinois regiment. 

One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Infan- 
try. Organized at Pontiac, in August, 1862, and 
mustered into the service Sept. 8. Prior to Ma^-, 
1864, the regiment was chiefly engaged in garri- 
son duty. It marched with Slierman in the 
Atlanta campaign and through Georgia and the 
Carolinas, and took part in the battles of Resaca, 
Buzzard's Roost, Lost Jlountain, Dallas, Peach 
Tree Creek, Atlanta, Averysboro and Benton- 
ville. It received final pay and discharge at Chi- 
ca-o, June 10, 1865. 

One Hundred and Thirtieth Infantry. 
Organized at Springfield and musteretl into 
service, Oct. 25, 1862 ; was engaged at Port Gib- 
son, Champion Hills. Black River Bridge. Vicks- 
burg, Jackson (Miss.), and in the Red River 
expedition. While on this expedition almost the 
entire regiment was captured at the battle of 
Mansfield, and not paroled until near the close of 
the war. The remaining officers and men \\'ere 
consolidated with the Seventy-seventh Infantry 
in January, 1865, and participated in the capture 
of Mobile. Six months later its regimental re- 
organization, as the One Hundred and Thirtieth, 
was ordered. It was mustered out at New 
Orleans, August 15, 1865, and discharged at 
Springfield, August 31. 



One Hundred and Thirty-first Infan- 
try. Organized in September, 1862, and mus- 
tered into the service, Nov. 13, with 815 men, 
exclusive of officers. In October, 1863, it was 
consolidated with the Twenty-ninth Infantry, 
and ceased to exist as a separate organization. 
Up to tliat time the regiment Iiad been in but a 
few conflicts and in no pitched battle. 

One Hundred and Thirty-second Infan- 
try*. Organized at Chicago and mustered in for 
100 days from June 1, 1864. The regiment re- 
mained on duty at Paducah until the expiration 
of its service, when it moved to Chicago, and 
was mustered out, Oct. 17, 1864. 

One Hundred and Thirty-third Infan- 
try'. Organized at Springfield, and mustered in 
for one hundred days. May 31, 1864; was engaged 
during its term of service in guarding prisoners 
of war at Rock Island ; was mustered out, Sept. 
4, 1864, at Camp Butler. 

One Hundred and Thirty-fourth Infan- 
try. Organized at Chicago and mustered in. 
May 81, 1804, for 100 days; was assigned to 
garrison duty at Columbus, Ky., and mustered 
out of service, Oct. 23, 1864, at Chicago. 

One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Infan- 
try'. Mustered in for 100-days' service at Mat- 
toon, June 6, 1864, liaving a strength of 853 men. 
It was chiefly engaged, during its term of service, 
in doing garrison duty and guarding railroads. 
It was mustered out at Springfield, Sept. 28, 1864. 

One Hundred .\nd Thirty-sixth Infan- 
try. Enlisted about the first of May, 1864, for 
100 days, and went into camp at Centralia, 111., 
but was not mustered into service until June 1, 
following. Its principal service was garrison 
duty, with occasional scouts and raids amongst 
guerrillas. At the end of its term of service the 
regiment re-enlisted for fifteen days; was mus- 
tered out at Springfield, Oct. 22, 1864, and dis- 
charged eight days later 

One Hundred and Thirty-seventh 
TRY. Organized at Quincy, with ex-Gov. John 
Wood as its Colonel, and mustered in, June 5, 
1864, for 100 days. Was on duty at Memphis, 
Tenn , and mustered out of service at Spring- 
field. 111.. Sept. 4, 1864. 

One Hundred and Thirty eighth Infan- 
try Organized at Quincy, and mustered in, 
June 31, 1864, for 100 days; was assigned to garri- 
son duty at Fort Leavenworth, Kan., and in 
Western Missouri. It was mustered out of serv- 
ice at Springfield, 111., 0(;t. 14, 1864. 

One Hundred and Thirty-ninth Infan- 
try. Mustered into service as a 100-day's regi- 

ment, at Peoria, June 1, 1864; (vas engaged in 
garrison duty at Columbus and Cairo, in making 
reprisals for guerrilla raids, and in the pursuit of 
the Confederate General Price in Missoui-i. The 
latter service was rendered, at the President's 
request, after the term of enlistment had expired. 
It was mustered out at Peoria, Oct. 25, 1864, hav- 
ing been in the service nearlj' five months. 

One Hundred and Fourtieth Inf.yntry. 
Organized as a 100-days' regiment, at Springfield, 
June 18, 1864, and mustered into service on that 
date. The regiment was engaged in guarding 
railroads between Slemphis and Holly Springs, and 
in garrison duty at Memphis. After the term of 
enlistment had expired and the regiment had 
been mustered out, it aided in the pursuit of 
General Price through Missouri; was finally dis- 
charged at Chicago, after serving about five 

One Hundred and Forty'-first Inf.ajj- 
TRY. Mustered into service as a lUO- days' regi- 
ment, at Elgin, June 16, 1864 — strength, 843 men; 
departed for the field, June 27, 1864; was mus- 
tered out at Chicago, Oct. 10, 1864. 

One Hundred .and Forty-second Infan- 
try. Organized at Freeport as a battalion of 
eight companies, and sent to Camp Butler, where 
two companies were added and the regiment 
mustered into service for 100 days, June 18, 1864. 
It was ordered to Memphis, Tenn., five days later, 
and assigned to duty at White's Station, eleven 
miles from that city, where it was employed in 
guarding the Memphis & Charleston railroad. 
It was mustered out at Chicago, on Oct, 27, 1864, 
the men having voluntarily served one month 
beyond their term of enlistment. 

One Hundred and Forty'-third Inf.\n- 
TRY'. Organized at Mattoon, and mustered in, ' 
Jvme 11, 1864, for 100 days. It was assigned to 
garrison duty, and mustered out at Mattoon, 
Sept. 20, 1864. 

One Hundred and Forty'-fourth Infan- 
try'. Organized at Alton, in 1864, as a one-year 
regiment; was mustered into the service, Oct. 31, 
its strength being 1,159 men. It was mustered 
out, July 14, 1865. 

One Hundred .«d Forty-fifth Infan- 
try. Mustered into service at Springfield, June 
9, 1864; .strength, 880 men. It departed for the 
field, June 12, 1864; was mustered out, Sept. 23, 

One Hundred and Forty-sixth 
TRY. Organized at Springfield, Sept. 18, 1864, for 
one \ear. Was as.signed to the dut)' of guarding 
drafted men at Brighton, Quincy, Jacksonville 



and Springfield, and mustered out at Springfield, 
July 5, 1865. 

One Huxdred and Forty-seventh Infan- 
try. Organized at Chicago, and mustered into 
service for one year, Feb. 18 and 19, 186.3; was 
engaged chiefly on guard or garrison duty, in 
scouting and in skirmishing witli guerrillas. 
Mustered out at Nashville, Jan. 22, 1866, and 
received final discharge at Springfield, Feb. 4. 
One Hundred and Forty-eighth 
TRY. Organized at Springfield, Feb. 21, 1865, for 
the term of one year ; %vas assigned to garrison 
and guard duty and mustered out, Sept. 5, 1865, 
at Nashville, Tenn ; arrived at Springfield, Sept. 
9, 1865, where it was paid off and discharged. 

One Hundred and Forty-ninth Infan- 
try. Organized at Springfield, Feb. 11, 1865, 
and mustered in for one year; was engaged in 
garrison and guard duty ; mustered out, Jan. 27, 
1866, at Dalton, Ga., and ordered to Springfield, 
where it received final payment and discharge. 

One Hundred and Fiftieth Infantry. 
Organizedat Springfield, and mustered in, Feb. 14, 
1865, for one year ; was on duty in Tennessee and 
Georgia, guarding railroads and garrisoning 
towns. It was mustered out, Jan. 16, 1866, at 
Atlanta, Ga., and ordered to Springfield, where it 
received final payment and discharge. 

One Hundred and Fifty-first Infantry. 
This regiment was organized at Quincy, 111., 
and mustered into the United States service, 
Feb. 23, 1865, and was composed of companies 
from various parts of the State, recruited, under 
the call of Dec. 19, 1864. It was engaged in 
guard duty, with a few guerrilla skirmishes, and 
was present at the surrender of General War- 
ford's army, at Kingston, Ga. ; was mustered out 
at Columbus, Ga., Jan. 24, 1866, and ordered to 
Springfield, where it received final payment and 
discharge, Feb. 8, 1866. 

One Hundred and Fifty-second Infan- 
try. Organized at Springfield and mustered in, 
Feb. 18, 1865, for one year ; was mustered out of 
service, to date Sept. 11, at Memphis, Tenn., and 
arrived at Camp Butler, Sept. 9, 1865, where it 
received final payment and discharge. 

One Hundred and Fifty-third Infan- 
try. Organized at Chicago, and mustered in, 
Feb. 27, 1865, for one year; was not engaged in 
any battles. It was mustered out, Sept. 15, 1865, 
and moved to Springfield. 111., and. Sept. 24, 
received final pay and discharge. 

One Hundred and Fifty-fourth Infan- 
try. Organized at Springfield, Feb. 21, 1865, 
for one year. Sept. 18, 1865. the regiment was 

mustered out at Nashville, Tenn., and ordered to 
Springfield for final payment and discharge, 
where it arrived, Sept. 22; was paid oft and dis- 
charged at Camp Butler, Sept. 29. 

One Hundred and Fifty-fifth Infan- 
try. Organized at Springfield and mustered in 
Feb. 28, 1865, for one year, 904 strong. On Sept. 
4, 1865, it was mustered out of service, and moved 
to Camp Butler, where it received final pay and 

One Hundred Ay:D Fifty-sixth Infan- 
try. Organized and mustered in during the 
months of February and March, 1865, from the 
northern counties of the State, for the term of 
one year. The officers of the regiment have left 
no written record of its history, but its service 
seems to have been rendered chiefly in Tennessee 
in the neighborhood of JMemphis, Nashville and 
Chattanooga. Judging by the muster-rolls of 
the Adjutant-General, the regiment would appear 
to have been greatly depleted by desertions and 
otherwise, the remnant being finally mustered 
out. Sept. 20, 1865. 

First Cavalry. Organized — consisting of 
seven companies, A, B, C, D, E, F and G— at 
Alton, in 1861, and mustered into the United 
States service, July 3. After some service in 
Slissouri, the regiment participated in the battle 
of Lexington, in that State, and was surrendered, 
with the remainder of the garrison, Sept. 20, 1861. 
The officers were paroled, and the men sworn not 
to take up arms again until discharged. No ex- 
change having been effected in November, the 
non-commissioned officers and privates were 
ordered to Springfield and discharged. In June, 
1862, the regiment was reorganized at Benton 
Barracks, Mo., being afterwards employed in 
guarding supply trains and supply depots at 
various points. Mustered out, at Benton Bar- 
racks, July 14, 1862. 

Second Cavalry. Organized at Springfield 
and mustered into service, August 12, 1861, with 
Company M (which joined the regiment some 
months later), numbering 47 commissioned offi- 
cers and 1,040 enlisted men. This number was in- 
creased by recruits and re-enlistments, during its 
four and a half year's term of service, to 2,236 
enlisted men and 145 commissioned oflScers. It 
was engaged at Belmont ; a portion of the regi- 
ment took part in tlie battles at Fort Henry, 
Fort Donelson and Shiloh, another portion at 
Merriweather's Ferry. Bolivar and Holly Springs, 
and participated in the investment of Vicksburg. 
In January, 1864, the major part of the regiment 
re-enlisted as veterans, later, participating in the 



Red River expedition aud the investment of Fort 
Blakely. It was mustered out at Sau Antonio, 
Tex., Nov. 22, 18G.j, and iiually paid and dis- 
charged at Springfield, Jan. 3, 18G6. 

Third Cavalrt. Composed of twelve com- 
panies, from various localities in tlie State, the 
gland total of company officers and enlisted men, 
imder the first organization, being 1,433. It was 
organized at Springfield, in August, 18G1; partici- 
pated in the battles of Pea Ridge, Haines' Bluff, 
Arkansas Post, Port Gibson, Champion Hills, 
Black River Bridge, and the siege of Vicksburg. 
In Jul}-, 1864, a large portion of the regiment re- 
enlisted as veterans. The remainder were mus- 
tered out, Sept. .5, 1864. The veterans participated 
in the repulse of Forrest, at Memphis, and in the 
battles of Lawrenceburg, Spring Hill, Campbells- 
ville and Franklin. From May to October, I860, 
engaged in service against the Indians in the 
Northwest The regiment was mustered out at 
Springfield, Oct. 18, 186.5. 

Fourth Cavalry. Mustered into service, 
Sept. 26, 1861, and participated in the battles of 
Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, and Shiloh; in the 
siege of Corinth, and in manj' engagements of 
less historic note ; was mustered out at Springfield 
in November, 1864. By order of the War Depart- 
ment, of June 18, 186.1, the members of the 
regiment terms had not expired, were con- 
solidated with the Twelfth Illinois Cavalry. 

Fifth Cavalry. Organized at Camp Butler, 
in November, 1861; took part in the Meridian 
raid and the expedition against Jackson, Miss., 
and in numerous minor expeditions, doing effect- 
ive work at Canton, Grenada, "Woodville, and 
other points. On Jan. 1, 1864, a large portion of 
the regiment re-enlisted as veterans. Its final 
muster-out took place, Oct. 27, 186.5, and it re- 
ceived final payment and discharge, October 30. 
Sixth Cavalry. Organized at Springfield, 
Nov. 19, 1861 ; participated in Sherman's advance 
upon Grenada ; in the Grierson raid through Mis- 
sissippi and Louisiana, tlie siege of Port Hudson, 
the battles of Moscow (Tenn), West Point (Miss.), 
Franklin and Nashville; re-enlisted as veterans, 
March 30, 1864; was mustered out at Selma, Ala., 
Nov. 5, 186.5, and received discharge, November 
20, at Springfield. 

SE^'E^•TH Cavalry. Organized at Springfield, 
and was mustered into service, Oct. 13, 1861. It 
participated in the battles of Farmington, luka, 
Corinth (second battle) ; in Grierson's raid 
through Mississippi and Louisiana; in the en- 
gagement at Plain's Store (La.), and the invest- 
ment of Port Hudson. In March, 1S64, 288 

officers and men re-enlisted as veterans. The 
non-veterans were engaged at Guntown, and the 
entire regiment took part in the battle of Frank- 
lin. After the close of hostilities, it was stationed 
in Alabama and Mississippi, until the latter part 
of October, 1865 ; was mustered out at Nashville, 
and finally discharged at Springfield, Nov. 17, 

Eighth Cavalry. Organized at St. Charles, 
111., and mustered in, Sept. 18, 1861. The regi- 
ment was ordered to Virginia, and participated 
in the general advance on Manassas in March, 
1862; was engaged at Mechanicsville, Gaines' 
Hill, Malvern Hill, Sugar Loaf Mountain, Middle- 
town, South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericks- 
burg, Sulphur Springs, Warrenton, Rapidan 
Station, Northern Neck, Gettysburg, Williams- 
burg. Funkstown, Falling Water, Chester Gap 
Sandy Hook, Culpepper, Brandy Station, and in 
manj' raids and skirmishes. It was mustered 
out of service at Benton Barracks, Mo., July 17, 
1865, and ordered to Chicago, where it received 
final payment and discharge. 

Ninth Cavalry Organized at Chicago, in 
the autumn of 1861, and mustered in, November 
30 ; was engaged at Coldwater, Grenada, Wyatt, 
Saulsbury, Moscow, Guntown, Pontotoc, Tupelo, 
Old Town Creek, Hurricane Creek, La%vrence- 
burg, Campellsville, Franklin and Nashville. 
The regiment re-enlisted as veterans, March 16, 
1864; was mustered out of service at Selma, Ala., 
Oct. 31, 186.5, and ordered to Springfield, where 
the men received final payment and discharge. 

Tenth Cavalry. Organized at Springfield in 
the latter part of September, 1861, and mustered 
into service, Nov. 25, 1861 ; was engaged at Prairie 
Grove, Cotton Plant, Arkansas Post, in the 
Yazoo Pass expedition, at Richmond (La), 
Brownsville, Ba3'ou Metoe, Bayou La Fourche 
aud Little Rock. In February, 1864, a large 
portion of the regiment re enlisted as veter- 
ans, the non-veterans accompanying General 
Banks in his Red River expedition'. On Jan. 27, 
1865, the veterans, and recruits were consolidated 
with the Fifteenth Cavalry, and all reorganized 
under the name of the Tenth Illinois Veteran 
Volunteer Cavalry. Mustered out of service at 
San Antonio, Texas, Nov. 22, 1865, and received 
final discharge at Springfield, Jan. 6, 1866. 

Eleventh Cavalry. Robert G. Ingersoll of 
Peoria, and Basil D. Meeks, of Woodford County, 
obtained permission to raise a regiment of 
cavalry, and recruiting commenced in October, 
1861. The regiment was recruited from tlie 
counties of Peoria, Fulton, Tazewell, Woodford. 



Marshall, Stark, Knox, Henderson and Warren; 
was mustered into the service at Peoria, Dec. 20. 
1861, and was first under fire at Shiloh. It also 
took part in the raid in the rear of Corinth, and 
in the battles of Bolivar, Corinth (second battle), 
luka, Lexington and Jackson (Tenn.); in Mc- 
pherson's expedition to Canton and Sherman's 
Meridian raid, in the relief of Yazoo City, and in 
numerous less important raids and skirmishes. 
Most of the regiment re-enlisted as veterans in 
December, 1863; the non-veterans being mus- 
tered out at Memphis, in the autumn of 1864. The 
veterans were mustered out at the same place, 
Sept. 30, 1865, and discharged at Springfield, 
October 20. 

Twelfth Cavalet. Organized at Springfield, 
in February, 1863, and remained there guarding 
rebel prisoners until June 25, when it was 
mounted and sent to Martinsburg, Va. It was 
-engaged at Fredericksbm-g. Williamsport, Falling 
Waters, the Rapidan and Stevensburg. On Nov. 
26, 1863, the regiment was relieved from service 
and ordered home to reorganize as veterans. 
Subsequently it joined Banks in the Red River 
expedition and in Davidson's expedition against 
Mobile. While at Memphis the Twelfth Cavalry 
was consolidated into an eight-company organi- 
zation, and the Fourth Cavalry, having previously 
been consolidated into a battalion of five com- 
panies, was consolidated with the Twelfth. The 
consolidated regiment was mustered out at 
Houston, Texas, May 29, 1866, and, on June 18, 
received flnalpay and discharge at Springfield. 

Thirteenth Cavalry. Organized at Chicago, 
in December, 1861 ; moved to the front from 
Benton Barracks, Mo., in February, 1862, and 
was engaged in the following battles and skir- 
mishes (all in Missouri and Arkansas) : Putnam's 
Ferry, Cotton Plant, Union City (twice). Camp 
Pillow, Bloomfield (first and second battles). Van 
Bui'en, Allen, Eleven Point River, Jackson, 
White River, Chalk Bluff, Bushy Creek, near 
Helena, Grand Prairie, White River, Deadman's 
Lake, Brownsville, Bayou Metoe. Austin, Little 
Rock, Benton, Batesville. Pine Bluff, Arkadel- 
phia, Okolona, Little Missouri River, Prairie du 
Anne, Camden, Jenkins' Ferry, Cross Roads, 
Mount Elba, Douglas Landing and Monticello. 
The regiment was mustered out. August 31. 1865, 
and received final pay and discharge at Spring- 
field, Sept. 13. 1865. 

Fourteenth Cavalry. Mustered into service 
at Peoria, in January and February, 1863; par- 
ticipated in the battle of Cumberland Gap, in the 
defense of Knoxville and the pursuit of Long- 

street, in the engagements at Bean Station and 
Dandridge, in the Macon raid, and in the cavalry 
battle at Sunshine Church. In tlie latter Gen- 
eral Stoneman surrendered, but the Fourteenth 
cut its way out. On their retreat the men were 
betrayed by a guide and the regiment badly cut 
up and scattered, those escaping being hunted by 
soldiers with bloodhounds. Later, it was engaged 
at Waynesboro and in the battles of Franklin and 
Nashville, and was mustered out at NashviUe, 
July 31, 1865, having marched over 10,000 miles, 
exclusive of duty dona by detachments. 

Fifteenth Cavalry. Composed of companies 
originally independent, attached to infantry regi- 
ments and acting as such; participated in the 
battles of Fort Donelson and Shiloh, and in the 
siege and capture of Corinth. Regimental or- 
ganization was effected in the spring of 1863, and 
thereafter it was engaged cliiefly in scouting and 
post duty. It was mustered out at Springfield, 
August 25, 1864, the recruits (whose term of 
service had not expired) being consolidated with 
the Tenth Cavalry. 

Sixteenth Cavalry. Composed principally 
of Chicago men — Thieleman's and Schambeck's 
Cavalry Companies, raised at the outset of the 
war, forming the nucleus of the regiment. The 
former served as General Sherman's body-guard 
for some time. Captain Thieleman was made a 
Major and authorized to raise a battalion, the 
two companies named thenceforth being knowr- 
as Thieleman's Battalion. In September, 1862, 
the War Department authorized the extension of 
the battalion to a regiment, and, on the 11th of 
June, 1863, the regimental organization was com- 
pleted. It took part in the East Tennessee cam- 
paign, a portion of the regiment aiding in the 
defense of Knoxville, a part garrisoning Cumber- 
and Gap, and one battalion being captured by 
Long-street. The regiment also participated in 
the battles of Rocky Face Ridge, Buzzard's 
Roost, Resaca, Kingston, Cassville, Carterville, 
AUatoona, Kenesaw, Lost Mountain, Mines 
Ridge, Powder Springs, Chattahoochie, Atlanta, 
Jonesboro, Franklin and Nashville. It arrived 
in Chicago, August 23, 1865, for final payment 
and discharge, having marched about 5,000 miles 
and engaged in thirty -one battles, besides numer- 
ous skirmishes. 

Seventeenth Cavalry. Mustered into serv- 
ice in January- and February, 1864 ; aided in the 
repulse of Price at Jefferson City, Mo., and was 
engaged at Booneville. Independence, Mine 
Creek, and Fort Scott, besides doing garrison 
duty, scouting and raiding. It was mustered 



out in Novemljer and December, 1865, at Leaven- 
worth, Kan. Gov. John L. Beveridge, who had 
previously been a Captain and Major of the 
Eighth Cavah-}'. was the Colonel of this regi- 

First Light Aetillery. Consisted of ten 
batteries. Battery A was organized under the 
first call for State troops, April 21, 1861, but not 
mustered into the three years' service until July 
16; was engaged at Fort Donelson, Shiloh, 
Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas Post, the sieges of 
Vicksburg and Jackson, and in the Atlanta cam- 
paign; was in reserve at Champion Hills and 
Nashville, and mustered out Jul)' 3, 1865, at 

■ Battery B was organized in April, 1861, en- 
gaged at Belmont, Fort Donelson, Shiloh, in the 
siege of Corinth and at La Grange, Holly Springs, 
Memphis, Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas Post, the 
siege of Vicksburg, Mechanicsburg, Richmond 
(La.), the Atlanta campaign and the battle of 
Nashville. The Battery was reorganized by con- 
solidation with Battery A, and mustered out at 
Chicago, July 2, 1865. 

Battery D was organized at Cairo, Sept. 2, 1861 ; 
was engaged at Fort Donelson and at Shiloh, 
and mustered out, July 28, 1865, at Chicago. 

Battery E was organized at Camp Douglas and 
mustered into service, Deo. 19, 1861 ; was engaged 
at Shiloh, Corinth, Jackson, Vicksburg, Gun- 
town, Pontotoc, Tupelo and Nashville, and mus- 
tered out at Louisville, Dec. 24, 1864. 

Battery F was recruited at Dixon and mus- 
tered in at Springfield, Feb. 25, 1862. It took 
part in the siege of Corinth and the Yocona 
expedition, and was consolidated with the other 
batteries in the regiment, March 7, 1865. 

Battery G was organized at Cairo and mus- 
tered in Sept. 28, 1861 ; was engaged in the siege 
and the second battle of Corinth, and mustered 
out at Springfield, July 24, 1865. 

Battery H was recruited in and about Chicago, 
during January and February, 1862; participated 
in the battle of Shiloh, siege of Vicksburg. and 
in the Atlanta campaign, the "March to the 
Sea," and through the Carolinas with Sherman. 

Battery I was organized at Camp Douglas and 
mustered in, Feb. 10, ls62; was engaged at 
Shiloh, in the Tallahatchie raid, the .sieges of 
Vick.sburg and Jackson, and in the battles of 
Chattanooga and Vicksburg It veteranized, 
March 17, 1864, and was mustered out, July 26, 

Battery K was organized at Shawneetown and 
mustered in, Jan. 9, 1862, participated in Burn- 

side's campaign in Tennessee, and in the capture 
of Knoxville. Part of the men were mustered 
out at Springfield in June, 1865, and the re- 
manider at Chicago in July. 

Battery M was organized at Camp Douglas and 
mustered into the service, August 12, 1862, for 
three years. It served through the Chickamauga 
campaign, being engaged at Chickamauga; also 
was engaged at Missionary Ridge, was besieged 
at Chattanooga, and took part in all the impor- 
tant battles of the Atlanta campaign. It was 
mustered out at Chicago. July 24, 1864, having 
traveled 3,102 miles and been under fire 178 days. 

Second Light Artillery. Consisted of nine 
batteries. Battery A was organized at Peoria, 
and mustered into service, May 23, 1861 ; served 
in Missouri and Arkansas, doing brilliant work 
at Pea Ridge. It was mustered out of service at 
Springfield, July 27, 1865. 

Battery D was organized at Cairo, and mustered 
into service in December, 1861 ; was engaged at 
Fort Donelson, Shiloh, Vicksburg, Jackson, 
Meridian and Decatur, and mustered out at 
Louisville, Nov. 21. 1864. 

Battery E was organized at St. Louis, Mo., in 
August, 1861, and mustered into service, August 
20, at that point. It was engaged at Fort Donel- 
son and Shiloh, and in the siege of Corinth and 
the Yocona expedition — was consolidated with 
Battery A. 

Battery F was organized at Cape Girardeau, 
Mo., and mustered in, Deo. 11, 1861; was engaged 
at Shiloh. in the siege and second battle of 
Corinth, and the Meridian campaign; also 
at Kenesaw, Atlanta and Jonesboro. It was 
mustered out, July 27, 1865, at Springfield. 

Battery H was organized at Springfield, De- 
cember, 1861, and mustered in, Dec. 31, 1861; was 
engaged at Fort Donelson and in the siege of 
Fort Pillow; veteranized, Jan. 1, 1864, was 
mounted as cavalry the following simimer, and 
mustered out at Springfield, July 29, 1865. 

Battery I was recruited in Will County, and 
mustered into service at Camp Butler, Dec. 31, 
1861. It participated in the siege of Island No. 
10, in the advance upon Cornith, and in the 
battles of Perryville, Chickamauga, Lookout 
Mountain, Missionary Ridge and Chattanooga. 
It veteranized, Jan. 1, 1864, marched with Sher- 
man to Atlanta, and thence to Savannah and 
through the Carolinas, and was mustered out at 

Battery K was organized at Springfield and 
mustered in Dec. 31, 1863; was engaged at Fort 
Pillow, the capture of Clarkston, Mo., and the 



siege of Vicksburg. It was mustered out, July 
14, 1865, at Chicago. 

Battery L was organized at Chicago and mus- 
tered in, Feb. 28, 1863; participated in the ad- 
vance on Corinth, the battle of Hatchie and the 
advance on the Tallahatchie, and was mustered 
out at Chicago, August 9, 1865. 

Battery M was organized at Chicago, and mus- 
tered in at Springfield, June, 1862 ; was engaged 
at Jonesboro, Blue Spring, Blountsville and 
Eogersville, being finally consolidated with 
other batteries of the regiment. 

Chicago Board of Trade Battery. Organ- 
ized through the efforts of the Chicago Board of 
Trade, which raised §15,000 for its equipment, 
within fortj'-eight hours. It was mustered into 
service, August 1, 1862, was engaged at Law- 
renceburg, Murfreesboro, Stone River, Cliicka- 
mauga, Farmington, Decatur (Ga.), Atlanta, 
Lovejoy Station, Nashville, Selma and Columbus 
(Ga. ) It was mustered out at Chicago, June 30, 
1865, and paid in full, July 3, having marched 
5,368 miles and traveled by rail 1,231 miles. The 
battery was in eleven of the hardest battles 
fought in the West, and in twenty-six minor 
battles, being in action forty-two times while on 
scouts, reconnoissances or outpost duty. 

Chicago Mercantile Battery. Recruited 
and organized under the auspices of the Mercan- 
tile Association, an association of prominent and 
patriotic merchants of the City of Chicago. It 
was mustered into service, August 29, 1863, at 
Camp Douglas, participated in the Tallahatchie 
and Yazoo expeditions, the first attack upon 
Vicksburg, the battle of Arkansas Post, the siege 
of "Vicksburg, the battles of Magnolia Hills, 
Champion Hills, Black River Bridge and Jackson 
(Miss.); also took part in Banks' Red River ex- 
pedition; was mustered out at Chicago, and 
received final payment, July 10, 1865, having 
traveled, by river, sea and land, over 11,000 

Springfield Light Artillery. Recruited 
principally from the cities of Springfield, Belle- 
ville and Wenona, and mustered into service at 
Springfield, for the term of three years, August 
31, 1863. numbering 199 men and officers. It 
participated in the capture of Little Rock and in 
the Red River expedition, and was mustered ovit 
at Springfield, 114 strong, June 30, 1865. 

Cogswell's Battery, Light Artillery. 
Organized at Ottawa, 111., and mustered in, Nov. 
11, 1861, as Company A (Artillery) Fifty-third 
Illinois Volimteers, Colonel Cushman command- 
ing the regiment. It participated in the 

advance on Corinth, the siege of Vicksburg, the 
battle of Missionary Ridge, and the capture of 
Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, near Mobile. The 
regiment was mustered out at Springfield, August 
14, 1865, having served three years and nine 
months, marched over 7,500 miles, and partici- 
pated in seven sieges and battles. 

Sturges Rifles. An independent company, 
organized at Chicago, armed, equipped and sub- 
sisted for nearly two months, by the patriotic 
generosity of Mr. Solomon Sturges ; was mustered 
into service, May 6, 1861 ; in June following, was 
ordered to West Virginia, serving as body- 
guard of General McClellan; was engaged at 
Rich Mountain, in the siege of Yorktown, and in 
the seven days' battle of the Chickahominy. A 
portion of the company was at Antietam, the 
remainder having been detached as foragers, 
scouts, etc. It was mustered out at Washington, 
Nov. 35, 1863. 

oppressions and misrule which had character- 
ized the administration of affairs by the Spanish 
Government and its agents for generations, in the 
Island of Cuba, culminated, in April, 1898, in 
mutual declarations of war between Spain and 
the United States. The causes leading up to this 
result were the injurious effects upon American 
commerce and the interests of American citizens 
owning property in Cuba, as well as the constant 
expense imposed upon tlie Government of the 
United States in the maintenance of a large navy 
along the South Atlantic coast to suppress fili- 
bustering, superadded to the friction and unrest 
produced among the people of this country by the 
long continuance of disorders and abuses so near 
to our own shores, which aroused the sympathy 
and indignation of the entire civilized world. 
For three years a large proportion of the Cuban 
population had been in open rebellion against the 
Spanish Government, and, while the latter had 
imported a large army to the island and sub- 
jected the insurgents and their families and 
sympathizers to the grossest cruelties, not even 
excepting torture and starvation itself, their 
policy had failed to bring the insurgents into 
subjection or to restore order. In this condition 
of affairs the United States Government had 
endeavored, through negotiation, to secure a miti- 
gation of the evils complained of, by a modifica- 
tion of the Spanish policy of government in the 
island ; but all suggestions in this direction had 
either been resented by Spain as unwarrantable 
interference in her affairs, or promises of reform, 
when made, had been as invariably broken. 



In the meantime an incre<ising sentiment had 
been growing up in the United States in favor of 
conceding belligerent rights to the Cuban insur- 
gents, or the recognition of their independence, 
which found expression in measures proposed in 
Congress— all offers of friendly intervention by 
the United States having been rejected by Spain 
with evidences of indignation. Compelled, at 
last, to recognize its inability to subdue the insur- 
rection, the Spanish Government, in November, 
1897. made a pretense of tendering autonomy to 
the Cuban people, with the privilege of amnesty 
to the insurgents on laying down their arms. 
The long duration of the war and the outrages 
perpetrated upon the helpless "reconcentrados," 
coupled with the increased confidence of the 
insurgents in the final triumph of their cause, 
rendered this movement — even if intended to be 
carried out to the letter — of no avail. The 
proffer came too late, and was promptly rejected. 

In this condition of affairs and with a view to 
gi'eater security for American interests, the 
American battleship Maine was ordered to 
Havana, on Jan. 24, 1898. It arrived in Havana 
Harbor the following day, and was anchored at a 
point designated by the Spanish commander. On 
the night of February 1.5, following, it was blown 
up and destroyed by some force, as shown by after 
investigation, applied from without. Of a crew 
of 3.54 men belonging to the vessel at the time, 
206 were either killed outright by the explosion, 
or died from their wounds. Not only the Ameri- 
can people, but the entire civilized world, was 
shocked by the catastrophe. An act of horrible 
treachery had been perpetrated agamst an 
American vessel and its crew on a peaceful mis- 
sion in the harbor of a professedly friendly na- 

The successive steps leading to actual hostili- 
ties were rapid and eventful. One of the earliest 
and most significant of these was the passage, by 
a unanimous vote of both houses of Congress, on 
March 9, of an appropriation placing S.")0, 000,000 
in the hands of the President as an emergency 
fund for purposes of national defense. This was 
followed, two days later, by an order for the 
mobilization of the army. The more important 
events following this step were : An order, under 
date of April ■'>, withdrawing American consuls 
from Spanish stations; the departure, on April 9, 
of Consul-General Fitzhugh Lee from Havana: 
April 19. the adoption by'Congress of concurrent 
resolutions declaring Cuba independent and 
directing the President to use the land and naval 
forces of the United States to put an end to 

Spanish authority in the island; April 20, the 
sending to the Spanish Government, by the Presi- 
dent, of an ultimatum in accordance with chis 
act; April 21, the delivery to Minister Woodford, 
at JIadrid, of his passports without waiting for 
the presentation of the ultimatum, with the 
departure of the Spanish Minister from Washing- 
ton; April 23, the issue of a call by the President 
for 12.3,000 volunters; April 24, the final declara- 
tion of war by Spain ; April 2~), the adoption by 
Congress of a resolution declaring that war had 
e.xisted from April 21; on the same date an order 
to Admiral Dewey, in command of the Asiatic 
Squadron at Hongkong, to sail for Manila with a 
view to investing that city and blockading 
Philippine ports. 

The chief events subsequent to the declaration 
of war embraced the following: Maj' 1, the 
destruction by Admiral Dewey's squadron of the 
Spanish fleet in the harbor of Manila; May 19, 
the arrival of the Spanish Admiral Cervera's fleet 
at Santiago de Cuba; May 25, a second call by 
the President for 75,000 volunteers; July 3, the 
attempt of Cervera's fleet to escape, and its 
destruction off Santiago; July 17, the surrender 
of Santiago to the forces under General Shafter; 
July 30, the statement by the President, through 
the French Ambassador at Washington, of the 
terms on which the United States would consent 
to make peace ; August 9, acceptance of the peace 
terms by Spain, followed, three days later, by the 
signing of the peace protocol ; September 9, the 
appointment by the President of Peace Commis- 
sioners on the part of the United States ; Sept. 18, 
the announcement of the Peace Commissioners 
selected by Spain; October 1, the beginning of the 
Peace Conference by the representatives of the 
two powers, at Paris, and the formal signing, on 
December 10, of the peace treaty, including the 
recognition by Spain of the freedom of Cuba, 
with the transfer to the United States of Porto 
Rico and her other West India islands, together 
with the surrender of the Philippines for a con- 
sideration of §20,000,000. 

Seldom, if ever, in the history of nations have 
such vast and far-reaching results been accom- 
plished within so short a period. The war, 
which practically began with the destruction of 
the Spanish fleet in Manila Harbor — an event 
which aroused the enthusiasm of the whole 
.\merican j)eople, and won the respect and 
admiration of other nations — was practically 
ended by the surrender of Santiago and the 
declaration by the President of the conditions of 
peace just three months later. Succ-eeding 



events, up to the formal signing of the peace 
treaty, vere merely the recognition of results 
previously determined. 

History of Illinois Regiments.— The part 
played by Illinois in connection with these events 
may be briefly suiumarized in the liistory of Illi- 
nois regiments and other organizations. Under 
the first call of the President for 125,000 volim- 
teers, eight regiments — seven of infantry and one 
of cavalry — were assigned to Illinois, to which 
was subsequently added, on application through 
Governor Tanner, one battery of light artil- 
lery. The infantry regiments were made up 
of the Illinois National Guard, numbered 
consecutively from one to seven, and were 
practically mobilized at their home stations 
within forty-eight hours from the receipt of the 
call, and began to arrive at Camp Tanner, near 
Springfield, the place of rendezvous, on April 26, 
the day after the issue of the Governor's call. 
The record of Illinois troops is conspicuous for 
the promptness of their response and the com- 
pleteness of their organization — in this respect 
being unsurpassed by those of any other State. 
Under tlie call of May 25 for an additional force 
of 75,000 men, the quota assigned to Illinois was 
two regiments, which were promptly furnished, 
taking the names of tlie Eighth and Ninth. The 
first of these belonged to the Illinois National 
Guard, as the regiments mustered in under the 
first call had done, while the Ninth was one of a 
number of "Provisional Regiments" which had 
tendered their services to the Government. Some 
twenty-five other regiments of this class, more or 
less complete, stood ready to perfect their organi- 
zations should there be occasion for their serv- 
ices. The aggregate strength of Illinois organi- 
zations at date of muster out from the United 
States service was 12,280—11,789 men and 491 

FiKST Regiment Illinois Volunteers (orig- 
inally Illinois National Guard) was organized at 
Chicago, and mustered into the United States 
service at Camp Tanner (Springfield), imder the 
command of Col. Henry L. Turner, May 13, 1898; 
left Springfield for Camp Thomas (Chickamauga) 
May 17; assigned to First Brigade, Third 
Division, of the First Army Corps; started for 
Tampa. Fla., June 3, but soon after arrival there 
was transferred to Picnic Island, and assigned to 
provost duty in place of the First United States 
Infantry. On June 30 the bulk of the regiment 
embarked for Cuba, but was detained in the har- 
bor at Key AVest until July 5, when the vessel 
sailed for Santiago, arriving in Guantanamo Bay 

on the evening of the 8th. Disembarking on 
the 10th, the whole regiment arrived on the 
firing line on the 11th, spent several days and 
nights in the trenches before Santiago, and 
were present at the surrender of that city 
on the 17th. Two companies had previously 
been detached for the scarcely less perilous duty 
of service in the fever hospitals and in caring 
for their wounded comrades. The next month 
was spent on guard duty in the captured city, 
until August 25, when, depleted in numbers and 
weakened by fever, the bulk of the regiment was 
transferred by hospital boats to Camj} Wikoff, on 
Montauk Point, L. I. The members of the regi- 
ment able to travel left Camp Wikoff, September 
8, for Chicago, arriving two days later, where they 
met an enthusiastic reception and were mustered 
out, November 17, 1,235 strong (rank and file) — a 
considerable number of recruits having joined the 
regiment just before leaving Tampa. The record 
of the First was conspicuous by tlie fact that it 
was the only Illinois regiment to see service in 
Cuba during the progress of actual hostilities. 
Before leaving Tampa some eighty members of the 
regiment were detailed for engineering duty in 
Porto Rico, sailed for that island on July 12, and 
were among the first to perform service there. 
The First suffered severely from yellow fever 
while in Cuba, but, as a regiment, while in the 
service, made a brilliant record, which was highly 
complimented in the official reports of its com- 
manding officers. 

Second Regiment Illinois Volunteer In- 
fantry (originally Second I. N. G.). This regi- 
ment, also from Chicago, began to arrive at 
Springfield, April 27, 1898— at that time number- 
ing 1,202 men and 47 officers, under command of 
Col. George M. Moulton; was mustered in 
between May 4 and May 15 ; on May 17 started 
for Tampa, Fla. , but en route its destination was 
changed to Jacksonville, where, as a part of the 
Seventh Army Corps, under command of Gen. 
Fitzhugh Lee, it assisted in the dedication of 
Camp Cuba Libre. October 25 it was transferred 
to Savannah, Ga., remaining at "Camp Lee" until 
December 8, when two battalions embarked for 
Havana, landing on the 15tli, being followed, a 
few days later, by the Third Battalion, and sta- 
tioned at Camp Columbia. From Dec. 17 to Jan. 
11, 1899, Colonel Moulton served as Chief of 
Police for the city of Havana. On March 28 to 30 
the regiment left Camp Columbia in detach- 
ments for Augusta, Ga., where it arrived April 
5, and was mustered out. April 26, 1,051 strong 
(rank and file), and returned to Chicago. Dur- 



mg its 3tay in Cuba the regiment diJ not lose a 
man. A liistory of tliis regiment lias been 
written by Kev. H. W. Bolton, its late Chaplain. 

Thusd Regiment Illlvois Volu.vteer In- 
fantry, composed of companies of the Illinois 
National Guard from the counties of La Salle. 
Livingston, Kane, Kankakee, McHenry, Ogle, 
"Will, and Winnebago, under command of Col. 
Fred Bennitt, reported at Springfield, with 1,170 
men and .'50 officers, on April :3T; was mustered 
in May 7, 1898; transferred from Springfield to 
Camp Thomas (Chickamauga), May 14; on July 
22 left Chickamauga for Porto Rico ; on the 28th 
sailed from Newport News, on the liner St. Louis, 
arriving at Ponce, Porto Rico, on July 31; soon 
after disembarking captured Arroyo, and assisted 
in the capture of Guayama, which was the 
beginning of General Brooke's advance across 
the island to San Juan, when intelligence was 
received of the signing of the peace protocol by 
Spain. From August 1.3 to October 1 the Third 
continued in the performance of guard duty in 
Porto Rico ; on October 22, 980 men and 39 offi- 
cers took transport for home by %vay of New York, 
arriving in Chicago, November 11, the several 
companies being mustered out at their respective 
home stations. Its strength at final muster-out 
was 1,273 men and officers. This regiment had 
the distinction of being one of the first to see 
service in Porto Rico, but suffereil severely from 
fever and other diseases during the three months 
of its stay in the island. 

Fourth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, com- 
posed of companies from Champaign, Coles, 
Douglas, Edgar, Effingham, Fayette, Jackson, 
Jefferson, Montgomery, Richland, and St. Clair 
counties; mustered into the service at Spring- 
field, May 20, under command of Col. Casimer 
Andel; started immediately for Tampa, Fla., but 
en route its destination was changed to Jackson- 
ville, where it was stationed at Camp Cuba Libre 
as a part of the Seventh Corps under command of 
Gen. Fitzhugh Lee; in October was transferred 
to Savannah, Ga., remaining at Camp Onward 
until aVjout the first of January, when the regi- 
ment took ship for Havana. Ilere the regiment 
was stationed at Camp Columbia until April 4, 
1899, when it returned to Augusta, Ga., and was 
mustered out at Camp ilackenzie (Augusta), May 
2, the companies returning to their respective 
home stations. During a part of its stay at 
Jacksonville, and again at Savannah, the regi- 
ment was employed on guard duty. While at 
Jacksonville Colonel Andel was suspended by 
court-martial, and finally tendered his resigna- 

tion, his place being supplied by Lieut. -CoL Eben 
Swift, of the Ninth. 

Fifth Regiment Illinois Volunteer 1n- 
F.\.NTRY' was the first regiment to report, and was 
mustered in at Springfield, 31ay 7, 1808, under 
command of Col. James S. Culver, being finally 
composed of twelve companies from Pike, Chris- 
tian, Sangamon, McLean, Montgomery, Adams. 
Tazewell, Macon, Morgan, Peoria, and Fulton 
counties; on May 1-1 left Springfield for Camp 
Thomas (Chickamauga, Ga.), being assigned to 
the command of General Brooke ; August 3 left 
Chickamauga for Newport News, Va., with the 
expectation of embarking for Porto Rico — a 
previous order of July 26 to the same purport 
having been countermanded; at Newport News 
embarked on the transport Obdam, but again the 
order was rescinded, and, after remaining od 
board thirty-six hours, the regiment was disem 
barked. The next move was made to Lexington 
Ky., where the regiment — having lost hope of 
reaching "the front" — remained until Sept 5, 
when it returned to Springfield for final muster- 
out. This regiment was composed of some of the 
best material in the State, and anxious for active 
service, but after a succession of disappoint- 
ments, was compelled to return to its home sta- 
tion without meeting the enemy. After its arrival 
at Springfield the regiment was furloughed for 
thirty days and finally mustered out, October 16, 
numbering 1,213 men and 47 officers. 

Sixth Regiment Illinois Volunteer In- 
F.A.NTRY, consisting of twelve companies from the 
counties of Rock Island, Knox, Whiteside, Lee, 
Carroll, Stephenson, Henry, Warren, Bureau, and 
Jo Daviess, was mustered in May 11, 1898, under 
command of Col. D. Jack Foster; on May 17 left 
Springfield for Camp Alger, Va. ; July ~) the 
regiment moved to Charleston, S. C, where a 
part embarked for Siboney, Cuba, but the whole 
regiment was soon after united in General 
Miles" expedition for the invasion of Porto Rico, 
landing at Guanico on July 2.5, and advancing 
into the interior as far as Adjuuta and Utuado. 
After several weeks' service in the interior, the 
regiment returned to Ponce, and on September 7 
took transport for the return home, arrived at 
Springfield a week later, and was mustered out 
November 2.5, the regiment at that time consist- 
ing of 1,239 men and 49 officers. 

Seventh Illinois Volunteer Infantry 
(known as the "Hibernian Rifles"). Two 
battalions of this regiment reported at Spring, 
field, April 27, with 33 officers and 765 enlisted 
men, being afterwards increased to the maxi- 



mum; was mustered into the United States serv- 
ice, under command of Col. Marcus Kavanagh, 
May 18, 1898 ; on May 28 started for Camp Alger, 
Va. ; was afterwards encamped at Tlioroughfare 
Gap and Camp Meade ; on September 9 returned 
to Springfield, was furloughed for thirty days, 
and mustered out, October 20, mmibering 1,260 
men and 49 officers. Like the Fifth, the Seventh 
saw no actual service in the field. 

Eighth Illinois Volunteer Infantry (col- 
ored regiment), mustered into the service at 
Springfield under the second call of the Presi- 
dent, July 23, 1898, being composed wholly of 
Afro- Americans under officers of their own race, 
with Col. John R. Marshall in command, the 
muster-roll showing 1,19.5 men and 76 officers. 
Tlie six companies, from A to F, were from Chi- 
cago, the other five being, respectively, from 
Bloomington, Springfield, Quincy, Litchfield, 
Mound City and Metropolis, and Cairo. The 
regiment having tendered their services to 
relieve the First Illinois on duty at Santiago de 
Cuba, it started for Cuba, August 8, by waj- of 
New York ; immediately on arrival at Santiago, 
a week later, was assigned to dut}', but subse- 
quently transferred to San Luis, where Colone, 
Marshall was made military governor. The 
major part of the regiment remained here imtil 
ordered home early in March, 1899, arrived at 
Chicago, March 15, and was mustered out, April 
3, 1,226 strong, rank and file, having been in 
service nine months and six days. 

Ninth Illinois Volunteer Infantry was 
organized from the counties of Southern Illinois, 
and mustered in at Springfield under the second 
call of the President, July 4-11, 1898, under com- 
mand of Col. James R. Campbell; arrived at 
Camp Cuba Libre (Jacksonville, Fla.), August 9; 
two months later was transferred to Savannah, 
Ga. ; was moved to Havana in December, where 
it remained until May, 1899, when it returned to 
Augusta, Ga., and was mustered out there, May 
20, 1899, at that time consisting of 1,095 men and 
46 officers. From Augusta the several companies 
returned to their respective home stations. The 
Ninth was the only "Provisional Regiment" from 
Illinois mustered into the service during the 
war, the other regiments all belonging to the 
National Guard. 

First Illinois Cavalry was organized at Chi- 
cago immediately after the President's first call, 
seven companies being recruited from Chicago, 
two from Bloomington, and one each from 
Springfield. Elkhart, and Lacon ; was mustered in 
at Springfield, May 21, 1898, under command of 

Col, Edward C. Young; left Springfield for Camp 
Tliomas, Ga., May 30, remaining there until 
August 24, when it returned to Fort Slieridan, 
near Chicago, where it was stationed until October 
11, when it was mustered out, at that time con- 
sisting of 1,158 men and 50 officers. Although 
the regiment saw no active service in the field, it 
established an excellent record for itself in respect 
to discipline. 

First Engineering Corps, consisting of 80 
men detailed from the First Illinois Volunteers, 
were among the first Illinois soldiers to see serv- 
ice in Porto Rico, accompanying General Miles' 
expedition in the latter part of July, and being 
engaged for a time in the construction of bridges 
in aid of the intended advance across the island. 
On September 8 they embarked for the return 
liome, arrived at Chicago, September 17, and 
were mustered out November 30. 

Battery A (I. N. G.), from Danville, 111,, was 
mustered in under a special order of the War 
Department, May 12, 1898, imder command of 
Capt. Oscar P. Yaeger, consisting of 118 men; 
left Springfield for Camp Thomas, Ga., May 19, 
and, two months later, joined in General Miles' 
Porto Rico expedition, landing at Guanico on 
August 3, and taking part in the affair at Gua 
yama on the 12th. News of peace having been 
received, the Battery returned to Ponce, where 
it remained until September 7, when it started 
on the return home by way of New York, arrived 
at Danville, September 17, was furloughed for 
sixty days, and mustered out November 25. The 
Battery was equipped with modern breech-load- 
ing rapid-firing guns, operated by practical artil- 
lerists and prepared for effective service. 

Naval Reserves. — One of the earliest steps 
taken by the Government after it became ap- 
parent that hostilities could not be averted, was 
to begin preparation for strengthening the naval 
arm of the service. The existence of the "Naval 
Militia," first organized in 1893, placed Illinois in 
an exceptionally favorable position for making a 
prompt response to the call of the Government, as 
well as furnishing a superior class of men for 
service — a fact evidenced during the operations 
in the West Indies. Gen. John JIcNulta, as head 
of the local committee, was active in calling the 
attention of the Navy Department to the value of 
the service to be rendered by this organization, 
which resulted in its being enlistetl practically as 
a body, taking the name of "Naval Reserves" — 
all but eighty-eight of the number passing the 
physical examination, the places of these beirg 
promptly filled b_v new recruits. The first de- 



tachment of over 2in) left Chicago May 2. under 
the command of Lieut. -Coin. John M. Hawley, 
followed soon after Ijy the remainder of the First 
Battalion, making the whole number from Chi- 
cago 400, with 267, constituting the Second Bat- 
talion, from other towns of the State. The latter 
was made up of 147 men from Moline, o8 from 
Quincy, and 62 from Alton— making a total from 
the State of 667. This does not include others, 
not belonging to this organization, who enlisted 
for service in the navj- during the war, which 
raised the whole niunber for the State over 1,000. 
Tlie Reserves enlisted from Illinois occupietl a 
different relation to the Government from that 
of the "naval militia" of other States, which 
retained their State organizations, wliile those 
from Illinois were regularly mustered into the 
United States service. The recruits from Illinois 
were embarked at Key West, Norfolk and New 
York, and distributed among fifty-two different 
vessels, including nearly every vessel belonging 
to the North Atlantic Squadron. They saw serv- 
ice in nearly every department from tlie position 
of stokers in the hold to that of gunners in the 
turrets of the big battleships, the largest number 
(60) being assigned to the famous battleship Ore- 
gon, while the cruiser Yale followed with 47; the 
Harvard with 3.5; Cincinnati, 27; Yankton, 19; 
Franklin, 18; 5Iontgoniery and Indiana, each, 17; 
Hector, 14; Marietta, 11; Wilmington and Lan- 
caster, 10 each, and others down to one each. 
Illinois sailors thus had the privilege of partici- 
pating in the brilliant affair of July 3, which 
resulted in the destruction of Cervera's fleet oft 
Santiago, as also in nearly every other event in 
the West Indies of less importance, without the 
less of a man while in the sers-ice, although 
among the most e.xposed. They were mustered 
out at different times, as they could be spared 
from the service, or the vessels to which they 
were attached went out of commission, a portion 
serving out their full term of one year. The 
Reserves from Chicago retain their organization 
under the name of "Naval Reserve Veterans," 
with headquarters in the Masonic Temple Build- 
ing, Chicago. 

WARD, James H., ex-Congressman, was born 
in Chicago. Nov. 30, 18.53, und educated in the 
Chicago public schools and at the Univer.sity of 
Notre Dame, graduating from the latter in 1873. 
Three years later he graduated from the Union 
College of Law, Chicago, and was admitted to 
the bar. Since then he has continued to practice 
his profe.ssion in his native city. In 1.879 he was 
elected Supervisor of the town of West Chicago, 

and, in 1884, was a candidate for Presidential 
Elector on the Democratic ticket, and the same 
year, was the successful candidate of his party 
for Congress in the Third Illinois District, serv- 
ing one term. 

WIXXEB.i^GO INDIANS, a trilxj of the Da 
cota, or Sioux, stock, which at one time occupied 
a part of Northern IllinoLs. The word Winne- 
bago is a corruption of the French Ouinebe- 
goutz, Ouimbegouc, etc., the diphthong "ou" 
taking the place of the consonant "w," which is 
wanting in the French alphabet. These were, 
in turn, French misspellings of an Algonquin 
term meaning "fetid," which the latter tribe 
applied to the Winnebagoes because they liad 
come from the western ocean — the salt (or 
"fetid") water. In their advance towards the 
East the Winnebagoes early invaded the country 
of tlie Illinois, but were finally driven north- 
ward by the latter, who surpassed them in num- 
bers rather than in bravery. The invaders 
settled in Wisconsin, near the Fox River, and 
here they were first visited by the Jesuit Fathers 
in the .seventeenth centurj'. (See Jesuit Rela- 
tions.) The AVinnebagoes are commonly re- 
garded as a Wisconsin tribe; yet, that they 
claimed territorial rights in Illinois is shown by 
the fact that the treaty of Prairia du Chien 
(August 1, 1829), alludes to a Winnebago village 
located in what is now Jo Daviess County, near 
the mouth of the Pecatonica River. While, as a 
rule, the tribe, if left to itself, was disjwsed to 
live in amity with the whites, it was carried 
away by the eloquence and diplomacj- of 
Tecumseli and the cajoleries of "The Prophet. ' 
General Harrison especially alludes to the brav- 
ery of the Winnebago warriors at Tippecanoe' 
w-hich he attributees in part, however, to a super- 
stitious faith in "The Prophet." In June or 
July, 1827, an unprovoked and brutal outrage by 
the whites upon an unoffending and practically 
defenseless partj" of Winnebagoes, near Prairie 
du Chien brought on what is known as the 
'Winnebago War." (See n'intiebago ll'ar.) 
The tribe took no part in the Black Hawk War, 
largel.v because of the great influence and shrewd 
tactic of their chief, Naw-caw. By treaties 
executed in 1832 and 1837 the Winnebagoes ceded 
to the United States all their lands lying east of 
the Mississippi. They were finally removed west 
of that river, and, after many shiftings of loca- 
tion, were placed upon the Omaha Reservation in 
Eastern Nebraska, where their industry, thrift 
and peaceable disposition elicited high praise 
from Government officials. 



WAR>'ER, Vespasian, lawyer and Member of 
Congress, was born in De "VVitt County, 111., April 
23, 18-12, and has lived all his life in his native 
county — his present residence being Clinton. 
After a short course in Lombard University, 
while studying law in the office of Hon. Law- 
rence Weldon, at Clinton, he enlisted as a private 
soldier of the Twentieth Illinois Volunteers, in 
June, 1861, serving until July, 1806, when he was 
mustered out with the rank of Captain and 
brevet Major. He received a gunshot wound at 
Shiloh, but continued to serve in the Army of 
the Tennessee until the evacuation of Atlanta, 
when he was ordered North on account of dis- 
ability. His last service was in fighting Indians 
on the plains. After the war he completed his 
law studies at Harvard University, graduating in 
1868, when he entered into a law partnership 
with Clifton H. Moore of Clinton. He served as 
Judge- Advocate General of the Illinois National 
Guard for several years, with the rank of Colonel, 
under the administrations of Governors Hamil- 
ton, Oglesby and Fifer, and, in 1894, was nomi- 
nated and elected, as a Republican, to the 
Fifty-fourth Congress for the Thirteenth District, 
being re-elected in 1896, and again in 1898. In 
the Fifty-fifth Congress, Mr. Warner was a mem- 
ber of the Committees on Agi-iculture ami Invalid 
Pensions, and Chairman of the Committee on 
Revision of the Laws. 

WARREN, a village in Jo Daviess County, at 
intersection of the Illinois Central and the Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railways, 26 miles 
west-northwest of Freeport and 27 miles east by 
north of Galena. The surrounding region is 
agricultural and stock-raising : tliere are also lead 
mines in the vicinity. Tobacco is grown to some 
extent. Warren has a flouring mill, tin factory, 
creamery and stone quarries, a State bank, water 
supply from artesian wells, fire department, gas 
plant, two weekly newspapers, five churches, a 
high school, an academj' and a public library. 
Pop. (1890), 1,172; (1900), 1,337. 

WARREX, Calvin A., lawyer, was born in 
Essex County, N. Y., June 3, 1807: in his youth, 
worked for a time, as a typographer, in the office 
of "The Northern Spectator." at Poultney, Yt., 
side by side with Horace Greele3', afterwards the 
foimder of "The New York Tribune." Later, he 
became one of the publishers of "The Palladium" 
at Ballston, N. Y., but, in 1832, removed to 
Hamilton County, Ohio, where he began the 
study of law, completing his course at Transyl- 
vania University, Ky., in 1834, and beginning 
practice a*^^ Batavia, Ohio, as the partner of 

Thomas Morris, then a United States Senator 
from Ohio, whose daughter he married, thereby 
becoming the brother- in-law of the late Isaac N. 
Morris, of Quincy, 111. In 1836, Mr. Wavren 
came to Quincy, Adams County, 111 . but soon 
after removed to Warsaw in Hancock County, 
where he resided until 1839, when he returned to 
Quincy. Here he continued in practice, either 
alone or as a partner, at different times, of sev- 
eral of the leading attorneys of that city. 
Although he held no office except that of Master 
in Chancery, which he occupied for some sixteen 
years, the possession of an inexhaustible fund of 
humor, with strong practical sense and decided 
ability as a speaker, gave him great popularity 
at the bar and upon the stump, and made him a 
recognized leader in the ranks of the Democratic 
party, of which he was a life-long member. He 
served as Presidential Elector on the Pierce 
ticket in 1852, and was the nominee of his party 
for the same position on one or two other occa- 
sions. Died, at Quincy, Feb. 22, 1881. 

WARREN, Hooper, pioneer journalist, was 
born at Walpole, N. H., in 1790; learned the print- 
er's trade on the Rutland (Vt.) "Herald"; in 
1814 went to Delaware, whence, three years later, 
he emigrated to Kentucky, working for a time 
on a paper at Frankfort. In 1818 he came to St 
Louis and worked in the office of the old "Mis- 
.souri Gazette" (the predecessor of "The Repub- 
lican"), and also acted as the agent of a lumber 
company at Cairo, 111., when the whole popula- 
tion of that place consisted of one family domi- 
ciled on a grounded flat-boat. In March, 1819. 
he established, at Edwardsville, the tliird paper 
in Illinois, its predecessors being "The Illinois 
Intelligencer," at Kaskaskia, and "The Illinois 
Emigrant," at Shawneetown. The name given 
to the new paper was "The Spectator," and the 
contest over the effort to introduce a pro-slavery 
clause in the State Constitution soon brought it 
into prominence. Backed by Governor Coles, 
Congressman Daniel P. Cook, Judge S. D. Lock- 
wood, Rev. Thomas Lippincott, Judge Wm. H. 
Brown (afterwards of Chicago), George Churchill 
and other opponents of slavery. "The Spectator" 
made a sturdy fight in opposition to the scheme, 
which ended in defeat of the measure by the 
rejection at the polls, in 1824, of the proposition 
for a Constitutional Convention. Warren left 
the Edwardsville paper in 182.5, and was, for a 
time, associated with "The National Crisis," an 
anti-slavery paper at Cincinnati, but soon re- 
turned to Illinois and established "The Sangamon 
Spectator"— the first paper ever published at the 



present State capital. This he sold out in 1829. 
and, for the next three years, was connected 
with "The Advertiser and Upper Mississippi Her- 
ald;'" at Galena. Abandoning this field in 1832. 
he removed to Hennepin, where, within the next 
five }-ears, he held tlie otlices of Clerk of the Cir- 
cuit and County ConiinLs-sioners" Courts and ex 
ofBcio Recorder of Deeds. In 1836 he began tlie 
publication of the third paper in Chicago — "The 
Commercial Advertiser" (a weekly)— which was 
continued a little more than a year, when it was 
abandoned, and he settled on a farm at Henry, 
Marshall County. His fvirther newspaper ven- 
tures were, as the associate of Zebina Eastman, in 
the publication of "The Genius of Liberty," at 
Lowell, La Salle County, and "The "Western 
Citizen" — afterwards "The Free West" — in Chi- 
cago. (See Eastman, Zebina, and Lundy. Ben- 
jamin.) On the discontinuance of "The Free 
West" in 18.56, he again retired to his farm at 
Henry, where he spent the remainder of his days. 
While returning home from a visit to Chicago, 
in August, 1864. he was taken ill at Mendota, 
dving there on the 22d of the month. 

WARREX, John Esaias, diplomatist and real- 
estate operator, was born in Troy, N. Y., in 1826, 
graduated at Union College and was connected 
with the American Legation to Spain during the 
administration of President Pierce; in 18.59-60 
was a member of the Minnesota Legislature and, 
in 1861-62, Mayor of St. Paul; in 1867. came to 
Chicago, where, while engaged in real-estate 
business, he became known to the press as the 
author of a series of articles entitled "Topics of 
the Time." In 1886 he took up his residence in 
Brussels. Belgium, where he died. July 6, 1896. 
Mr. Warren was author of several volumes of 
travel, of which "An Attache in Spain" and • 
"Para" are most important. 

WARREX COUNTY. A -western county, 
created by act of the Legislature, in 182.5, but 
not fully organized until 1830, having at that time 
about 3-50 inhabitants; has an area of .540 square 
miles, and was named for Gen. Joseph Warren. 
It is drained by the Henderson River and its 
affluents, and is traversed by the Chicago. Bur- 
lington & Quincy (two divisions), the Iowa 
Central and the Atchison. Toi)eka and Santa Fe 
Railroads. Bituminous coal is mined and lime- 
stone is quarried in large quantities The county's 
early development was retarded in consequence 
of having become the "seat of war," during the 
Black Hawk War. The principal products are 
grain- and live-stock, although manufacturing is 
carried on to some extent. The county -seat and 

chief city is Monmouth (which see). Roseville 
is a shipping point. Population (18S0), 22,983. 
(1890). 21,281; (1900|, 23,103. 

WAKRENSBUUG, a town of Macon County, 
on Peoria Division 111. Cent. Railway, 9 miles 
northwest of Decatur; has elevators, canning 
factory, a bank and newspaper. Pop. (1900), 503. 
WARSAW, the largest town in Hancock 
County, and admirably situated for trade. It 
stands on a bluff on the Mi.ssi&sippi River, some 
three miles below Keokuk, and about 40 miles 
above Quincy. It is the western terminus of the 
Toledo, Peoria & Western Railway, and lies 116 
miles west-southwest of Peoria. Old Fort 
Edwards, established by Gen. Zachary Taylor, 
during the War of 1812, was located within the 
limits of the present city of Warsaw, opposite the 
mouth of the Des iloines River. An iron 
foundry, a Lirge woolen mill, a plow factory 
and cooperage works are its principal manufac- 
turing establishments. The channel of the Missis- 
sippi admits of the passage of the largest steamers 
up to this point. Warsaw has eight churches, a 
system of common schools comprising one high 
and three grammar schools, a National bank and 
two weekly newspapers. Population (1880). 3.106: 
(1890), 2,721; (1900), 2,335. 

WASHBURX, a village of Woodford County, on 
a branch of the Chicago & Alton Railway 25 
miles northeast of Peoria; has banks and a 
weekly p:i]ier ; the district is agricultural. Popu- 
lation ilslliii, .5HS; (1900), 703. 

WASHBURNE, Ellhu Beujamin, Congressman 
and diplomatist, was born at Livermore, Maine, 
Sept. 23, 1816; in early life learned the trade of a 
printer, but graduated from Harvard Law School 
and was admitted to the bar in 1840. Coming 
west, he settled at Galena, forming a partnership 
with Charles S. Hempstead, for the practice of 
law, in 1841. He was a stalwart Whig, and, as 
such, was elected to Congress in 1852. He con- 
tinued to repre.sent his District until 1869, taking 
a prominent position, as a Republican, on the 
organization of that party. On account of his 
long service he was known as the "Father of the 
House." administering the Speaker's oath three 
times to Schuyler Colfax and once to James G. 
Blaine. He was appointed Secretary of State by 
General Grant in 1869. but surrendered his port- 
folio to become Envoy to France, in which ca- 
pacity he achieved great distinction. He was the 
only official representative of a foreign govern- 
ment who remained in Paris, during the -siege of 
that city by the Germans (1870-71) and the reign 
of the "Commune." For his conduct he was 



honored by the Governments of France and Ger- 
many alike. On his return to the United States, 
he made his home in Chicago, where he devoted 
his latter years chiefly to literary labor, and 
wliere he died, Oct. 33, 1887. He was strongly 
favored as a candidate for the Presidency in 1880. 
WASHIMiTON, a city in Tazewell County, 
situated at the intersection of the Chicago & 
Alton, the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, and the 
Toledo, Peoria & Western Railroads. It is 21 
miles west of El Paso, and 12 miles east of Peoria. 
Carriages, plows and farming implements con- 
stitute the manufactured output. It is also an 
important shipping-point for farm products. It 
has electric light and water-works plants, eight 
churches, a graded school, two banks and two 
newspapers. Pop. (1890), 1,301; (1900), 1,451. 

WASHIXGTON COUNTY, an interior county of 
Southern Illinois, east of St Louis ; is drained by 
the Kaskaskia River and the Elkhorn, Beaucoup 
and Muddy Creeks; was organized in 1818, and 
has an area of 540 square miles. The surface is 
diversified, well watered and timbered. The 
soil is of variable fertility. Corn, wheat and 
oats are the chief agricultural products. Manu- 
facturing is carried on to some extent, among 
the products being agricultural implements, 
flour, carriages and wagons. The most impor- 
tant town is Nashville, which is also the county- 
seat. Population (1890), 19,262; (1900), 19,526, 
Washington was one of the fifteen counties into 
which Illinois was divided at the organization of 
the State Government, being one of the last 
three created during the Territorial period — the 
other two being Franklin and Union. 

WASHINGTON HEIGHTS, a village of Cook 
County, on the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific 
and the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. 
Louis Railways, 13 miles southwest of Chicago; 
has a graded school, female seminary, military 
school, a car factory, several churches and a 
newspaper. Annexed to City of Chicago, 1890. 

WATAGA, a village of Knox County, on the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, 8 miles 
northeast of Galesburg. Population (1900), 545. 
WATERLOO, the and chief town 
of Monroe County, on the Illinois Division of the 
Mobile & Ohio Railroad, 24 miles east of south 
from St. Louis. The region is chiefly agricultural, 
but underlaid with coal. Its industries embrace 
two flour mills, a plow factory, distillery, cream- 
ery, two ice plants, and some minor concerns. 
The city has municipal water and electric light 
plants, four churches, a graded school and two 
newspapers. Pop. (1890), 1,860; (1900), 2,114. 

WATERMAN, Arba Nelson, lawyer and jurist, 
was born at Greensboro, Orleans County, Vt. , 
Feb. 3, 1836. After receiving an academic edu- 
cation and teaching for a time, he read law at 
Montpelier and, later, passed through the Albany 
Law School. In 1861 he was admitted to the 
bar, removed to Joliet, 111., and opened an office. 
In 1863 he enlisted as a private in the One Hun- 
dredth Illinois Volunteers, serving with the 
Army of the Cumberland for two years, and 
being mustered out in August, 1864, with the 
rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. On leaving the 
army. Colonel Waterman commenced practice in 
Chicago. In 1873-74 he represented the Eleventh 
Ward in the City Council. In 1887 he was elected 
to the bench of the Cook County Circuit Court, 
and was re-elected in 1891 and, again, in 1897. In 
1890 he was assigned as one of the Judges of the 
Appellate Court. 

WATSEKA, the county-seat of Iroquois County, 
situated on the Iroquois River, at tlie mouth of 
Sugar Creek, and at tiie intersection of the Chi- 
cago & Eastern Illinois and the Toledo, Peoria & 
Western Railroads, 77 miles south of Chicago, 46 
miles north of Danville and 14 miles east of 
Oilman. It has flour-mills, brick and tile works 
and foundries, besides several churches, banks, a 
graded school and three weekly newspapers. 
Artesian well water is obtained by boring to the 
depth of 100 to 160 feet, and some forty flowing 
streams from these shafts are in the place. Popu- 
lation (1890), 3,017; (1900), 3,505. 

WATTS, Amos, jurist, was born in St. Clair 
County, 111., Oct. 35, 1831, but removed to Wash- 
ington County in boyhood, and was elected County 
Clerk in 1847, '49 and "53, and State's Attorney 
for the Second Judicial District in 1856 and '60; 
then became editor and proprietor of a news- 
paper, later resuming the practice of law, and, in 
1873, was elected Circuit Judge, remaining in 
ofl5ce until his death, at Nashville, 111. Pec. 6, 

WAUKEGAN, the county-seat and principal 
city of Lake County, situated on the shore of 
Lake Michigan and on the Chicago & North- 
western Railroad, about 36 miles north by west 
from Chicago, and .50 miles south of Milwaukee; 
is also the northern terminus of the Elgin, Joliet 
& Eastern Railroad and connected by electric 
lines with Chicago and Fox Lake. Lake Michigan 
is about 80 miles wide opposite this point. 
Waukegan was first known as "Little Fort," 
from the remains of an old fort that stood on its 
site. The principal part of the city is built on a 
bluff, which abruptly to the height of about 



fifty feet. Between the blulf and the shore is a 
flat tract about 400 yards wide which is occupied 
by gardens, dwellings, warehouses and manu- 
factories. The manufactures include steel-wire, 
refined sugar, scales, agricultural implements, 
brass and iron products, s;i.sli, doors and blinds, 
leather, beer, etc. ; the city has paved streets, gas 
and electric light plants, three banks, eight or 
ten churches, graded and high schools and two 
newspapers. A large trade in grain, lumber, coal 
and dairj- products is carried on. Pop. (1890), 
4,915; (UtOO), 9,426. 

WAY. (See Elgin, Juliet d- Eu.-ilcri, Hail way.) 

WAVER LY, a city in Morgan County, 18 miles 
southeast of Jacksonville, on the Jacksonville & 
St. Louis and the Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis 
Railroads. It was originally settled by enter- 
prising emigrants from New England, whose 
descendants constitute a large proportion of the 
population. It is the center of a rich agricultural 
region, has a fine graded school, six or seven 
churches, two banks, two newspapers and tile 
works. Population (1880), 1.1-24; (1890). 1,337; 
(1900), 1,573. 

WAYXE, (Gen.) Anthony, soldier, was born in 
Chester County, Pa., Jan 1, 174.5, of Anglo-Irish 
descent, grailuated as a Surveyor, and first prac- 
ticed his profession in Nova Scotia. During the 
years immediately antecedent to the Revolution 
he was prominent in the colonial councils of his 
native State, to which he had returned in 1707, 
where he became a member of the "Committee of 
Safety." On June 3. 1776, he was commissioned 
Colonel of the Fourth Regiment of Pennsylvania 
troops in the Continental army, and, during the 
War of the Revolution, was conspicuous for his 
courage and ability as a leader. One of his most 
daring and successful achievements was the cap- 
ture of Stony Point, in 1779, when — the works 
having been carried and Wayne having received, 
what was supposed to be. his death-wound— he 
entered the fort, .supported by his aids. For this 
service he was awarded a gold medal by Con- 
gress. He also took a conspicuous part in the 
investiture and capture of Y'orktown. In October, 
1783, he was bre vetted Major-General. In 1784 
he was elected to the Pennsylvania Legislature. 
A few years later he settled in Georgia, which 
State he represented in Congress for seven 
months, when his seat was declared vacant after 
contest. In April. 1792, he was confirmed as 
General-in-Chief of the United States Army, on 
nomination of President Washington. His con 
nection with Illinois history began shortly after 

St. Clair's defeat, when he led a force into Ohio 
(1783) and erected a stockade at Greenville, 
which he named Fort Recovery ; his object being 
to subdue the hostile savage tribes. In this he 
was eminently successful and, on August 3, 
1793, after a victorious campaign, negotiated the 
Treaty of Greenville, as broad in its provisions as 
it was far-reaching in its influence. He was a 
daring fighter, and although Washington called 
him "prudent," his dauntlessness earned for him 
the sobriquet of "Mad Anthony.'' In matters of 
dress he was punctilious, and, on this account, 
he was sometimes dubbed "Dandy Wayne.' He 
was one of the few white officers whom all the 
Western Indian tribes at once feared and re- 
spected. They named him "Black Snake" and 
"Tornado." He died at Presque Isle near Erie, 
Dec. 15, 1796. Thirteen years afterward his 
remains were removed by one of his sons, and 
interred in Radnor churchyard, in his native 
county. The Pennsylvania Historical Society 
erected a marble monument over his grave, and 
appropriately dedicated it on July 4 of the same 

WAYXE COUMY, in the southeast quarter of 
the State; has an area of 720 square miles; was 
organized in 1819, and named for Gen. Anthony 
Wayne. The county is watered and drained by 
the Little Wabash and its branches, notably the 
Skillet Fork. At the first election held in the 
county, only fifteen votes were cast. Early life 
was exceedingly primitive, the first settlers 
pounding corn into meal with a wooden pestle, 
a hollowed stump being used as a mortar. The 
first mill erected (of the antique South Carolina 
pattern) charged 25 cents per bushel for grinding. 
Prairie and woodland make up the surface, and 
the soil is fertile. Railroad facilities are furni.shed 
by the Louisville, Evansville & St. Louis and the 
Baltimore & Ohio (Southwestern) Railroads. 
Corn, oats, tobacco, wheat, hay and wool are the 
chief agricultural products. Saw mills are numer- 
ous and there are also carriage and wagon facto- 
ries. Fairfield is the county-seat. Population 
(1880), 21.291; (1890). 23,806; (1900), 27,626. 

WEAS, THE, a branch of the Miami tribe of 
Indians. They called themselves "We-wee- 
hahs, " and were spoken of by the French as "Oui- 
at-a-nons" and "Oui-as." Other corruptions of 
the name were common among the British and 
American colonists. In 1718 they had a village 
at Chicago, but abandoned it through fear of 
their hostile neighbors, the Chippewas and Potta- 
watomies. The Weas were, at one time, brave 
and warlike; but their numbers were reduced bv 



constant warfare and disease, and, in tlie end, 
debauchery enervated and demoralized them. 
They were removed west of the Mississippi and 
given a reservation in Miami County, Kan. Tliis 
they ultimately sold, and, under the leadership 
of Baptiste Peoria, united witli their few remain- 
ing brethren of the Miamis and with the remnant 
of the Illi-ni under the title of the "confederated 
tribes," and settled in Indian Territory. (See also 
Mia m is: Pia n kcsli a irs.) 

WEBB, Edwin B., early lawyer and politician, 
was born about 1802, came to the vicinity of 
Carmi, White County, III, about 1828 to 1830, 
and, still later, studied law at Transylvania Uni- 
versity. He held the office of Prosecuting 
Attorney of White County, and, in 1834, was 
elected to the lower branch of the General 
Assembly, serving, by successive re-elections, 
until 1842. and. in the Senate, from 1843 to "46. 
During his service in the House he was a col- 
league and political and personal friend of 
Abraham Lincoln. He opposed the internal 
improvement scheme of 1837, predicting many 
of the disasters which were actually realized a 
few years later. He was a candidate for Presi- 
dential Elector on the Whig ticket, in 1844 and 
'48, and, in 1852, received the nomination for 
Governor as the opponent of Joel A. Matteson, 
two years later, being an unsuccessful candidate 
for Justice of the Supreme Court in opposition to 
Judge W. B. Scates. While practicing law at 
c-ai-mi, he was also a partner of his brother in 
the mercantile business. Died, Oct. 14, 1858, in 
the 56th year of his age. 

WEBB, Henry Livingston, soldier and pioneer 
(an elder brother of James Watson Webb, a noted 
New York journalist), was born at Claverack, 
N. Y., Feb. 6, 1795; served as a soldier in the 
War of 1813, came to Southern Illinois in 1817, 
and became one of the founders of the town of 
America near the mouth of the Ohio ; was Repre- 
sentative in the Fourth and Eleventh General 
Assemblies, a Major in the Black Hawk War and 
Captain of volunteers and, afterwards, Colonel of 
regulars, in the Mexican War. In 1860 he went 
to Texas and served, for a time, in a semi-mili- 
tary capacity under the Confederate Govern- 
ment; returned to Illinois in -1869, and died, at 
Makanda. Oct. 5. 1876. 

WEBSTER, Fletcher, lawyer and soldier, was 
born at Portsmouth, N. H. , July 38, 1813 ; gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1833, and studied law with 
his father (Daniel Webster) ; in 1837, located at 
Peru. 111., where he practiced three years. His 
father having been appointed Secretary of State 

in 1841, the son became his private secretary, 
was also Secretary of Legation to Caleb Gushing 
(Minister to China) in 1843, a member of the 
Massachusetts Legislature in 1847, and Surveyor 
of the Port of Boston, 1850-61; the latter year 
became Colonel of the Twelfth Massachusetts 
Volunteers and was killed in the second battle 
of Bull Run, August 30, 1803. 

WE15STER, Joseph Daua, civil engineer and 
soldier, was born at Old Hampton, N. H., 
xVugust 35, 1811. He graduated from Dart- 
mouth College in 1833, and afterwards read 
law at Newburyport, Mass. His natural incli- 
nation was for engineering, and, after serv- 
ing for a time in the Engineer and War offices, 
at Washington, was made a United States civil 
engineer (1835) and, on July 7, 1838, entered the 
army as Second Lieutenant of Topographical 
Engineers. He served through the Mexican 
W^ar, was made First Lieutenant in 1849. and 
promoted to a captaincy, in March, 1853. Thir- 
teen months later he resigned, removing to Chi- 
cago, where he made his permanent home, and 
soon after was identified, for a time, with the 
proprietorship of "The Chicago Tribune." He 
was President of the commission that perfected 
the Chicago sewerage system, and designed and 
executed the raising of the grade of a large por- 
tion of the city from two to eiglit feet, whole 
blocks of buildings being raided by jack screws, 
while new foundations were inserted. At the 
outbreak of the Civil War he tendered his serv- 
ices to the Government and superintended the 
erection of the fortifications at Cairo, 111., and 
Paducah, Ky. On April 7. 1861, he was com- 
missioned Paymaster of Volunteers, with the 
rank of Major, and, in February, 1863, Colonel of 
the First Illinois Artillery. For several months 
he was chief of General Grant's staff, participat- 
ing in the capture of Forts Donelson and Henry, 
and in the battle of Shiloh, in the latter as Chief 
of Artillery. In October, 1862, the War Depart- 
ment detailed him to make a survey of the lUi 
nois & Michigan Canal, and, the following month. 
he was commissioned Brigadier-General of 
Volunteers, serving as Military Governor of Mem- 
phis and Superintendent of military railroads. 
He was again chief of staff to General Grant 
during the Vicksburg campaign, and. from 1864 
until the close of the war, occupied the same 
relation to General Sherman. He was brevetted 
Major-General of Volunteers, March 13, 1865, but, 
resigning Nov. 6, following, returned to Chicago, 
where he spent the remainder of his life. From 
1869 to 1873 he was A.ssessor of Internal Revenue 



there, and, later. Assistant United States Treas- 
urer, and, in July, 1872, was appointed Collector 
of Internal Revenue. Died, at Chicago, March 
12. 1876. 

WELCH, William R., lawyer and jurist, was 
born in Jessamine County, Ky., Jan. 22, 1828, 
educated at Transylvania Universitj', Lexington, 
graduating from the academic department in 
1847, and, from tlie law school, in 1851. In 1864 he 
removed to Carlinville, Macoupin County, 111., 
which place lie made his permanent home. In 
1877 lie was elected to the bench of the Fifth 
Circuit, and re-elected in 1879 and '85. In 1884 
he was assigned to the bench of the Appellate 
Court for the Second District. Died, Sept. 1, 

WELDOX, Lawrence, one of the Judges of the 
United States Court of Claims, Washington, 
D. C, was born in Muskingum County, Ohio, in 
1829; while a child, removed with his parents to 
Madison County, and was educated in the com- 
mon schools, the local academy and at Wittenberg 
College, Springfield, in the same State ; read law 
with Hon. R. A. Harrison, a prominent member 
of the Ohio bar, and was admitted to practice in 
1854, meanwhile, in 18.52-.53, having served as a 
clerk in the office of the Secretary of State at 
Columbus. In 18.54 he removed to Illinois, locat- 
ing at Clinton, DeWitt County, where he engaged 
in practice; in 1860 was elected a Representative 
in the Twenty-second General Assembly, was 
also chosen a Presidential Elector the same year, 
and assisted in the first election of Abraham 
Lincoln to the Presidency. Early in 1861 he 
resigned liis seat in the Legislature to accept the 
position of United States District Attorney for 
the Southern District of Illinois, tendered him by 
President Lincoln, but resigned the latter office 
in 1866 and, the following year, removed to 
Blooniington, where he continued the practice of 
his profession until 1883, when he was appointed, 
by President Arthur, an Associate Justice of the 
United_ States Court of Claims at Washington — 
a position which he still (1899) continues to fill. 
Judge Weldon is among the remaining few who 
rode the circuit and practiced law with Mr. Lin- 
coln. From the time of coming to the State in 
18.54 to 1860, he was one of Mr. Lincoln's most 
intimate traveling companions in the old 
Eighth Circuit, which extended from Sangamon 
County on tlie west to Vermilion on the east, and 
of which Judge David Davis, afterwards of tlie 
Supreme Court of tlie United States and United 
States Senator, was tlie presiding Justice. The 
Judge holds in his memory many 

niscences of that day, especially of the eastern 
portion of the District, where he was accustomed 
to meet the late Senator Voorhees, Senator Mc- 
Donald and other leading lawyers of Indiana, aa 
well as the historic men whom he met at the 
State capital. 

WELLS, Albert W., lawyer and legislator, was 
born at Woodstock, Conn., May 9, 1839, and 
enjoyed only such educational and other advan- 
tages as belonged to the average New England 
boy of that period. During his boyhood his 
family removed to New Jersey, where he attended 
an academy, later, graduating from Columbia 
College and Law School in New York City, and 
began practice with State Senator Robert Allen 
at Red Bank, N. J. During the Civil War he 
enlisted in a New Jersey regiment and took part 
in tlie battle of Gettysburg, resuming his profes- 
sion at the close of the war. Coming west in 
1870, he settled in Quincy, 111., where he con- 
tinued practice. In 1886 he was elected to the 
House of Representatives from Adams County, 
as a Democrat, and re-elected two years later. 
In 1890 he was advanced to the Senate, where, 
by re-election in 1894, he served continuously 
until his death in office, March 5, 1897. His 
abilities and long service — covering the sessions 
of the Thirty -fifth to the Fortieth General Assem- 
blies — placed him at tlie head of the Democratic 
side of the Senate during the latter part of his 
legislative career. 

WELLS, William, soldier and victim of the 
Fort Dearborn massacre, was born in Kentucky, 
about 1770. When a boy of 12, he was captured 
by the Miami Indians, whose chief, Little Turtle, 
adopted him, giving him his daughter in mar- 
riage when he grew to manhood. He was highly 
esteemed by the tribe as a warrior, and, in 1790, 
was present at the battle where Gen. Arthur St. 
Clair was defeated. He then realized that he 
was fighting against his own race, and informed 
his father-in-law that he intended to ally himself 
with the whites. Leaving the Miamis, he made 
his way to General Wayne, who' made him Cap- 
tain of a company of scouts. After the treaty of 
Greenville (1795) he settled on a farm near Fort 
Wayne, where he was joined by his Indian wife. 
Here he acted as Indian Agent and Justice of the 
Peace. In 1812 he learned of the contemplated 
evacuation of Fort Dearborn, and, at the head of 
thirty Miamis, he set out for the post, his inten- 
tion being to furnish a body-guard to the non- 
combatants on their proposed march to Fort 
Wayne. On August 13, he marched out of the 
fort with fifteen of his duskv warriors behind 



him, the remainder bringing up the rear. Before 
a mile and a half had been traveled, the party fell 
into an Indian ambuscade, and an indiscrimi- 
nate massacre followed. (See Fort Dearborn.) 
The Miamis fled, and Captain Wells' body was 
riddled with bullets, his head cut off and his 
heart taken out. He was an imcle of Mrs. Heald, 
wife of the commander of Fort Dearborn. 

WELLS, William Harvey, educator, was born 
in Tolland, Conn. , Feb. 27, 1812 ; lived on a farm 
until 17 years old, attending school irregularly, 
but made such progress that he became succes- 
sively a teacher in the Teachers' Seminary at 
Andover and Newburyport, and, finally. Principal 
of the State Normal School at Westfleld, Mass. 
In 1856 he accepted the position of Superintend- 
ent of PubUc Schools for the city of Chicago, 
serving till 1864, when he resigned. He was an 
organizer of the Massachusetts State Teachers' 
Association, one of the first editors of "The 
Massachusetts Teacher" and prominently con- 
nected with various benevolent, educational and 
learned societies ; was also author of several text- 
books, and assisted in the revision of "Webster's 
Unabridged Dictionary." Died, Jan. 21, 1885. 

WENONA, city on the eastern border of Mar- 
shall County, 20 miles south of La Salle, has 
zinc works, public and parochial schools, a 
weekly paper, two banks, and five churches. A 
good quality of soft coal is mined here. Popu- 
lation (1880), 911; (1890), 1,0.53; (1900), 1,486. 

WENTWORTH, John, early journalist and 
Congressman, was born at Sandwich, N. H., 
March 5, 1815, graduated from Dartmouth Col- 
lege in 1836, and came to Chicago the same year, 
where he became editor of "The Chicago Demo- 
crat," which had been established by John Cal- 
hoim three years previous. He soon after became 
proprietor of "The Democrat," of which he con- 
tinued to be the publisher until it was merged 
into "The Chicago Tribune," July 24, 1864. He 
also studied law, and was admitted to the Illinois 
bar in 1841. He served in Congress as a Demo- 
crat from 1843 to 1851, and again from 18.53 to 
1855, but left the Democratic party on the repeal 
of the Missouri Compromise. He was elected 
Mayor of Chicago in 1857, and again in 1860, 
during his incumbency introducing a number of 
important municipal reforms ; was a member of 
the Constitutional Convention of 1862, and twice 
served on the Board of Education. He again 
represented Illinois in Congress as a Republican 
from 1865 to 1867 — making fourteen years of 
service in that body. In 1872 he joined in the 
Greeley movement, but later renewed his alle- 

giance to the Republican party. In 187i. /fr. Went- 
worth published an elaborate genealogical work 
in three volumes, entitled "History of the Went- 
worth Family." A volume of "Congressional 
Reminiscences" and two by him on "Early Chi- 
cago," published in connection with the Fergus 
Historical Series, contain some valuable informa- 
tion on early local and national history. On 
account of his extraordinary height he received 
the sobriquet of "Long John," by which he was 
familiarly known throughout the State. Died, 
in Chicago, Oct. 16, 1888. 

WEST, Edward M., merchant and banker, was 
born in Virginia, May 2, 1814; came with his 
father to Illinois in 1818; in 1839 became a clerk 
in the Recorder's office at EdwardsviUe, also 
served as deputy postmaster, and, in 1833, took a 
position in the United States Land Office there. 
Two years later he engaged in mercantile busi- 
ness, which he prosecuted over thirty years — 
meanwhile filling the office of County Treasurer, 
ex-officio Superintendent of Schools, and Delegate 
to the Constitutional Convention of 1847. In 1867, 
in conjunction with W. R. Prickett, he established 
a bank at EdwardsviUe, with which he was con- 
nected until his death, Oct. 31, 1887. Mr. West 
officiated frequently as a "local preacher" of the 
Methodist Church, in which capacity he showed 
much ability as a public speaker. 

WEST, Mary Allen, educator and philanthro- 
pist, was born at Galesburg, 111., July 31, 1837; 
graduated at Knox Seminary in 1854 and taught 
until 1873, when she was elected County Super- 
intendent of Schools, serving nine years. She 
took an active and influential interest in educa- 
tional and reformatory movements, was for two 
years editor of "Our Home Monthly," in Phila- 
delphia, and also a contributor to other journals, 
besides being editor-in-chief of "The Union Sig- 
nal," Chicago, the organ of the Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union — in which slie held the 
position of President ; was also President, in the 
latter days of her life, of the Illinois Woman's 
Press Association of Chicago, that city having 
become her home in 1885. In 1892, Miss West 
started on a tour of the world for the benefit of 
her health, but died at Tokio, Japan, Dec. 1, 1892. 
an institution for tlie treatment of the insane, 
located at Watertown, Rock Island County, in 
accordance with an act of the General Assembly, 
approved. May 22, 1895. The Thirty-ninth Gen- 
eral Assembly made an appropriation of §100,000 
for the erection of fire-proof buildings, while 
Rock Island County donated a tract of 400 acres 



of land valued at $4(l.0U(l. The site selected by the 
Commissioners, is a commandinj.; one overlooking 
tlie Mississippi River, eight miles above Rock 
Island, and five and a half miles from Moline, and 
the buildings are of the most modern style of con- 
struction. Watertown is reached by two lines of 
railroad — the Chicago. Milwaukee & St. Paul and 
the Chicago. Burlington & Quincy — besides the 
Mississippi River. The erection of buildings was 
begun in 1896, and they were opened for the 
reception of patients in 1898. Tliey liave a ca- 
pacitv for 800 patients. 

tution located at Upper Alton, Madison County. 
incorporated in 1892 ; has a faculty of eight mem- 
bers and reports eighty pupils for 1897-98, with 
property valued at STO.OOO. The institution gives 
instruction in literary and scientific branches, 
besides preparatory and business courses. 

Bushnell, McDonough County; incorporated in 
1888. It is co-educational, has a corps of twelve 
instructors and reported .lOO pupils for 1897-98, 
300 males and 200 females. 

WESTERN SPRINGS, a village of Cook 
County, and residence suburb of the city of Chi- 
cago, on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Rail- 
road, 1.5 miles west of the initial .station. 
Population (1890), 4.51; (11.00), 602. 

located in Chicago and conti'olled by the Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church. It was founded in 1883 
through the munificence of Dr. Tolman Wheeler, 
and was opened for students two years later. It 
has two buildings, of a superior order of archi- 
tecture — one including the school and lecture 
rooms and the other a dormitory. A hospital 
and gymnasium are attached to the latter, and a 
school for boys is conducted on the first floor of 
the main building, which is known as Wheeler 
Hall. The institution is under the general super- 
vision of Rt. Rev. William E. McLaren. Protes- 
tant Episcopal Bishop of the Diocese of Illinois. 

WESTFIELD, village of Clark County, onCin., 
Ham. & Dayton K. R., 10 in. s -e. of Charleston; 
seat of Westfield College: has a bank, five 
churches and two newspapers. Pep (1900) 820. 

WEST SALEM, a town of Edwards County, on 
the Peoria-Evansville Div. Ill Cent R. R,. 12 
miles northeast of .Mbicin; lias a bank and a 
weekly paper. Pop. (189(1). 47«; (1900). 700. 

WETHERELL, Emma Abbott, vocalist, was 
born in Chicago, De/:-. 9, IW): in her childhood 
attracted attention while singing with her father 
(a Door musician) in hotels and on the streets in 

Chicago, Peoria and elsewhere: at 18 years of 
age, went to New York to study, earning her way 
by giving concerts en route, and receiving aid 
and encouragement from Clara Louisa Kellogg; 
in New Y'ork was patronized by Henry Ward 
Beecher and others, and aided in securing the 
training of European masters. Compelled to sur- 
mount many obstacles from poverty and other 
causes, her after success in her profession was 
phenomenal. Died, during a professional tour, 
at Salt Lake City, Jan. .5, 1891. Miss Abbott 
married her manager, Eugene Wetherell, who 
died before her. 

WHEATOX, a city and the countj^-seat of Du 
Page County, situated on the Chicago & North- 
weslern Railway, 25 miles west of Chicago. Agri- 
culture and stock-raising are the chief indu.stries 
in the surrounding region. The city owns a new 
water-v.orks plant (costing §60,000) and has a 
public library valued at 875,000, the gift of a 
resident. Mr. John Quincy Adams; has a court 
house, electric light plant, sewerage and drainage 
system, seven churches, three graded schools, 
four weekly newspapers and a State bank. 
Wheaton is the seat of Wheatnn College (which 
see) Population (1880), 1,160; (1890), 1,622: 
(1900). 2.345. 

WHEATON COLLEGE, an educational insti- 
tution located at Wheaton, Du Page County, and 
under Congregational control. It was founded 
in 1853, as the Illinois Institute, and was char- 
tered under its present name in 1860. Its early 
existence was one of struggle, but of late years it 
has been established on a better foundation, in 
1898 having .$54,000 invested in productive funds, 
and property aggregating §136 OOU. The faculty 
comprises fifteen professors, and, in 1898. there 
were 321 students in attendance. It is co-edu- 
cational and instruction is given in business and 
preparatory studies, as well as the fine arts, 
music and classical literature. 

WHEELER, David Hilton, D.D., LL.D., clergy- 
man, was born at Ithaca, N. Y., Nov. 19, 1829; 
graduated at Rock River Seminary, Mount 
Morris, in 1851; edited "The Carroll County 
Republican" and held a professorship in Cornell 
College, Iowa, (1857-61); was United States Con- 
.sul at Geneva, Switzerland, (1861-66) ; Professor of 
English Literature in Northwestern University 
(1H67-75); edited "The Methodist" in New Y'ork. 
seven years, and was President of Allegheny 
College (1883-87); received the degree of D.D. 
from Cornell College in 1867, and that of LL.D. 
from the Northwestern University in 1881. He 
is the author of "Brigandage in South Italy" 



(two volumes, 1864) and "By-Ways of Literature" 
(1883), besides some translations. 

WHEELER, Hamilton K., ex-Congressman, 
was born at Ballston, N. Y,, August 5, 1848, but 
emigrated with his parents to Illinois in 1853; 
remained on a farm until 19 years of age, his 
educational advantages being limited to three 
months" attendance upon a district school each 
year. In 1871, he was admitted to the bar at 
Kankakee, where he has since continued to prac- 
tice. In 1884 he was elected to represent the Six- 
teenth District in the State Senate, where he 
served on many important committees, being 
Chairman of that on the Judicial Department. 
In 1893 he was elected Representative in Con- 
gress from the Ninth IlUnois District, on the 
Republican ticket. 

WHEELING, a town on tlie northern border of 
Cook County, on the Wisconsin Central Railway. 
Population (1890), 811; (1900), 331. 

WHISTLER, (Maj.) John, soldier and builder 
of the first Fort Dearborn, was born in Ulster, Ire- 
land, about 1756; served under Burgoyne in the 
Revolution, and was with the force surrendered 
by that officer at Saratoga, in 1777. After the 
peace he returned to the United States, settled at 
Hagerstown, Md., and entered the United States 
Army, serving at first in the ranks and oeing 
severely wounded in the disastrous Indian cam- 
paigns of 1791. Later, he was promoted to a 
captaincy and, in the summer of 1803, sent with 
his company, to the head of Lake Michigan, 
where he constructed the first Fort Dearborn 
within the limits of the present city of Chicago, 
remaining in command until 1811, when he was 
succeeded by Captain Heald. He received the 
brevet rank of JIajor, in 1815 was appointed 
military store- keeper at Newport, Ky., and after- 
wards at Jefferson Barracks, near St: Louis, 
where he died, Sept. 3, 1839. Lieut. W^illiam 
Whistler, liis son, who was with his father, for a 
time, in old Fort Dearborn — but transferred, in 
1809, to Fort Wayne— was of the force included 
in Hull's sm-render at Detroit in 1813. After 
his exchange he was promoted to a captaincy, to 
the rank of Major in 1836 and to a Lieutenant-Colo- 
nelcy in 1845, dying at Newport, Ky., in 1863. 
James Abbott McNiel Whistler, the celebrated, 
but eccentric artist of that name, is a grandson 
of the first Major Whistler. 

WHITE, (Jeorge E., ex-Congressman, was born 
in Massachusetts in 1848 ; after graduating, at the 
age of 16, he enlisted as a private in the Fifty- 
seventh ilassachusetts Veteran Volunteers, serv- 
ing under General Grant in the campaign 

against Richmond from the battle of the Wilder- 
ness until the surrender of Lee. Having taken a 
course in a commercial college at Worcester, 
Mass., in 1867 he came to Chicago, securing em- 
ployment in a lumber yard, but a year later 
began business on his own account, which he has 
successfully conducted. In 1878 he was elected 
to the State Senate, as a Republican, from one of 
the Chicago Districts, and re-elected four years 
later, serving in that body eight years. He 
declined a nomination for Congress in 1884, but 
accepted in 1894, and was elected for the Fifth 
District, as he was again in 1896, but was 
defeated, in 1898, by Edward T. Noonan, Demo- 

WHITE, Horace, journalist, was born at Cole- 
brook, N. H., August 10, 1834; in 1853 graduated 
at Beloit College, Wis., whither his father had 
removed in 1837 ; engaged in journalism as city 
editor of "The Chicago Evening Journal," later 
becoming agent of the Associated Press, and, in 
1857, an editorial writer on ' 'The Chicago Trib- 
une," during a part of the war acting as its 
Washington correspondent. He also served, in 
1856, as Assistant Secretary of the Kansas 
National Committee, and, later, as Secretary of 
the Republican State Central Committee. In 
1864 he purchased an interest in "The Tribune," 
a year or so later becoming editor-in-chief, but 
retired in October, 1874. After a protracted 
Em-opean tour, he united with Carl Schurz and 
E. L. Godkin of "The Nation," in the purchase 
and reorganization of "The New York Evening 
Post," of which he is now editor-in-chief. 

WHITE, Julius, soldier, was born in Cazen- 
ovia, N. Y., Sept. 29, 1816; removed to Illinois 
in 1836, residing there and in Wisconsin, where 
he was a member of the Legislature of 1849; in 
1861 was made Collector of Customs at Chicago, 
but resigned to assume the colonelcy of the 
Thirty-seventh IlHnois Volunteers, which he 
commanded on the Fremont expedition to South- 
west Missouri. He afterwards served witli Gen- 
eral Curtiss in Arkansas, participated in the 
battle of Pea Ridge and was promoted to the 
rank of Brigadier-General. He was subsequently 
assigned to the Department of the Shenandoah, 
but finding his position at Martinsburg, W. Va., 
untenable, retired to Harper's Ferry, voluntarily 
serving under Colonel Miles, his inferior in com- 
mand. When this post was surrendered (Sept. 
15, 1863), he was made a prisoner, but released 
under parole ; was tried by a court of inquiry at 
his own request, and acquitted, the court finding 
that he had acted with courage and capability. 



He resigrned in 1864, and, in March, IHG't, was 
brevetted Major-General of Volunteers. Died, 
at Evanston, May 12, 1890. 

WHITE COUNTY, situated in the southeastern 
quarter of the State, and bounded on the east by 
the Wabash River; was organized in 1816, being 
the tenth county organized during the Territorial 
period: area, .500 square miles. The county is 
crossed by three railroads and drained by the 
Wabash and Little Wabash Rivers. The surface 
consists of prairie and woodland, and the soil is, 
for the most part, highly productive. The princi- 
pal agricultural products are corn, wheat, oats, 
potatoes, tobacco, fruit, butter, sorghum and 
wool. The principal industrial establishments 
are carriage factories, saw mills and flour mills. 
Carmi is the county -seat. Other towns are En- 
field. Grayville and Norris City. Population 
(1880). 23,087; (1890), 25,005; (1900), 25,386. 

WHITEHALL, a city in Greene County, at the 
intersection of the Chicago & Alton and the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroads, 65 miles 
north of St. Louis and 24 miles south-southwest 
of Jacksonville; in rich farming region; has 
stoneware and sewer-pipe factories, foundry and 
machine shop, flour mill, elevators, wagon shops, 
creamery, water system, sanitarium, heating, 
electric light and power system nur.series and 
fruit-supply houses, and two poultry packing 
houses; also has five churches, a graded school, 
two banks and three newspapers — one daily. Pop- 
ulation (1890), 1,961; (190(1), 2,030. 

WHITEHOUSE, Henry John, Protestant Epis 
copal Bishop, was born in New York City, August 
19, 1803; graduated from Columbia College in 
1821, and from the (New York) General Theolog- 
ical Seminarj- in 1824. After ordination he was 
rector of various parishes in Pennsylvania and 
New York until 1851, when he was chosen Assist- 
ant Bishop of Illinois, succeeding Bishop Chase 
in 1852. In 1867, by invitation of the Archbishop 
of Canterbury, he delivered the opening sermon 
before the Pan-Anglican Conference held in 
England. During this visit he received the 
degree of D.D. from Oxford University, and that 
of LL.D. from Cambridge. His rigid views as a 
churchman and a disciplinarian, were illustrated 
in his prosecution of Rev, Charles Edward 
Cheney, which resulted in the formation of the 
Reformed Episcopal Church. He was a brilliant 
orator and a trenchant and unyielding controver- 
sialist. Died, in Chicago, August 10, 1874. 

WHITESIDE COUNTY, in the northwestern 
portion of the State bordering on the Mississippi 
River; created by act of the Legislature pas.sed in 

1836, and named for Capt. Samuel Whiteside, a 
noted Indian fighter ; area, 700 square miles. The 
surface is level, diversified by prairies and wood- 
land, and the soil is extremely fertile. The 
county-seat was first fixed at Lyndon, then at 
Sterling, and finally at Morrison, its present 
location. The Rock River crosses the county 
and furnishes abundant water power for numer- 
ous factories, turning out agricultural imple- 
ments, carriages and wagons, furniture, woolen 
goods, flour and wrajiping paper. There are also 
distilling and brewing interests, besides saw and 
planing mills. Corn is the staple agricultural 
product, although all the leading cereals are 
extensively grown. The principal towns are 
Morrison, Sterling, Fulton and Rock Falls. Popu- 
lation (1880), 30,885; (1890), 30,854; (1900), 34.710. 

WHITESIDE, William, pioneer and soldier of 
the Revolution, emigrated from the frontier of 
North Carolina to Kentucky, and thence, in 1793, 
to the pre.sent limits of Monroe County, 111., 
erecting a fort between Cahokia and Kaskaskia, 
which became widely known as "Whiteside 
Station." He served as a Justice of the Peace, 
and was active in organizing the militia during 
the War of 1812-14, dying at the old Station in 
1815.— John (Whiteside), a brother of the preced- 
ing, and also a Revolutionary soldier, came to 
Illinois at tliB same time, as also did WilHam B. 
and Samuel, sons of the two brothers, respec- 
tively. All of them became famous as Indian 
fighters. The two latter served as Captains of 
companies of "Rangers" in the War of 1812, 
Samuel taking part in the battle of Rock Island 
in 1814, and contributing greatly to the success 
of the day. During the Black Hawk War (1832) 
he attained the rank of Brigadier-General. 
Whiteside County was named in his honor. He 
made one of the earliest improvements in Ridge 
Prairie, a rich section of Madison County, and 
represented that county in the First General 
Assembly. William B. served as Sheriff of Madi- 
son County for a number of years. — John D. 
(Whiteside), another member of this historic 
family, became very prominent, serving in the 
lower House of the Seventh, Eighth, Ninth and 
Fourteenth General Assemblies, and in the Sen- 
ate of the Tenth, from Monroe County; was a 
Presidential Elector in 1836, State Treasurer 
(1837-41) and a member of the State Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1847. General Whiteside, as 
he was known, was the second of James Shields 
in the famous Shields and Lincoln duel (so-called) 
in 1842, and, as such, carried the challenge of the 
former to Mr. Lincoln. (See Duels.) 



WHITING, Lorenzo D., legislator, was born 
in Wayne County, N. Y., Nov. 17, 1819; came to 
Illinois in 1838, but did not settle there perma- 
nently until 1849, when he located in Bureau 
County. He was a Representative from that 
county in the Twenty-sixtli General Assembly 
(1869), and a member of the Senate continuously 
from 1871 to 1887, serving in the latter through 
eight General Assemblies. Died at his home 
near Tiskilwa, Bureau County, III., Oct. 10, 

WHITING, Richard H., Congressman, was 
born at West Hartford, Conn., June 17, 1826, and 
received a common school education. In 1862 he 
was commissioned Paymaster in the Volunteer 
Army of the Union, and resigned in 1866. Hav- 
ing removed to Illinois, he was appointed Assist- 
ant Assessor of Internal Revenue for the Fifth 
Illinois District, in February, 1870, and so contin- 
ued until the abolition of the office in 1873. On 
retiring from the Assessorship he was appointed 
Collector of Internal Revenue, and served until 
March 4, 1875, when he resigned to take his seat 
as Republican Representative in Congress from 
the Peoria District, to which he had been elected 
in November, 1874. After the expiration of his 
term he held no public olfice, but was a member 
of the Republican National Convention of 1884. 
Died, at the Continental Hotel, in New York 
City, May 24, 1888. 

WHITNEY, James W., pioneer lawyer and 
early teacher, known by the nickname of "Lord 
Coke"; came to Illinois in Territorial days (be- 
lieved to have been about 1800) ; resided for some 
time at or near Edwardsville, then became a 
teacher at Atlas, Pike County, and, still later, the 
first Circuit and County Clerk of that county. 
Though nominally a lawyer, he had little if any 
practice. He acquired the title, by which he was 
popularlj' known for a quarter of a century, by 
his custom of visiting the State Capital, during 
the sessions of the General Assembly, when 
he would organize the lobbyists and visit- 
ors about the capital — of which there were an 
unusual number in those days — into what was 
called the "Third House." Having been regu- 
larly chosen to preside under the name of 
"Speaker of the Lobby," he would deliver a mes- 
sage full of practical hits and jokes, aimed at 
members of the two houses and others, which 
would be received with cheers and laughter. 
The meetings of the "Third House," being held 
in the evening, were attended by many members 
and visitors in lieu of other forms of entertain- 
ment. Mr. Whitnev's home, in his latter years. 

was at Pittsfield. He resided for a time at 
Quincy. Died, Dec. 13, 1860, aged over 80 years. 

WHITTEMORE, Floyd K., State Treasurer, is 
a native of New York, came at an early age, with 
his parents, to Sycamore, 111., where he was edu- 
cated in the high school there. lie purposed 
becoming a lawyer, but, on the election of the 
late James H. Beveridge State Treasurer, in 1864, 
accepted the position of clerk in the office. 
Later, he was employed as a clerk in the banking 
house of Jacob Bunn in Springfield, and, on the 
organization of the State National Bank, was 
chosen cashier of that Institution, retaining the 
position some twenty years. After the appoint- 
ment of Hon. John R. Tanner to the position of 
Assistant Treasurer of the United States, at Chi- 
cago, in 1892, Mr. Whittemore became cashier in 
that office, and, in 186.5, Assistant State Treas- 
rure under the administration of State Treasurer 
Henry Wulff. In 1898 he was elected State 
Treasurer, receiving a plurality of 43,450 over 
his Democratic opponent. 

WICKERSHAM, (Col.) Dudley, soldier and 
merchant, was born in Woodford County, Ky., 
Nov. 22, 1819; came to Springfield, 111., in 1843, 
and served as a member of the Fourth Regiment 
Illinois Volunteers (Col. E. D. Baker's) through 
the Mexican War. On the return of peace he 
engaged in the dry-goods trade in Springfield, 
until 1861, when he enlisted in the Tenth Regi- 
ment Illinois Cavalry, serving, first as Lieutenant- 
Colonel and then as Colonel, until May, 1864, 
when, his regiment having been consolidated 
with the Fifteenth Cavalry, he resigned. After 
the war, he held the office of Assessor of Internal 
Revenue for several years, after which he en- 
gaged in the grocery trade. Died, in Springfield, 
August 8, 1898. 

WIDEN, Raphael, pioneer and early legislator, 
was a native of Sweden, who, having been taken 
to France at eight years of age, was educated for 
a Catholic priest. Coming to the United States 
in 1815, he was at Cahokia, 111., in 1818, wliere, 
during the same year, he married into a French 
family of that place. He served in the House of 
Representatives from Randolph County, in the 
Second and Third General Assemblies (1820-24), 
and as Senator in the Fourth and Fifth (1824-28). 
During his last term in the House, he was one of 
those who voted against the pro-slavery Con- 
vention resolution. He died of cholera, at Kas- 
kaskia, in 1833. 

WIKE, Scott, lawyer and ex-Congressman, was 
born at Meadville, Pa., April 6, 1834; at 4 years 
of age removed with his parents to Quincy, 111., 



and, in 1844, to Pike County. Having graduated 
from Lombard University, Galesburg, in 1857, he 
tegan reading law with Judge O. C. Skinner of 
Quincy. He was admitted to the bar in 1858, 
but. before commencing practice, spent a year at 
Harvard Law School, graduating tliere in 1859. 
Iiini\i(liately thereafter he opened an office at 
I'itt--licM, 111., and has resided there ever since. 
Ill ] « 'lilies he has always been a strong Democrat. 
He served two terms in the Legislature (1863-67) 
and, in 1874, was chosen Representative from his 
Di.strict in Congi-es.s, being re-elected in 1888 and, 
again, in 1890. In 1893 he was appointed by 
President Cleveland Tliird Assistant Secretary 
of tlie Treasury, which position he continued 
U> fill until March, 1897, when he resumed the 
practice of law at Pittsfield. Died Jan. 15, 1901 
WILEY, (Col.) BeDJamiii Ladd, soldier, was 
born in Smithfield, JelTerson County, Ohio. 
March 25, 1821, came to Illinois in 1845 and began 
life at Vienna, Johnson County, as a teacher. 
In 1846 he enlisted for tlie IMexican War, as a 
member of the Fifth (Colonel Newby's) Regiment 
Illinois Volunteers, serving chiefly in New 
Mexico until mustered out in 1848. A year later 
lie i-emoved to Jonesboro, where lie spent some 
time at the carpenter's trade, after wliich he 
became clerk in a store, meanwhile assisting to 
edit "The Jonesboro Gazette" until 1853; then 
became traveling salesman for a St. Louis firm, 
but later engaged in the hardware trade at 
Jonesboro, in wliich lie continued for several 
years. In 1856 he was the Republican candidate 
for Congress for the Ninth District, receiving 
4,000 votes, while Fremont, the Republican can- 
didate for President, received only 825 in the 
siinie district. In 1857 he opened a real estate 
office in Jonesboro in conjunction with David L. 
Phillips and Col. J. W. Ashley, with which he 
was connected until 1860, when he removed to 
Makanda, Jackson County. In September, 1861, 
he was mustered in as Lieutenant-Colonel of the 
Fifth Illinois Cavalry, later serving in Missouri 
and Arkansas under Generals Steele and Curtiss, 
being, a part of the time, in command of the First 
Brigade of Cavalry, and, in tlie advance on Vicks- 
burg, liaving command of the right wing of 
General Grant's cavalry. Being disabled by 
rheumatism at the end of the siege, he tendered 
liis resignation, and was immediately appointed 
Enrolling Officer at Cairo, serving in this capac- 
ity until May, 1865, vi-lien he was mustered out. 
In 1869 lie was appointed by Governor Palmer 
one of the Commissioners to locate the Southern 
Illinois Ho.spital for the In.s;ine, and served as 

Secretary of the Board until the institution war- 
opened at Anna, in May, 1871. In 1869 he was 
defeated as a candidate for County Judge of 
Jackson County, and, in 1872, for the State Sen- 
ate, by a small majority in a strongly Democratic 
District; in 1876 was the Republican candidate 
for Congress, in the Eighteenth District, against 
William Hartzell, but was defeated by only 
twenty votes, while carrying six out of tlie ten 
counties comprising the District. In the latter 
years of his life, Colonel Wiley was engaged quite 
extensively in fruit-growing at Makanda, Jack- 
son County, where he died, JIarcli 22, 1890. 

WILKIE, Franc Bangs, journalist, was born 
in Saratoga County, N. Y., July 2, 1830; took a 
jiartial course at Union College, after which he 
edited papers at Schenectady, N. Y., Elgin, 111.. 
and Davenport and Dubuque, Iowa ; also serving, 
during a part of the Civil War, as the western 
war correspondent of "The New York Times." 
In 1863 he became an editorial writer on "The 
Chicago Times," remaining with that paper, 
with the exception of a brief interval, until 1888 
— a part of the time as its European correspond- 
ent. He was the author of a series of sketches 
over the nom de plume of "Pollute, " and of a 
volume of reminiscences under the title, 
"Thirty-five Years of Journalism," published 
shortly before his death, which took place, April 
12, 1892. 

WILKIN, Jacob W., Justice of the Supreme 
Court, was born in Licking County, Ohio, June 
7, 1837 ; removed with his parents to Illinois, at 
12 years of age, and was educated at McKendree 
College ; served three years in the War for the 
Union; studied law with Judge Scholfield and 
was admitted to the bar in 1866. In 1872, he was 
chosen Presidential Elector on the Republican 
ticket, and, in 1879, elected Judge of the Circuit 
Court and reelected in 1885— the latter year 
lieing assigned to the Appellate bench for the 
Fourth District, where he remained until his 
election to the Supreme bench in 1888, being 
re-elected to tlie latter office in 1897. His home 
is at Danville. 

WILKINSON, Ira 0., lawyer and Judge, was 
born in Virginia in 1822, and accompanied his 
fatlier to Jacksonville (1835), where he was edu- 
cateil. During a short service as Deputy Clerk of 
Morgan County, he conceived a fondness for the 
profession of the law, and, after a course of study 
under Judge William Thomas, was admitted to 
practice in 1847. Richard Yates (afterwards Gov- 
ernor and Senator) was his first partner. In 1845 
he removed to Rock Island, and, six years later, 


was elected a Circuit Judge, being again closen 
to the same position in 1861. At the expiration 
of his second term he removed to Chicago. 
Died, at Jacksonville, August 24, 1894. 

WILKINSON, John P., early merchant, was 
born, Dec. 14, 1790, in New Kent County, Va., 
emigrated first to Kentucky, and, in 1828, settled 
in Jacksonville, 111., where he engaged in mer- 
cantile business, ilr. Wilkinson was a liberal 
friend of Illinois College and Jacksonville Female 
Academy, of each of which he was a Trustee 
from their origin until his death, which occurred, 
during a business visit to St. Louis, in December, 

WILL, Conrad, pioneer physician and early 
legislator, was born in Philadelphia, June 4, 1778 ; 
about 1804 removed to Somerset County Pa., and, 
in 1813, to Kaskaskia, 111. He was a physician 
by profession, but having leased the saline lands 
on the Big Muddy, in the vicinity of what after- 
wards became the town of Brownsville, he 
engaged in the manufacture of salt, removing 
thither in 1815, and becoming one of the founders 
of Brownsville, afterwards the first county-seat 
of Jackson County. On the organization of 
Jackson County, in 1816, he became a member of 
the first Board of County Commissioners, and, in 
1818, served as Delegate from that county in the 
Convention which framed the first State Consti- 
tution. Thereafter he served continuously as a 
member of the Legislature from 1818 to "34 — first 
as Senator in the First General Assembly, then 
as Representative in the Second, Third, Fourth 
and Fifth, and again as Senator in the Sixth, 
Seventh. Eighth and Ninth — his career being 
conspicuous for long service. He died in office, 
June 11, 1834. Dr. Will was short of stature, 
fleshy, of jovial disposition and fond of playing 
practical jokes upon his associates, but very 
popular, as shown by his successive elections to 
the Legislature. He has been called "The Father 
of Jackson County." Will County, organized by 
act of the Legislature two years after his death, 
was named in Ids honor. 

WILL COUNTY, a northeastern county, em- 
bracing 850 square miles, named in honor of Dr. 
Conrad Will, an early politician and legislator. 
Early explorations of the territory were made 
in 1829, when white settlers were few. The bluff 
west of Joliet is said to have been first occupied 
by David and Benjamin Maggard. Joseph 
Smith, the Mormon "apostle," expounded his 
peculiar doctrines at "the Point" in 1831. Sev- 
eral of the early settlers fled from the country 
during (or after) a raid by the Sac Indians. 

There is a legend, seemingly well supported, to 
the effect that the first lumber, sawed to build 
the first frame house in Chicago (that of P. F. W. 
Peck), was sawed at Plainfield. Will County, 
originally a part of Cook, was separately erected 
in 1836, Joliet being made the county-seat. 
Agriculture, quarrying and manufacturing are 
the chief industries. Joliet, Lockport and Wil- 
mington are the principal towns. Population 
(1880). 53.422; (1890), 62,007; (1900), 74,764. 

WILLARD, Frances Elizabeth, teacher and 
reformer, was born at Churchville, N. Y., Sept. 
28, 1839, graduated from the Northwestern 
Female College at Evanston, 111., in 1859, and, in 
1862, accepted the Professorship of Natural 
Sciences in that institution. During 1866-67 she 
was the Principal of the Genessee Wesleyan 
Seminary. The next two years she devoted to 
travel and study abroad, meanwhile contribut- 
ing to various periodicals. From 1871 to 1874 she 
was Professor of ^^sthetics in the Northwestern 
Universit}' and dean of the Woman's College. 
She was always an enthusiastic champion of 
temperance, and, in 1874, abandoned her profes- 
sion to identify herself with the Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union. For five years she was 
Corresponding Secretary of the national body, 
and, from 1879, its President. While Secretary 
she organized the Home Protective Association, 
and prepared a petition to the Illinois Legislature, 
to which nearly 200,000 names were attached, 
asking for the granting to women of the right to 
vote on the license question. In 1878 she suc- 
ceeded her brother, Oliver A. Willard (who had 
died), as editor of "The Chicago Evening Post," 
but, a few months later, withdrew, and, in 1882, 
was elected as a member of the executive com- 
mittee of the National Prohibition party. In 
1886 she became leader of the White Cross Move- 
ment for the protection of women, and succeeded 
in securing favorable legislation, in this direc- 
tion, in twelve States. In 1883 she founded the 
World's Christian Temperance Union, and, in 
1888, was chosen its President, as also President 
of the International Council of Women. The 
latter years of her life were spent chiefly abroad, 
much of the time as the guest and co-worker of 
Lady Henry Somerset, of England, during which 
she devoted much attention to investigating the 
condition of women in the Orient. Miss Willard 
was a prolific and highly valued contributor to 
the magazines, and (besides numerous pamphlets) 
published several volumes, including "Nineteen 
Beautiful Years" (a tribute to her sister). 
"Woman in Temperance"; ""How to Win," and 



"Woman in the Pulpit." Died, in New York. 
Feb. 18. 1898. 

WILLAKD, Samuel, A.M., M.D., LL.D., phy- 
sician and educator, was born in Lunenberg, 
Vt., Dec. 30, 1821— the lineal descendant of Maj. 
Simon Willard, one of the founders of Concord, 
Mass., and prominent in "King Philip's War," 
and of his son. Rev. Dr. Samuel Willard, of the 
Old Soutli Church. Boston, and seventh President 
of Harvard College. The subject of this sketch 
was taken in his infancy to Boston, and, in 1831, 
to CarroUton, 111., where his father pursued the 
avocation of a druggist. After a preparatory 
course at Shurtleff College, Upper Alton, in 1836 
he entered the freshman class in Illinois College 
at Jacksonville, but withdrew the following year, 
re-entering college in 1840 and graduating in the 
class of 1843, as a classmate of Dr. Newton Bate- 
man, afterwards State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction and President of Knox College, and 
Rev. Thomas K. Beecher, now of Elmira, N. Y. 
The next year he spent as Tutor in IlUnois Col- 
lege, when he began the study of medicine at 
Quincy, graduating from the Medical Department 
of Illinois College in 1848. During a part of the 
latter year he edited a Free-Soil campaign paper 
("The Tribune") at Quincy, and, later, "The 
Western Temperance Magazine" at the same 
place. In 1849 he began the practice of his pro- 
fession at St. Louis, but the next year removed 
to ColUpsville, III, remaining until 18.57, when he 
took charge of the Department of Languages in 
the newly organized State Normal University at 
Normal The second year of the Civil War (1862) 
he enlisted as a private in the Ninety-seventh 
Illinois Volunteer Infantry, but was soon after 
commissioned as Surgeon with the rank of Major, 
participating in the campaigns in Tennessee and 
in the first attack upon Vicksburg. Being dis- 
abled by an attack of paralysis, in February, 1863, 
he was compelled to resign, when he had suffici- 
ently recovered accepting a position in the office 
of Provost Marshal General Oakes, at Spring- 
field, where he remained until the close of the 
war. He then became Grand Secretary of the 
Independent Order of Odd-Fellows for the State 
of Illinois— a position which he had held from 
1856 to 1862 -remaining under his second appoint- 
ment from 1865 to "69. The next year he served 
as Superintendent of Schools at Springfield, 
meanwhile assisting in founding the Springfield 
public library, and serving as its first librarian. 
In 1870 he accepted the professorship of History 
in the West Side High School of Chicago, 
which, with the exception of two years (1884-86), 

he continued to occupy for more than twenty- 
five years, retiring in 1898. In the meantime, 
Dr. Willard has been a laborious literary worker, 
having been, for a considerable period, editor, or 
assistant-editor, of "The lUinois Teacher," a con- 
tributor to "The Century Magazine" and "The 
Dial" of Chicago, besides having published a 
"Digest of the Laws of Odd Fellowship" in six- 
teen volumes, begun while he was Grand Secre- 
tary of the Order in 1864, and continued in 1872 
and "82; a "Synopsis of History and Historical 
Chart," covering the period from B. C. 800 
to A. D. 1876 — of which he has had a second 
edition in course of preparation. Of late years 
he has been engaged upon a "Historical Diction- 
ary of Names and Places," which will include 
some 12,000 topics, and which promises to be the 
most important work of his life. Previous to the 
war he was an avowed Abolitionist and operator 
on the "Underground Railroad," who made no 
concealment of his opinions, and, on one or two 
occasions, was called to answer for them in 
prosecutions under the "Fugitive Slave Act." 
(See "Underground Railroad,") His friend 
and classmate, the late Dr. Bateman, says of 
him: "Dr. Willard is a sound thinker; a clear 
and forcible writer; of broad and accurate 
scholarship; conscientious, genial and kindly, 
and a most estimable gentleman." 

WILLIAMS, Archibald, lawyer and jurist, 
was born in Montgomery County, Ky., June 10, 
1801 ; with moderate advantages but natural 
fondness for study, he chose the profession of 
law, and was admitted to the bar in Tennessee 
in 1828, coming to Quincy, III, the following 
year. He was elected to the General Assembly 
three times— serving in the Senate in 1832-36, and 
in the House, 1836-40 ; was United States District 
Attorney for the Southern District of Illinois, by 
appointment of President Taylor, 1849-53; was 
twice the candidate of his party (the Whig) for 
United States Senator, and appointed by Presi- 
dent Lincoln, in 1861, United States District 
Judge for the State of Kansas. His abilities and 
high character were widely recognized. Died, 
in Quincy, Sept. 21, 1863— His son, John H., an 
attorney at Quincy, served as Judge of the Cir- 
cuit Court 1879-85.— Another son, Abraham Lin- 
coln, was twice elected Attorney-General of 

WILLIAMS, Erastiis Smith, lawyer and ju- 
rist, was born at Salem, N. Y.. May 22, 1821. In 
1843 he removed to Chicago, where, after reading 
law, he was admitted to the bar in 1844. In 1854 
he was appointed Master in Chancery, which 



office he filled until 1863, when he was elected a 
Judge of the Circuit Court of Cook County. 
After re-election in 1870 he became Chief Justice, 
and, at the same time, heard most of the cases on 
the equity side of the court. In 1879 he was a 
candidate for re-election as a Republican, but 
was defeated with the party ticket. After his 
retirement from the bench he resumed private 
practice. Died, Feb. 34, 1884. 

WILLIAMS, James R., Congressman, was 
born in White County, 111., Dec. 27, 18.50, at the 
age of 25 graduated from the Indiana State Uni- 
Tersity. at Bloomington, and, in 1876, from the 
Union College of Law, Chicago, since then being 
an active and successful practitioner at Carmi. 
In 1880 he was appointed Master in Chancery and 
served two j^ears. From 1883 to 1886 he was 
County Judge. In 1893 he was a nominee on 
the Democratic ticket for Presidential Elector. 
He was elected to represent the Nineteenth Illi- 
nois District in the Fifty-first Congress at a 
special election held to fill the vacancy occasioned 
by the death of R. W. Townshend, was re-elected 
in 1890 and 1892, but defeated by Orlando Burrell 
(Republican) for re-election in the newly organ- 
ized Twentieth District in 1894. In 1898 he was 
again a candidate and elected to the Fifty sixth 

WILLIAMS, John, pioneer merchant, was 
born in Bath County, Ky., Sept. 11, 1808; be- 
tween 14 and 16 years of age was clerk in a store 
in his native State; then, joining his parents, 
who had settled on a tract of land in a part of 
Sangamon (now Jlenard) County, 111., he found 
employment as clerk in tlie store of Major Elijah 
lies, at Springfield, whom he succeeded in busi- 
ness at the age of 33, continuing it without inter- 
ruption until 1880. In 1856 Mr. Williams was 
the Republican candidate for Congress in the 
Springfield District, and, in 1861, was appointed 
Commissary-General for the State, rendering 
valuable service in furnishing supplies for State 
troops, in camps of instruction and while proceed- 
ing to the field, in the first years of the war ; was 
also chief officer of the Illinois Sanitary Commis- 
sion for two years, and, as one of the intimate 
personal friends of Mr. Lincoln, was chosen to 
accompany the remains of the martyred President, 
from Washington to Springfield, for burial. 
Liberal, enterprising and public-spirited, his name 
was associated with nearly every public enter- 
prise of importance in Springfield during his 
business career — being one of the founders, and, 
for eleven years President, of the First National 
Bank; a chief promoter in the construction of 

what is now the Springfield Division of the Illi- 
nois Central Railroad, and the Springfield and 
Peoria line; a Director of the Springfield Iron 
Company; one of the Commissioners who con- 
structed the Springfield water-works, and an 
officer of the Lincoln Monument Association, 
from 1865 to his death. May 29, 1890. 

WILLIAMS, Norman, lawyer, was born at 
Woodstock, Vt., Feb. 1, 1833, being related, on 
both tlie paternal and maternal sides, to some of 
the most prominent families of New England. 
He fitted for college at Union Academy, Meriden, 
and graduated from the University of Vermont 
in the class of 1855. After taking a course in 
the Albany Law School and with a law firm in 
his native town, he was admitted to practice in 
both New York and Vermont, removed to Chi- 
cago in 1858, and, in 1860, became a member of 
the firm of King, Kales & Williams, still later 
forming a partnership %vith Gen. John L. Thomp- 
son, which ended with the death of the latter in 
1888. In a professional capacity he assisted in 
the organization of the Pullman Palace Car Com- 
pany, and was a member of its Board of Directors ; 
also assisted in organizing the Western Electric 
Company, and was prominently identified with 
the Chicago Telephone Company and the Western 
Union Telegraph Company. In 1881 he served as 
the United States Commissioner to the Electrical 
Exposition at Paris. In conjunction with his 
brother (Edward H. Williams) he assisted in 
founding the public library at Woodstock, Vt., 
which, in honor of his father, received the name 
of "The Norman Williams Public Library." 
With Col. Huntington W. Jackson and J. Mc- 
Gregor Adams, Mr. Williams was named, in the 
will of the late John Crerar, as an executor of the 
Crerar estate and one of the Trustees of the 
Crerar Public Library, and became its first Presi- 
dent ; was also a Director of the Chicago Pub- 
lic Library, and trustee of a number of large 
estates. Mr. Williams was a son-in-law of the 
late Judge John D. Caton, and his oldest daughter 
became the wife of Major-General Wesley Mer- 
ritt, a few months before his death, which oc- 
curred at Hampton Beach, N. H., June 19, 1899 
— his remains being interred in his native town 
of Woodstock, Vt. 

WILLIAMS, Robert Ebenezer, lawyer, born 
Dec. 3, 1835, at Clarksville, Pa., his grandfathers 
on both sides being soldiers of the Revolutionary 
War. In 1830 his parents removed to Washing- 
ton in the same State, where in boyhood he 
worked as a mechanic in his father's shop, 
attending a common school in the winter until 



he reached the age of IT j'ears. when he entered 
Washington College, remaining for more than a 
year. He then began teaching, and, in 1845 
went to Kentuckj-, where he pursued the business 
of a teacher for four years. Then he entered 
Bethany College in West Virginia, at the same 
time prosecuting his law studies, but left at the 
close of his junior year, when, having been 
licensed to practice, he removed to Clinton, 
Texas. Here he accepted, from a retired lawyer, 
the loan of a law library, which he afterwards 
])urchased; served for two years as State's Attor- 
ney, and, in 185G, came to Bloomington, 111., 
where he spent the remainder of his life in the 
practice of his profession. Much of his time was 
devoted to practice as a railroad attorney, espe- 
cially in connection with the Chicago & Alton and 
the Illinois Central Railroads, in which he 
acquired prominence and wealth. He was a life- 
long Democrat and, in 18G8, was the unsuccessful 
candidate of his party for Attorney-General of 
the State. The last three years of his life he had 
been in bad health, dying at Bloomington, Feb. 
lo. 1899: 

WILLIAMS, Samuel, Bank President, was born 
in Adams County, Ohio, July 11, 1820; came to 
Winnebago County, 111., in 1835, and, in 1843, 
removed to Iroquois County, where he held vari- 
ous local offices, including that of County Judge, 
to which he was elected in 1861. During his 
later years he had been President of the Watseka 
Citizens' Bank. Died, June 16, 1896. 

WILLIAMSON, Rollin Samuel, legislator and 
jurist, was born at Cornwall, Vt., May 23. 1839. 
At the age of 14 he went to Boston, where he 
began life as a telegi-aph messenger boy. In 
two years he had become a skillful operator, and, 
as such, was employed in various offices in New 
England and New York. In 1857 he came to 
Chicago seeking employment and, through the 
fortunate correction of an error on the part of 
the receiver of a message, secured the position of 
operator and station agent at Palatine, Cook 
County. Here he read law during his leisure 
time without a preceptor, and, in 1870, was 
admitted to the bar. The same year he was 
elected to the lower House of the General 
Assembly and, in 1872, to the Senate. In 1880 he 
was elected to the bench of the Superior Court of 
Cook County, and, in 1887, was chosen a Judge 
of the Cook County^ Circuit Court. Died, Au- 
gust 10, 1889. 

WILLIAMSON COUNTY, in the southern part 
of the State, originally set off from Franklin and 
organized in 1889. The county is well watered. 

the principal streams being the Big Muddy and 
the South Fork of the Saline. The surface is 
undulating and the soil fertile. The region was 
originally well covered with forests. All the 
cereals (as well as potatoes) are cultivated, and 
rich meadows encourage stock-raising. Coal and 
sandstone underlie the entire county. Area, 440 
square miles; population (1880), 19,324- (1890) 
22.226; (1900), 27,796. 

WILLIAMSTILLE, village of Sangamon Coun- 
ty, on Chicago i\: .\lton Railroad, 12 miles north 
of Springfield; has a bank, elevator, 3 churches, 
a newspaper and coal-mines. Pop. (1900), .573, 

WILLIS, Jonathan Clay, soldier and former 
Railroad and Warehouse Commissioner, was born 
in Sumner County. Tenn., June 27, 1826; brought 
to Gallatin County, 111., in 1834, and settled at 
Golconda in 1843; was elected Sheriff of Pope 
County in 1856, removed to Sletropolis in 1859, 
and engaged in the wharf-boat and commission 
business. He entered the service as Quarter- 
master of the Forty-eighth Illinois Volunteers in 
1861, but was compelled to resign on account of 
injuries, in 1863; was elected Representative i" 
the Twenty-sixth General Assembly (1868), 
appointed Collector of Internal Revenue in 1869, 
and Railway and Warehouse Commissioner in 
1892, as the successor of John R. Tanner, serving 
until 1893. 

WILMETTE, a village in Cook County, 14 miles 
north of Chicago, on the Chicago & Northwestern 
Railroad, a handsome suburb of Chicago on the 
shore of Lake Michigan; principal streets paved 
and shaded with fine forest trees; has public 
librarv and good schools. Pop. (1900), 2,300. 

WILMINGTON, a city of Will County, on the 
Kankakee River and the Chicago & Alton Rail- 
road, 53 miles from Chicago and 15 south-south- of Joliet; has considerable manufactures, 
two National banks, a graded school, churches 
and one new.spaper. Wilmington is the location 
of the Illinois Siddiers' Widows' Home. Popu- 
lation (1890), 1,576; (1900). 1,420, 

WILSON, Charles Lush, journalist, was bom 
in Fairfield County, Conn., Oct. 10. 1818, edu- 
cated in the common schools and at an academy 
in his native State, and, in 1835, removed to Chi- 
cago, entering the employment of his older 
brothers, who were connected with the construc- 
tion of the Illinois & Michigan Canal at Joliet, 
His brother, Richard L., having assumed charge 
of "The Chicago Daily Journal" (the successor 
of "The Chicago American"), in'1844, Charles L. 
took a position in the office, ultimately securing 
a partnership, which continued until the death 



of his brother in 185G, when he succeeded to the 
ownership of the paper. Mr. Wilson was an 
ardent friend and supporter of Abraham Lincoln 
for the United States Senate in 1858, but, in 1860, 
favored the nomination of Mr. Seward for the 
Presidenc}', thougli earnestly sxipporting Mr. Lin- 
coln after his nomination. In 1861 he was 
appointed Secretary of the American Legation at 
London, serving with the late Minister Charles 
Francis Adams, until 1864, when he resigned and 
resumed his connection with "The Journal." In 
1875 his health began to fail, and three years 
later, having gone to San Antonio, Tex., in the 
hope of receiving benefit from a change of cli- 
mate, he died in that city, JIarch 9, 1878. — 
Richard Lush (Wilson), an older brother of the 
preceding, the first editor and publisher of "The 
Chicago Evening Journal," the oldest paper of 
consecutive publication in Chicago, was a native 
of New York. Coming to Chicago with his 
brother John L., in 1834, they soon after estab- 
lished themselves in business on the Illinois & 
Michigan Canal, then in course of construction. 
In 1844 he took charge of "The Chicago Daily 
Journal" for a publishing committee wliich had 
purchased the material of "The Chicago Ameri- 
can," but soon after became principal proprietor. 
In April, 1847, while firing a salute in honor of 
the victory of Buena Vista, he lost an arm and 
was otherwise injured by the explosion of the can- 
non. Early in 1849, he was appointed, by Presi- 
dent Taylor, Postmaster of the city of Chicago, 
but, having failed of confirmation, was compelled 
to retire in favor of a successor appointed by 
Millard Fillmore, eleven months later. Mr. 
Wilson published a little volume in 1842 entitled 
"A Trip to Santa Fe," and, a few years later, 
a story of travel under the title, "Short Ravel- 
lings from a Long Yarn." Died, December, 1856. 
— John Lush (Wilson), another brother, also a 
native of New York, came to Illinois in 1834, was 
afterwards associated with his brothers in busi- 
ness, being for a time business manager of ' 'The 
Chicago Journal;" also' served one term as Sher- 
iff of Cook County. Died, in Chicago, April 13, 

WILSON, Isaac Grant, jurist, was born at 
Middlebury, N. Y., April 26, 1817, graduated 
from Brown University in 1838, and the same 
year came to Chicago, whither his father's 
family had preceded him in 1835. After reading 
law for two years, he entered the senior class at 
Cambridge (Mass.) Law School, graduating in 
1841. In August of that year he opened an 
ofiice at Elgin, and. for ten vears "rode the cir- 

cuit." In 1851 he was elected to the bench of 
tlie Thirteenth Judicial Circuit to fill a vacancy, 
and re-elected for a full term in 1855, and again 
in "61. In November of the latter year he was 
commissioned the first Colonel of the Fifty- 
second Illinois Volunteer Infantry, but resigned, 
a few weeks later, and resumed his place upon 
the bench. From 1867 to 1879 he devoted him- 
self to private practice, which was largely in 
the Federal Courts. In 1879 he resumed his seat 
upon the bench (this time for the Twelfth Cir- 
cuit), and was at once designated as one of the 
Judges of the Appellate Court at Chicago, of 
which tribunal he became Chief Justice in 1881. 
In 1885 he was re-elected Circuit Judge, but died, 
about the close of his term, at Geneva, Jime 8, 

WILSON, James (irant, soldier and author, 
was born at Edinburgh, Scotland, April 28, 1883, 
and, when only a year old, was brought by his 
father, WilUam Wilson, to America. The family 
settled at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., where James 
Grant was educated at College Hill and under 
private teachers. After finishing his studies he 
became his father's partner in business, but, in 
1855, went abroad, and. shortly after his return, 
removed to Chicago, where he founded the first 
literary paper established in the Northwest. At 
the outbreak of the Civil War, he disposed of his 
journal to enlist in the Fifteenth Illinois Cavalry, 
of which he was commissioned Major and after- 
wards promoted to the colonelcy. In August, 
1863, while at New Orleans, by advice of General 
Grant, he accepted a commission as Colonel of 
the Fourth Regiment United States Colored 
Cavalry, and was assigned, as Aid-de-camp, to 
the staff of the Commander of the Department of 
the Gulf, filling this past until April, 1865. 
When General Banks was relieved, Colonel Wil- 
son was brevetted Brigadier-General and placed 
in command at Port Hudson, resigning in July, 
1865, since which time his home has been in New 
York. He is best known as an author, having 
published numerous addresses, and being a fre- 
quent contributor to American and Em-opean 
magazines. Among larger works which be has 
written or edited are "Biographical Sketches of 
Illinois Officers"; "Love in Letters"'; "Life of 
General U. S. Grant"; "Life and Letters of 
Fitz Greene Halleck"; "Poets and Poetry of 
Scotland"; "Bryant and His Friends'' and 
"Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography." 

WILSON, James Harrison, soldier and mili- 
tary engineer, was born near Shawneetown, 111., 
Sept. 2. 1837. His grandfather, Alexander Wil- 



son. was one of the pioneers of Illinois, and 
his father (Harrison WiLson) was an ensign dur- 
ing the War of 1812 and a Captain in the Black 
Hawk War. His brother (Bluford Wilson) 
served as Assistant Adjutant-General of Volun- 
teers during the Civil War. and as Solicitor of the 
United States Treasury during the "whisk)- ring" 
prosecutions. James H. was educated in the 
couimon schools, at McKendree College, and 
the United States Military Academy at West 
Point, graduating from the latter in 1860, and 
being assigned to the Topographical Engineer 
Corps. In September, 1861. he was promoted to 
a First Lieutenancy, then served as Chief Topo- 
graphical Engineer of the Port Royal expedition 
until March, 1862; was afterwards attached to 
the Department of the South, being present at 
the bombardment of Fort Pulaski; was Aid-de- 
camp to McClellan. and participated in the bat- 
tles of South Mountain and Antietam ; was made 
Lieutenant-Colonel of Volunteers in November, 
1862; was Chief Topographical Engineer and 
Inspector-General of the Army of the Tennessee 
until October, 1863, being actively engaged in 
the operations around Vicksburg; was made 
Captain of Engineers in May, 1863. and Brigadier- 
General of Volunteers, Oct. 31, following. He 
also conducted operations preliminarj- to the 
battle of Chattanooga and Missionary Ridge, and 
for the relief of Knoxville. Later, he was placed 
in command of the Third Division of the cavalry 
corps of the Army of the Potomac, serving from 
Maj' to August, 1864, under General Sheridan. 
Subsequently he was transferred to the Depart- 
ment of the Mississippi, where he so distinguished 
Mmself that, on April 20, 1865, he was made 
Major-General of Volunteers. In twenty-eight 
days he captured five fortified cities, twenty- 
three stands of colors, 288 guns and 6,820 prison- 
ers — among the latter being Jefferson Davis. He 
was mustered out of the volunteer service in 
January-, 1866, and, on July 28, following, was 
commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel of the Thirty- 
fifth United States Infantry, being also brevetted 
Major-General in the regular army. On Dec. 31, 
1870, he returned to civil life, and was afterwards 
largely engaged in railroad and engineering oper- 
ations, especially in West Virginia. Promptly 
after the declaration of war with Spain (1898) 
General Wilson was appointed, by the President. 
Major-General of Volunteers, serving until its 
close. He is the author of "China: Travels and 
Investigations in the Middle Kingdom" , "Life of 
Andrew J. Alexander"; and the "Life of Gen. 
U. S. Grant," in conjunction with Charles A. 

Dana. His home, in recent years, has been in 
New York. 

WILSOX, John M., lawyer and jurist, was 
born in New Hampshire in 1802, graduated at 
Bowdoin College in 182-4 — the classmate of Frank- 
lin Pierce and Nathaniel Hawthorne ; studied law 
in New Hampshire and came to Illinois in 1835, 
locating at Joliet; removed to Chicago in 1841, 
where he was the partner of Norman B. Judd, 
serving, at different periods, as attorney of the 
Chicago & Rock Island, the Lake Shore & Miclii- 
gan Southern and the Chicago & Northwestern 
Railways; was Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas of Cook Coimty, 1853-59, when he became 
Presiding Judge of the Superior Court of Chicago, 
serving until 1868. Died, Dec. 7, 1883. 

WILSOX, John P., lawyer, was born in White- 
side County. 111., Jul}- 3, 1844; educated in the 
common schools and at Knox College, Galesburg, 
graduating from the latter in 1865; two years 
later was admitted to the bar in Chicago, and 
speedily attained prominence in his profession. 
During the World's Fair period he was retained 
as counsel by the Committee on Grounds and 
Buildings, and was prominently connected, as 
counsel for the city, with the Lake Front litiga- 

WILSOX, Robert L., early legislator, was bom 
in Washington County, Pa., Sept. 11. 1805, taken 
to Zanesville, Ohio, in 1810. graduated at Frank- 
lin College in 1831, studied law and, in 1833. 
removed to Athens (now in Menard County), III. ; 
was elected Representative in 1836, and was one 
of the members from Sangamon County, known 
as the "Long Nine."' who assisted in securing the 
removal of the State Capital to Springfield. Mr. 
Wilson removed to Sterling, Whiteside County, 
in 1840, was elected five times Circuit Clerk and 
served eight years as Probate Judge. Immedi- 
ately after the fall of Fort Sumter, he enlisted as 
private in a battalion in Washington City under 
command of Cassius M. Clay, for guard duty 
until the arrival of the Seventh New York Regi- 
ment. He subsequently assisted in raising 
troops in Illinois, was appointed Paymaster by 
Lincoln, serving at Washington, St. Louis, and, 
after the fall of Vicksburg, at Springfield — being 
mustered out in November, 1865. Died, in White- 
side County. 1880. 

W'lLSOX, Robert S., lawyer and jurist, was 
born at Montrose, Susquehanna County, Pa., Nov. 
6, 1812. learned the printer's art. then studied 
law and was admitted to the bar in Allegheny 
County, about 1833; in 1836 removed to Ann 
Arbor, Mich., where he served as Probate Judge 



and State Senator ; in 1850 came to Chicago, was 
elected Judge of the Recorder's Court iu 1853, 
and re-elected in 1858, serving ten years, and 
proving "a terror to evil-doers." Died, at Law- 
rence, Mich., Dec. 23, 1883, 

WILSOJf, William, early jurist, was born in 
Loudoun County, Va., April 27, 179-1; studied law 
with Hon. John Cook, a distinguished lawyer, 
and minister to France in the earlj' part of the 
century ; in 1817 removed to Kentucky, soon after 
came to Illinois, two years later locating in White 
County, near Carmi, which continued to be his 
home during the remainder of his life. In 1819 
he was appointed Associate Justice of the 
Supreme Court as successor to William P. 
Foster, who is described by Governor Ford as 
"a great rascal and no lawyer," and who held 
office only about nine months. Judge Wilson 
was re-elected to the Supreme bench, as Chief- 
Justice, in 1825, being then only a little over 30 
years old, and held office until the reorganization 
of the Supreme Court under the Constitution of 
184S — a period of over twenty-nine years, and, 
with the exception of Judge Browne's, the long- 
est term of service iu the history of the court. 
He died at his home in White County, April 29, 
1857. A Whig in early life, he allied himself 
with the Democratic party on the dissolution of 
the former. Hon. James C. Conkling, of Spring- 
field, says of him, "as a writer, his style was clear 
and distinct ; as a lawyer, his judgment was 
sound and discriminating." 

WINCHESTER, a city and county-seat of Scott 
County, founded in 1839, situated on Big Sandy 
Creek and on the line of the Chicago, Burlington 
& Quincy Railroad, 29 miles south of Beardstown 
and 84 miles north by west of St. Louis. While 
the surrounding region is agricultural and largely 
devoted to w-heat growing, there is some coal 
mining. Winchester is an important shipping- 
point, having three grain elevators, two flouring 
mills, and a coal mine employing fifty miners. 
There are four Protestant and one Catholic 
church, a court house, a high school, a graded 
school building, two banks and two weekly news- 
papers. Population (1880), 1,626; (1890), 1,542; 
(1900), 1,711. 

WINDSOR, a city of Shelby County at the cross- 
ing of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. 
Louis and the Wabash Railways, 11 miles north- 
east of Shelby ville. Population (1880), 768; 
a890), 888; (1900), 866. 

WINES, Frederick Howard, clergyman and 
sociologist, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., April 
9, 1838, graduated at Washington (Pa.) College 

in 1857, and, after serving as tutor there for a 
short time, entered Princeton Theological Semi- 
nary, but was compelled temporarily to discon- 
tinue his studies on account of a weakness of 
the eyes. The Presbytery of St. Louis licensed 
him to preach in 1860, and, in 1862, he was com- 
missioned Hospital Chaplain in the Union army. 
During 1862-64 he was stationed at Springfield, 
Mo., participating in the battle of Springfield on 
Jan. 8, 1863, and being personally mentioned for 
bravery on the field in the official report. Re- 
entering the seminary at Princeton in 1864, he 
graduated in 1865, and at once accepted a call to 
the pulpit of the First Presbyterian Church of 
Springfield, 111., which he filled for four years. 
In 1869 he was appointed Secretary of Uie newly 
created Board of Commissioners of Public Chari- 
ties of Illinois, in which capacity he continued 
until 1893, when he resigned. For the next four 
years he was chiefly engaged in literary work, in 
lecturing before universities on topics connected 
with social science, in aiding in the organization 
of charitable work, and in the conduct of a 
thorough investigation into the relations between 
liquor legislation and crime. At an early period 
he took a prominent part in organizing the 
various Boards of Public Charities of the United 
States into an organization known as the National 
Conference of Charities and Corrections, and, at 
the Louisville meeting (1883), was elected its 
President. At the International Penitentiary 
Congress at Stockholm (1878) he was the official 
delegate from Illinois. On his return, as a result 
of his observations while abroad, he submitted 
to the Legislature a report strongly advocating 
the construction of the Kankakee Hospital for 
the Insane, then about to be built, upon the 
"detached %vard" or "village" plan, a departure 
from then existing methods, which marks an era 
in the treatment of insane in the United States. 
Mr. Wines conducted the investigation into the 
condition and number of the defective, depend- 
ent and delinquent classes throughout the coun- 
try, his report constituting a separate volume 
under the "Tenth Census," and rendered a simi- 
lar service in connection with the eleventh 
census (1890). In 1887 he was elected Secretary 
of the National Prison Association, succeeding to 
the post formerlj' held by his father, Enoch Cobb 
Wines, D.D., LL.D. After the inauguration of 
Governor Tanner in 1897, he resumed his former 
position of Secretary of the Board of Public 
Charities, remaining until 1899, when he again 
tendered his resignation, having received the 
appointment to the position of Assistant Director 




of the Twelfth Census, which lie now holds. He 
is the author of "Crime anil Reformation"" (1895); 
of a voluminous series of reports; also of numer- 
ous pamphlets ami brochures, among which may 
be mentioned '"The County Jail System; An 
Argument for its Abolition" (1878) ; "The Kanka- 
kee Hospital" (18S2) ; "Provision for the Insane 
in the United States"" (1885); "Conditional 
Liberation, or the Paroling of Prisoners"' (18s(i), 
and "American Prisons in the Tenth Census"' 

WINES, Walter B., lawyer (brother of Freder- 
ick H. Wines), was born in Bo.ston, Oct. 
10, 1848, received his primary education at AVillis- 
ton Academy, East HaniD^on, !Mass., after which 
he entered Middlebury College, Yt., taking a 
classical course and graduating thei". He after- 
wards became a student in tlie law department 
of Columbia College, X. Y., graduating in 1871, 
being admitted to the bar the same year and 
commencing practice in New York Citj'. In 1879 
he came to Springfield, 111., and was, for a time, 
identified vrith the bar of that city. Later, he 
removed to Chicago, where he has been engaged 
in literary and journalistic work. 

WINNEBAGO COUNTY, situated in the 
"northern tier,"' bordering on tlie Wisconsin 
State line; was organized, under an act passed in 
1836, from La Salle and Jo Daviess Counties, and 
has an area of 553 square miles. The county is 
drained by the Rock and Pecatonica Rivers. 
The surface is rolling prairie and the soil fertile. 
The geology is simple, the quaternary deposits 
being underlaid by the Galena blue and butt 
limestone, adapted for building purposes All 
the cereals are raised in abundance, the chief 
product being corn. The Winnebago Indians 
(who gave name to the county) formerly lived 
on the side of the Rock River, and the Potta- 
watomies on the east, but both tribes removed 
westward in 18155. (As to manufacturing inter- 
ests see Rockford.) Population (1880), 30,505; 
(1890), 39.938; (1900), 47,845 

WINNEBAGO WAR. The name given to an 
Indian disturbance which had its origin in 1827, 
during the administration of Gov. Ninian 
Edwards. The Indians had been quiet since the 
conclusion of the War of 1812, but a few isolated 
outrages were sufficient to start terrified "run- 
ners"' in all directions. In the northern portion 
of the State, from Galena to Chicago (then Fort 
Dearborn) the alarm was intense. The meagre 
militia force of the State was summoned and 
volunteers were called for. Meanwhile. COO 
U'lited States Regular Infantr)', under command 

of Gen. Henry .Vtkin.son, put in an appearance. 
Besides the infantry, Atkinson had at his disposal 
some 130 mounted .sharpshooters. The origin of 
the disturbance was as follows: The Winne- 
bagoes attacked a band of Chippewas, who were 
(by treaty) imder Government potection, several 
of the latter being killed. For participation in 
this offense, four Winnebago Indians were sum- 
marily apprehended, surrendered to the Chippe- 
was and shot. Jleanwhile, some dispute had 
arisen as to the title of the lands, claimed by the 
Winnebagoes in the vicinity of Gale'ia, which 
had been occupied by white miners. Repeated 
acts of hcstility and of reprisal, along the Upper 
Mississippi, intensified nmtual distrust. A gather- 
ing of the Indians around two keel-boats, laden 
with supplies for Fort SnelUng, which had 
anchored near Prairie du Chien and opposite a 
Wiimebago camp, was regarded by the whites as 
a hostile act. Liquor was freely distributed, and ] 

there is historical evidence that a half-dozen j 

drunken squaws were carried off and shamefully I 

maltreated. Several hundred warriors assembled ] 

to avenge the deception which had been practiced \ 

upon them. Tliey lai<l in ambush for the boats I 

on their return trip. The first passed too rapidly | 

to be successfully assailed, but the second 1 

grounded and was savagely, j-et unsuccessfully, i 

attacked. The presence of General Atkinson's I 

forces prevented an actual outbreak, and, on his I 

demand, the great Winnebago Chief. Red Bird, j 

with six other leading men of the tribe, sur- i 

rendered themselves as hostages to save their | 

nation from extermination. A majority of these j 

were, after trial, acquitted. Red Bird, however, ! 

unable to endure confinement, literally pined to [ 

death in prison, dying on Feb. 16, 1828. He is 
described as having been a savage of superior 
intelligence and noble character. A treaty of 
peace was concluded with the Winnebagoes in a 
council held at Prairie du Chien. a few months 
later, but the affair seems to have produced as 
much alarm among the Indians as it did among 
the whites. (For Winiiebago Indians see page 576. ) 

WINNETKA, a village of Cook County, on the 
Chicago & Northwestern Railway, I61/2 miles 
north of Chicago. It stands eighty feet above 
the level of Lake Michigan, has good schools 
(being the seat of the Winnetka Institute), sev- 
eral churches, and is a popular residence town. 
Population (18S0). 584; (1800), 1,079; (1900), 1,833. 

WINSTON, Frederick Hampton, lawyer, was 
born in Liberty County, Ga., Nov. 20. 1830. was 
brought to Woodford County, Ky., in 1835. left 
an orphan at 12, and attended the common 



schools until 18, when, returning to Georgia, he 
engaged in cotton manufacture. He finally 
began the study of law with United States Sena- 
tor W. C. Dawson, and graduated from Harvard 
Law School in 1852, spent some time in the office 
of W. M. Evarts in New York, was admitted to 
the bar and came to Chicago in lSu3. where lie 
formed a partnership with Norman B. Judd, 
afterwards being associated with Judge Henry 
W. Blodgett; served as general solicitor of the 
Lake Shore and Michigan Southern, the Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific and the Pittsbm'gh, Fort 
Wayne & Chicago Railways — remaining with the 
latter twenty years. In 1885 he was appointed, 
by President Cleveland, Minister to Persia, but 
resigned the following year, and traveled exten- 
sively in Russia, Scandinavia and other foreign 
countries. Mr. Winston was a delegate to the 
Democratic National Conventions of 1868, '76 and 
'84 ; first President of the Stock Yards at Jersey 
City, for twelve years President of the Lincoln 
Park Commission, and a Director of the Lincoln 
National Bank. 

sin Central Company was organized, June 17, 
1887, and subsequently acquired the Minnesota, 
St. Croix & Wisconsin, the Wisconsin & Minne- 
sota, the Chippewa Falls & Western, the St. 
Paul & St. Croix Falls, the Wisconsin Central, the 
Penokee, and the Packwaukee & Montebello Rail- 
roads, and assumed the leases of the Milwaukee 
& Lake Winnebago and the Wisconsin & Minne- 
sota Roads. On Julj' 1, 1888, the company began 
to operate the entire Wisconsin Central system, 
with the exception of the Wisconsin Central 
Raih-oad and the leased Milwaukee & Lake Win- 
nebago, which remained in charge of the Wis- 
consin Central Railroad mortgage trustees until 
Nov. 1, 1889, when these, too, passed under the 
control of the Wisconsin Central Company. The 
Wisconsin Central Railroad Company is a re- 
organization (Oct. 1, 1879) of a company formed 
Jan. 1, 1871. The Wisconsin Central and the 
Wisconsin Central Railroad Companies, though 
differing in name, are a financial unit: the 
former holding most of the first mortgage bonds 
of the latter, and substantially all its notes, .stocks 
and income bonds, but, for legal reasons (such as 
the protection of land titles), it is necessary that 
separate corporations be maintained. On April 
1, 1890, the Wisconsin Central Company executed 
a lease to the Northern Pacific Railroad, but this 
was set aside by the courts, on Sept. 27, 1893, for 
non-payment of rent, and was finally canceled. 
On the same day receivers were appointed to 

insure the protection of all interests. The total 
mileage is 415.46 miles, of which the Company 
owns 258.90— only .10 of a mile in lUinois. A 
line, 58.10 miles in length, with 8.44 miles of 
side-track (total, 66.54 miles), lying wholly within 
the State of Illinois, is operated by the Chicago & 
Wisconsin and furnishes the allied line an en- 
traiii-e into Chicago. 

WITHROW, Thomas F,, lawyer, was born in 
Virginia in March, 1833, removed with his parents 
to Ohio in childhood, attended the AVestern 
Reserve College, and, after the death of his 
father, taught school and worked as a printer, 
later, editing a paper at Mount Vernon. In 1855 
he removed to Janesville, Wis., where he again 
engaged in journalistic work, studied law, was 
admitted to the bar in Iowa in 1857, settled at 
Des Moines and served as private secretary of 
Governors Lowe and Kirkwood. In 1860 he 
became Supreme Court Reporter; served as 
Chairman of the Republican State Central Com- 
mittee in 1863 and, in 1866, became associated 
with the Rock Island Railroad in the capacity of 
local attorney, was made chief law officer of the 
Company in 1873, and removed to Chicago, and, 
in 1890, was promoted to the position of General 
Counsel. Died, in Chicago, Feb. 3, 1893. 

WOLCOTT, (Dr.) Alexander, early Indian 
Agent, was born at East Windsor, Conn., Feb. 
14, 1790; graduated from Y'ale College in 1809, 
and, after a course in medicine, was commis- 
sioned, in 1812, Surgeon's Mate in the United 
States Army. In 1820 he was appointed Indian 
Agent at Fort Dearborn (now Chicago), as suc- 
cessor to Charles Jouett— the first Agent— who 
had been appointed a LTnited States Judge in 
Arkansas. The same year he accompanied Gen- 
eral Lewis Cass and Henry Schoolcraft on their 
tour among the Indians of the Northwest ; was 
married in 1823 to Ellen Marion Kinzie, a 
daughter of Col. John Kinzie, the first perma- 
nent settler of Chicago ; in 1825 was appointed a 
Justice of the Peace for Peoria County, which 
then included Cook County; was a Judge of 
Election in 1880, and on"e of the purchasers of a 
block of ground in the heart of the present city 
of Chicago, at the first sale of lots, held Sept. 27, 
1830, but died before the close of the year. Dr. 
Wolcott appears to have been a high-minded and 
honorable man, as well as far in advance of the 
mass of pioneers in point of education and intel- 

CAGrO. (See Northivestern University Woman's 
Medical School.) 



WOMAX SUFFRAGE, (See Suffrage.) 

WOOD, Benson, lawyer and Congressman, was 
born in Susquehanna County, Pa., in 1839; re- 
ceived a common school and academic education ; 
at the age of 20 came to Illinois, and, for two 
years, taught school in Lee County. He then 
enlisted as a soldier in an Illinois regiment, 
attaining the rank of Captain of Infantry; after 
the war, graduated from the Law Department of 
the old Chicago University, and has since been 
engaged in the practice of his profession. He 
■was elected a member of the Twenty-eighth Gen- 
eral Assembly (1872) and was a delegate to the 
Republican National Conventions of 1876 and 
1888 ; also served as Mayor of the city of Effing- 
ham, where he now resides. In 1894 he was 
elected to the Fifty-fourth Congress by the 
Republicans of the Nineteenth DLstrict, which has 
uniformly returned a Democrat, and, in office, 
proved himself a most industrious and efficient 
member. Mr. Wood was defeated as a candidate 
for re-election in 1896. 

WOOD, John, pioneer, Lieutenant-Governor 
and Governor, was born at Moravia, N. Y., Dec. 
20, 1798 — his father being a Revolutionary soldier 
who had served as Surgeon and Captain in the 
army. At the age of 21 years young Wocn;l i-e- 
moved to Illinois, settling in what is now Adams 
County, and building the first log-cabin on the site 
of the present city of Quincy. He was a member 
of the upper house of the Seventeenth and Eight- 
eenth General As.semblies, and was elected Lieu- 
tenant-Governor in 18.j9 on the same ticket with 
Governor Bissell. and served out the une.xpired 
term of the latter, who died in office. (See Bis- 
sell, William H.) He was succeeded by Richard 
Yates in 1861. In February of that year he was 
appointed one of the five Commissioners from 
Illinois to the "Peace Conference'" at Wash- 
ington, to consider methods for averting 
civil war. The following May he was appointed 
Quartermaster-General for the State by Governor 
Yates, and assisted most efficiently in fitting out 
the troops for the field. In June, 1864, he was 
commissioned Colonel of the One Hundred and 
Thirty-seventh Illinois Volunteers (100-days" men) 
and mustered out of service the following Sep- 
tember. Died, at Quincy, Juue 11, 1880. He 
was liberal, patriotic and public-spirited. His 
fellow-citizens of Quincj- erected a monument to 
his memory, which was appropriately dedicated, 
July 4, 1883. 

WOODFORD COUNTY, situated a little north 
of the center of the State, bounded on the west 
bv the Illinois River; organized in 1841; area. 

540 square miles. The surface is generally level, 
except along the Illinois River, the soil fertile 
and well watered. The county lies in the north- 
ern section of the great coal field of the State. 
Eureka is the county -seat. Other thriving cities 
and towns are Metamora, Minonk, El Paso and 
Roanoke. Corn, oats, wheat, potatoes and barley 
are the principal crops. The chief mechanical 
industries are flour manufacture, carriage and 
wagon-making, and saddlery and harness work. 
Population (1890), 21,429; (1900), 21,822. 

WOODHULL, a village of Henry County, on 
Keithsburg branch Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
Railroad, 15 miles west of Galva; has a bank, 
electric lights, water works, brick and tile works, 
six churches and weekly paper. Pop. (1900), 774. 

WOODMAN, Charles W., lawyer and Congress- 
man, was born in Aalborg, Denmark. March 11, 
1844 ; received his early education in the schools 
of his native country, but took to the sea in I860, 
following the life of a sailor until 1863, when, 
coming to Philadelphia, he enlisted in the Gulf 
Squadron of the United States. After the war, 
he came to Chicago, and, after reading law for 
some time in the office of James L. High, gradu- 
ated from the Law Department of the Chicago 
University in 1871. Some years later he was 
appointed Prosecuting Attorney for some of the 
lower courts, and, in 1881, was nominated by the 
Judges of Cook Coimty as one of the Justices of 
the Peace for the city of Chicago. In 1894 he 
became the Republican candidate for Congress 
from the Fourth District and was elected, but 
failed to secure a renomiuation in 1896. Died, in 
Elgin A.sylum for the Insane, March 18, 1898. 

WOODS, Robert Maun, was born at Greenville, 
Pa., April 17, 1840; came with his parents to Illi- 
nois in 1843, the familj' settling at Barry, Pike 
County, but subsequently residing at Pittsfield, 
Canton and Galesburg. He was educated at 
Knox College in the latter place, which was his 
home from 1849 to "58; later, taught school in 
Iowa and Missouri until 1861, when he went to 
Springfield and began the study of law witli 
Milton Hay and Shelby M. Cullom. His law 
studies having been interrupted by the Civil 
War, after spending some time in the mustering 
and disbursing office, he was promoted by Gov- 
ernor Yates to a place in the executive office, 
from which he w-ent to the field as Adjutant of 
the Sixty-fourth Illinois Infantry, known as the 
"Yates Sharp-Shoot ers." After participating, 
with the Army of the Tennessee, in the Atlanta 
campaign, he took part in the "March to the 
Sea." and the campaign in the Carolinas. includ- 



ing the siege of Savannah and the forcing of the 
Salkahatchie, where he distinguished himself, as 
also in the taking of Columbia, Fayetteville, 
Cheraw, Raleigh and Bentonville. At the latter 
place he had a horse shot under him and won the 
brevet rank of Major for gallantry in the field, 
having previously been commissioned Captain of 
Company A of his regiment. He also served on 
the staffs of Gens. Giles A. Smith, Benjamin F. 
Potts, and "William W. Belknap, and was the last 
mustering oificer in General Sherman's army. 
In 1867 Major Woods removed to Chicago, where 
he was in business for a number of years, serving 
as chief clerk of Custom House construction 
from 1872 to 1877. In 1879 he purchased "The 
Daily Republican' ' at Joliet, which he conducted 
successfully for fifteen years. While connected 
with "The Republican,'' he served as Secretary of 
the Illinois Repviblican Press Association and in 
various other positions. 

Major Woods was one of the founders of the 
Grand Army of the Republic, whose birth-place 
was in Illinois. (See Grand Army of the Repuh- 
lic; also Stephenson, Dr. B. F.) When Dr. 
Stephenson (who had been Surgeon of the Four- 
teenth Illinois Infantry), conceived the idea of 
founding such an order, he called to his assist- 
ance Major Woods, who was then engaged in 
writing the histories of Illinois regiments for the 
Adjutant-General's Report. The Major wrote 
the Constitution and By-laws of the Order, the 
charter blanks for all the reports, etc. The first 
official order bears his name as the first Adjutant- 
General of the Order, as follows : 


Grand Army of the Republic. 

Springfield. III., April 1, 1866. 
General Orders ' 

No, 1. \ The followiDg named oiEcera are hereby 

appointed and assigned to duty at these headquarters. They 
will be obeyed and respected accordingly: 
Colonel Jules C. Webber, A. B.C. and Chief of Staff. 
Colonel John H. Snyder, Quartermaster-General. 
Major Robert M. Woods. Adjutant-General. 
Captain John A. Lightfoot, Assistant Adjutant-General. 
Captain John S. Phelps, Atd-de-C&mp. 
By order o( B. F. Stephenson, Department Commander. 

ROBERT JI. Woods, 


Major Woods afterwards organized the various 
Departments in the West, and it has been con- 
ceded that he furnished the money necessary to 
carry on the work during the first six months of 
the existence of the Order. He has never 
accepted a nomination or run for any political 
office, but is now engaged in financial business in 
Joliet and Chicago, with his residence in the 
former place. 

WOODSOiV, David Meade, lawyer and jurist, 
was born in Jessamine County, Ky., May 18, 
180G; was educated in private schools and at 
Transylvania University, and read law with his 
father. He served a term in the Kentucky Legis- 
lature in 1833, and, in 1834, removed to Illinois, 
settling at Carrollton, Greene County. In 1839 
he was elected State's Attorney and, in 1840, a 
member of the lower house of the Legislature, 
being elected a second time in 1868. In 1843 he 
was the Whig candidate for Congress in the 
Fifth District, but was defeated by Stephen A. 
Douglas. He was a member of the Constitutional 
Conventions of 1847 and 1869-70. In 1848 he was 
elected a Judge of the First Judicial Circuit, 
remaining in office until 1867. Died, in 1877. 

WOODSTOCK, the county-seat of McHenry 
County, situated on the Chicago & Northwestern 
Railway, about 51 miles northwest of Chicago 
and 32 miles east of Rockford. It contains a 
court house, eight churches, four banks, three 
newspaper offices, foundry and machine shops, 
planing mills, canning works, pickle, cheese and 
butter factories. The Oliver Typewriter Factory 
is located here ; the town is also the seat of the 
Todd Seminary for boys. Population (1890), 
1,683; (1900), 2,503. 

WORCESTER, Linus E., State Senator, was 
born in Windsor, Vt., Dec. 5, 1811, was educated 
in the common schools of his native State and at 
Chester Academy, came to Illinois in 1836, and, 
after teaching three years, entered a dry-goods 
store at Whitehall as clerk, later becoming a 
partner. He was also engaged in various other 
branches of business at different times, including 
the drug, hardware, grocery, agricultural imple- 
ment and lumber business. In 1843 he was 
appointed Postmaster at Wliitehall, serving 
twelve years; was a member of the Constitutional 
Convention of 1847, served as County Judge for 
six years from 1853, and as Trustee of the Insti- 
tution for the Deaf and Dumb, at Jacksonville, 
from 1859, by successive reappointments, for 
twelve years. In 1856 he was elected, as a Demo- 
crat, to the State Senate, to succeed John M. 
Palmer, resigned ; was re-elected in 1860, and, at 
the session of 1865, was one of the five Demo- 
cratic members of that body who voted for the 
ratification of the Emancipation Amendment of 
the National Constitution. He was elected 
County Judge a second time, in 1803, and re- 
elected in 1867, served as delegate to the Demo- 
cratic National Convention of 1876, and, for more 
than thirty years, was one of the Directors of the 
Jacksonville branch of the Chicago & Alton 



Railroad, seniug from the ortpinization of the 
i-orporation until his death, which occurred Oct. 
19, 1891. 

W OR DEN, a village of Madison Count}-, on the 
Wabash and the Jacksonville, Louisville & St. 
Louis Railways, 32 miles northeast of St. Louis. 
Population (ISflOi, .V22; (lyOO), 544 

exhibition of the .scientilic, liberal and mechan- 
ical arts of all nations, held at Chicago, bet%veen 
May 1 and Oct. 31, 1893. The project had its 
inception in November, 188.5, in a resolution 
adopted by the directorate of the Chicago Inter- 
State Exposition Company. On July 0. 1888, the 
first well defined action was taken, the Iroquois 
Club, of Chicago, inviting the co-operation of six 
other leading clubs of that city in "securing the 
location of an international celebration at Chi- 
cago of the 400th anniversary of the discovery of 
America by Colimibus."" In July, 1889, a decisive 
step was taken in the appointment by Mayor 
Cregier, under resolution of the Citj' Council, of 
a committee of 100 (afterwards increased to 2.56) 
citizens, who were charged with the duty of 
[iromoting the selection of Chicago as the site for 
the Exposition. New York, ^yashington and St. 
Louis were competing points, but the choice of 
Congress fell upon Chicago, and the act establish- 
ing the World's Fair at that city was signed by 
President Harrison on April 25, 1890. Under the 
requirements of the law, the President apjjointed 
eight Commissioners-at-large, with two Commis- 
sioners and two alternates from each State and 
Territorj- and the District of Columbia. Col. 
(leorge R. Davis, of Chicago, was elected Direc- 
tor-General by the body thus constituted. Ex- 
.Senator Thomas M. Palmer, of Michigan, was 
chosen President of the Commission and John T. 
Dickinson, of Texas, Secretary. This Commis- 
sion delegated much of its power to a Board of 
Reference and Control, who were instructed to 
act with a similar number appointed by the 
World's Columbian Exposition. The latter 
organization was an incorporation, with a direc- 
torate of forty-five members, elected annually bj- 
the stockholders. Lyman J. Gage, of Chicago, 
was the first President of the corporation, and 
was succeeded by W. T. Baker and Harlow N. 

In addition to these bodies, certain powers were 
vested in a Board of Lady Managers, (Composed 
of two members, with alternates, from each 
State and Territory, besides nine from the city 
of Chicago. Mrs. Potter Palmer was chosen 
President of the latter. This Board was particu- 

larly charged with supervision of women's par- 
ticipation in the Exposition, and of the exhibits 
of women's work. 

The supreme executive jwwer was vested in 
the Joint Board of Control, The site selected 
was Jackson Park, in the South Division of Chi- 
cago, with a strip connecting Jackson and 
Washington Parks, known as the "Midway 
Plaisance,"' which was surrendered to "conces- 
sionaires" who purchased the privilege of giving 
exhibitions, or conducting restaurants or selling- 
booths thereon. The total area of the site was 
G33 acres, and that of the buildings — not reckon- 
ing those erected by States other than Illinois, 
and by foreign governments — was about 200 
acres. When to this is added the acreage of the 
foreign and State buildings, the total space 
under roof approximated 250 acres. These fig- 
ures do not include the buildings erected by 
private exhibitors, caterers and venders, wliich 
would add a small percentage to the grand total. 
Forty-seven foreign Governments made appropri- 
ations for the erection of their own buildings and 
other expenses connected with official represen- 
tation, and there were exhibitors from eighty -six 
nations. The United States Government erected 
its own building, and appropriated $500,000 to 
defray tlie expenses of a national exhibit, besides 
82,500,000 toward the general cost of the Exposi- 
tion. The appropriations by foreign Governments 
aggregated about 86,500,000, and those by the 
States ana Territories, §6,120,000— that of Illinois 
being 8800,000. The entire outlay of the World's 
Columbian Exposition Company, up to March 31, 
1894, including the cost of preliminary organiza- 
tion, construction, operating and post Exposition 
expenses, was $27,151^800. This is, of course, 
exclusive of foreign and State erpenditures, 
which would swell the aggregate cost to nearly 
845,000,000. Citizens of Chicago subscribed 
§5,608,206 toward the capital stock of the Exposi- 
tion Company, and the municipality, §5,000,000, 
which was raised bj- the sale of bonds (See 
Tltirtyni.rth General Assembly.) 

The site, while admirably adapted to the jiur- 
pose, was, when chosen, a marsh}' flat, crossed 
by low sand ridges, upon which stood occasional 
flumps of stunted scrub oaks. Before the gates 
of the great fair were opened to the public, the 
entire area had been transformed into a dream of 
beauty. Marshes had been drained, filled in and 
sodded ; driveways and broad walks constructed; 
artificial ponds and lagoons dug and embanked, 
and all the highest skill of the landscape garden- 
er's art had been called into play to produce 




Jackson Park 

showing the Gtni.ral Arrangemeut 

Puilding3 aud Grounda 

lyyLjyuouuL XJU jiJMuiii 


varied and striking effects. But the task had 
been a Herculean one. There were seventeen 
principal (or, as they may be called, depart- 
mental) buildings, all of beautiful and ornate 
design, and all of vast size. They were known 
as the Manufacturers' and Liberal Arts, the 
Machinery, Electrical, Transportation, Woman's, 
Horticultural, Mines and Mining, Anthropolog- 
ical, Administration, Art Galleries, Agricultural, 
Art Institute, Fisheries, Live Stock, Dairy and 
Forestrj' buildings, and the JIusic Hall and Ca- 
sino. Several of these had large annexes. The 
Manufacturers" Building was the largest. It was 
rectangular (1687x787 feet), having a ground 
area of 31 acres and a floor and gallery area of 
44 acres. Its central chamber was 1280x380 
feet, with a nave 107 feet wide, both hall and 
nave being surrounded by a gallery 50 feet wide. 
It was four times as large as the Roman Coliseum 
and three times as large as St. Petei'"s at Rome ; 
17,000,000 feet of lumber, 13,000,000 pounds of 
steel, and 3,000,000 pounds of iron had been used 
in its construction, involving a cost of §1,800,000. 

It was originally intended to open the Exposi- 
tion, formally, on Oct. 21, 1892, the quadri-centen- 
nial of Columbus' discovery of land on the 
Western Hemisphere, but the magnitude of the 
undertaking rendered this impracticable. Con- 
sequently, while dedicatory ceremonies were held 
on that day, preceded by a monster procession and 
followed by elaborate pyrotechnic displays at 
night, May 1, 1893, was fixed as the opening day 
— the machinery and fountains being put in oper- 
ation, at the touch of an electric button by Presi- 
dent Cleveland, at the close of a short address. 
The total number of admissions from that date 
to Oct. 31, was 27,530,460— the largest for any 
single day being on Oct. 9 (Chicago Day) amount- 
ing to 761.944. The total receipts from all sources 
(including National and State appropriations, 
subscriptions, etc.), amounted to $38,151,168.75, 
of which §10,636,330.76 was from the sale of tick 
ets, and §3,699,581.43 from concessions. The 
aggregate attendance fell short of that at the 
Paris Exposition of 1889 by about 500,000, while 
the receipts from the sale of tickets and con- 
cessions exceeded the latter by nearly §5,800,000. 
Subscribers to the Exposition stock received a 
return of ten per cent on the same. 

The Illinois building was the first of the State 
buildings to be completed. It was also the 
largest and most costly, but was severely criti- 
cised from an architectural standpoint. The 
exhibits showed the internal resources of the 
State, as well as the development of its govern- 

mental system, and its progress in civilization 
from the days of the first pioneers. The entire 
Illinois exhibit in the State building was under 
charge of the State Board of Agriculture, who 
devoted one-tenth of the appropriation, and a like 
proportion of floor space, to the e-Khibitiou of the 
work of Illinois women as scientists, authors, 
artists, decorators, etc. Among special features 
of the Illinois exhibit were : State trophies and 
relics, kept in a fire-proof memorial hall ; the dis- 
play of grains and minerals, and an immense 
topographical map (prepared at a cost of §15,000), 
drafted on a scale of two miles to the inch, show- 
ing the character and resources of the State, and 
correcting many serious cartographical errors 
previously undiscovered. 

WORTHEN, Amos Henry, scientist and State 
Geologist, was born at Bradford, Vt., Oct. 31, 
1813, emigrated to Kent-icky in 1834, and, in 1836, 
removed to Illinois, locating at Warsaw. Teach- 
ing, surveying and mercantile business were his 
pursuits until 1842, when he returned to the 
East, spending two years in Boston, but return- 
ing to Warsaw in 1844. His natural predilections 
were toward the natural sciences, and, after 
coming west, he devoted most of his leisure time 
to the collection and study of specimens of 
mineralogy, geology and conchology. On the 
organization of the geological sm-vey of Illinois 
in 1851, he was appointed assistant to Dr. J. G. 
Norwood, then State Geologist, and, in 1858, suc- 
ceeded to the office, having meanwhile spent 
three years as Assistant Geologist in the first Iowa 
survey. As State Geologist he published seven 
volumes of reports, and was engaged upon the 
eighth when overtaken by death, May 6, 1888. 
These reports, which are as comprehensive as 
they are voluminous, have been reviewed and 
warmly commended by the leading scientific 
periodicals of this country and Europe In 1877 
field work was discontinued, and the State His- 
torical Library and Nataral History Museum were 
established, Professor Worthen being placed in 
charge as curator. He was the author of various 
valuable scientific papers and member of numer- 
ous scientific societies in this country and in 

WORTHI>(iTOX, Xicholas EUsworth, ex-Con- 
gressman, was born in Brooke County, W. Va., 
March SO, 1836, and completed his education at 
Allegheny College, Pa. . studied Law at Morgan- 
town, Va., and was admitted to the bar in 1860. 
He is a resident of Peoria, and, by profession, a 
lawyer; was County Superintendent of Schools 
of Peoria Countv from 1868 to 1872. and a mem- 


ber of the State Board of Education from 1809 to 
1872. In 1882 he v-as elected to Congress, as a 
Democrat, from the Tenth Congressional District, 
and re-elected in 1884. In 1886 he was again a 
candidate, but was defeated by his Republican 
opponent, Philip Sidney Post. He was elected 
Circuit Judge of the Tenth Judicial District in 
1891, and re-elected in 1897. In 1894 he served 
upon a commission appointed by President Cleve- 
land, to investigate the labor strikes of that year 
at Chicago. 

WRIGHT, John Stephen, manufacturer, was 
born at Sheffield, Mass., July 16, 1815; came to 
Chicago in 1832, with his father, who opened a 
store in that city ; in 1837, at his own expense, 
built the first school building in Chicago ; in 1840 
established "The Prairie Farmer," which he con- 
ducted for many years in the interest of popular 
education and progressive agriculture. In 1852 
he engaged in the manufacture of Atkins" self- 
raking reaper and mower, was one of the pro- 
moters of the Galena & Chicago Union and the 
Illinois Central Railways, and wrote a volume 
entitled, "Chicago: Past, Present and Future," 
published in 1870. Died, in Chicago, Sept. 26, 1874. 

TVULFF, Henry, ex-State Treasurer, was born 
iu Meldorf, Germany, August 24, 1854; came to 
Chicago in 1863, and began his political career as 
a Trustee of the town of Jefferson. In 1866 he 
was elected County Clerk of Cook County, and 
re-elected in 1890 ; in 1894 became the Republican 
nominee for State Treasurer, receiving, at the 
November election of that year, the unprece- 
dented plurality of 133.427 votes over his Demo- 
cratic opponent. 

WYANET, a town of Bureau County, at the 
intersection of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
and the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railways, 
7 miles southwest of Princeton. Population 
(1890), 070; (1900;, 902. 

WYLIE, (Rev.) Samuel, domestic missionarv-, 
born in Ireland and came to America in boyhood ; 
was educated at the University of Pennsylvania 
and the Theological Seminary of the Reformed 
Presbyterian Chmxh, and ordained in 1818. 
Soon after this he came west as a domestic mis- 
sionary and, in 1820, became pastor of a church 
at Sparta, 111., where he remained until his death, 
March 20, 1872, after a pastorate of 52 years. 
During his pastorate the church sent out a dozen 
colonies to form new church organizations else- 
where. He is described as able, eloquent and 

WY3IA>', (Col.) John B., soldier, was born in 
Massachu.setts, Julv 12, 1817, and educated in the 

schools of that State until 14 years of age, when 
he became a clerk in a clothing store in his native 
town of Shrewsbury, later being associated with 
mercantile establishments in Cincinnati, and 
again in his native State. From 1846 to 1850 he 
was employed successively as a clerk in the car 
and machine shops at Springfield, Mass., then as 
Superintendent of Con.struction, and, later, as con- 
ductor on the New York & New Haven Railroad , 
finally, in 18.50, becoming Superintendent of the 
Connecticut River Railroad. In 1852 he entered 
the service of the Illinois Central Railroad Com- 
panj', assisting in the survey and construction of 
the line under Col. R. B. Mason, the Chief Engi- 
neer, and finally becoming Assistant Superin- 
tendent of the Northern Division. He was one 
of the original proprietors of the town of Amboy, 
in Lee County, and its first Mayor, also serving 
a second term. Having a for military 
affairs, he was usually connected with some mili- 
tary organization — while in Cincinnati being 
attached to a company, of which Prof. O. M. 
Mitchell, the celebrated astronomer (afterwards 
Major-General Mitchell), was Captain. After 
coming to Illinois he became Captain of the Clii- 
cago Light Guards. Having left the employ of 
the Railroad in 1858, he was in private business 
at Amboy at the beginning of the Civil War in 
1861. As Assistant- Adjutant General, by appoint- 
ment of Governor Yates, he rendered valuable 
service in the early weeks of the war in securing 
arms from Jefferson Barracks and in tlie organi- 
zation of the three-months' regiments. Then, 
liaving organized the Thirteenth Illinois Volun- 
teer Infantry — the first organized in the State 
for the three years' service — lie was commis- 
sioned its Colonel, and, in July following, entered 
upon the duty of guarding the railroad lines in 
Southwest Missouri and Arkansas. The follow- 
ing year his regiment was attached to General 
Sherman's command in the first campaign 
against Vicksburg. On the second day of the 
Battle of Chickasaw Bayou, he fell mortally 
wounded, dying on the field, Dec. 28, 1862. Colo- 
nel "VVyman was one of the most accomplished 
and promising of the volunteer soldiers sent to 
the field from Illinois, of whom so many were 
former employes of the Illinois Central Rail- 

WYOMING, a town of Stark County, 31 miles 
north-northwest from Peoria, at the junction of 
the Peoria branch Rock Island & Pacific and the 
Rushville branch of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy Railway ; has two high schools, churches, 
two banks, flour mills, water-works, machine 



shop, and two weekly newspapers. Coal is mined 
here. Pop. (1890), 1,116; (1900), 1,277. 

XEMA, a village of Clay County, on the Balti- 
more & Ohio Southwestern Railroad, 87 miles 
east of St. Louis. Population (1900), 800. 

YATES CITY, a village of Knox County, at the 
junction of the Peoria Division of the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy Railroad, with the Rushville 
branch, 23 miles southeast of Galesburg.' The 
town has banks, a coal mine, telephone exchange, 
school, churches and a newspaper. Pop. (1890), 
687; (1900), 650. 

YATES, Henry, pioneer, was born in Caroline 
County, Va., Oct. 29, 17S6 — being a grand-nephew 
of Chief Justice John Marshall ; removed to Fa- 
yette County, Ky., where he located and laid out 
the town of Warsaw, which afterwards became 
the county-seat of Gallatin County. In 1831 he 
removed to Sangamon County, 111., and, in 1832, 
settled at the site of the present town of Berlin, 
which he laid out the following year, also laying 
out the town of New Berlin, a few years later, on 
the line of the Wabash Railway. He was father 
of Gov. Richard Yates. Died, Sept. 13, 1865.— 
Henry (Yates), Jr., son of the preceding, was born 
at Berlin, 111., March 7, 1835; engaged in merchan- 
dising at New Berlin ; in 1862, raised a company 
of volunteers for the One Hundred and Sixth 
Regiment Illinois Infantry, was appointed Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel and brevetted Colonel and Briga- 
dier-General. He was accidentally shot in 1863, 
and suffered' sun-stroke at Little Rock, from 
which he never fully recovered. Died, August 
3, 1871. 

YATES, Richard, former Governor and United 
States Senator, was born at Warsaw, Kj-., Jan. 
18, 1815, of English descent. In 1831 he accom- 
panied his father to Illinois, the family settling 
first at Springfield and later at Berlin, Sangamon 
County. He soon after entered Illinois College, 
from which he graduated in 1835, and subse- 
quently read law with Col. John J. Hardin, at 
Jacksonville, which thereafter became his home. 
In 1842 he was elected Representative in the Gen- 
eral Assembly from Morgan County, and was 
re-elected in 1844, and again in 1848. In 1850 he 
was a candidate for Congress from the Seventh 
District and elected over JIaj. Thomas L. Harris, 
the previous incumbent, being the only Whig 
Representative in the Thirty-second Congress 
from Illinois. Two years later he was re-elected 
over John Calhoun, but was defeated, in 1854, 
by his old opponent, Harris. He was one of the 

most vigorous opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska 
Bill in the Thirty-third Congress, and an early 
participant in the movement for the organization 
of the Republican party to resist the further 
extension of slavery, being a prominent speaker, 
on the same platform with Lincoln, before the 
first Republican State Convention held at Bloom- 
ington, in May, 1856, and serving as one of the 
Vice-Presidents of that body. In 1860 he was 
elected to the executive chair on the ticket 
headed by Abraham Lincoln for the Presidency, 
and, by his energetic support of the National 
administration in its measures for the suppression 
of the Rebellion, won the sobriquet of "the Illi- 
nois War-Governor."' In 1865 he was elected 
United States Senator, serving until 1871. He 
died suddenly, at St. Louis, Nov. 27, 1873, while 
returning from Arkansas, whither he had gone, 
as a United States Commissioner, by appointment 
of President Grant, to inspect a land-subsidy 
railroad. He was a man of rare ability, earnest- 
ness of purpose and extraordinary personal mag- 
netism, as well as of a lofty order of patriotism. 
His faults were those of a nature generous, 
impulsive and warm-hearted. 

YORKYILLE, the county-seat of Kendall 
County, on Fox River and Streator Division of 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, 12 miles 
southwest of Aurora; on interurban electric line; 
has water-power, electric lights, a bank, churches 
and weekly newspaper. Pop.(1890) 375; (1900), 413. 

TOUXtx, Brigham, Mormon leader, was born 
at Whittingham, Vt., June 1, 1801, joined tlie 
Mormons in 1831 and, the next year, became asso- 
ciated with Joseph Smith, at Kirtland, Ohio, and, 
in 1885, an "apostle." He accompanied a con- 
siderable bod}^ of that sect to Independence, Mo. , 
but was driven out with them in 1837, settling 
for a short time at Quincy, 111. , but later remov- 
ing to Nauvoo, of which he was one of the foun- 
ders. On the assassination of Smith, in 1844, he 
became the successor of the latter, as head of the 
Mormon Church, and, the following year, headed 
the exodus from Illinois, which finally resulted in 
the Mormon settlement in Utah. His subsequent 
career there, where he was appointed Governor 
by President Fillmore, and, for a time, success- 
fully defied national authority, is a matter of • 
national rather than State history. He remained 
at the head of the Mormon Church until his 
death at Salt Lake City, August 29, 1877. 

YOUNG, Richard Montgomery, United States 
Senator, was born in Kentucky in 1796, studied 
law and removed to Jonesboro, 111., where he was 
admitted to the liar in 1817; served in tlie Second 



General Assembly (1820-22) as Representative 
from Union County; was a Circuit Judge, 1825-27; 
Presidential Elector in 1828 ; Circuit Judge again, 
1829-37 ; elected United States Senator in 1837 as 
successor to W. L. D. Ewing, serving until 1843, 
when he was commissioned Justice of the Su- 
preme Court, but resigned in 1847 to become 
Commissioner of the General Land Office at 
Washington. During the session of 18.i0-51, he 
served as Clerk of the National House of Repre- 
sentatives. Died, in an insane asylum, in Wash- 
ington, in 1853. . 

first permanently organized at Chicago, in 1858, 
although desultory movements of a kindred char- 
acter had previously been started at Peoria, 
Quincy, Chicago and Springfield, some as early 
as 1854. From 1858 to 1872, various associations 
were formed at different points throughout the 
State, which were entirely independent of each 
other. The first effort looking to union and 
mutual aid, was made in 1872, when Robert 
Weidensall, on behalf of the International Com- 
mittee, called a convention, to meet at Blooming- 
ton, November 6-9. State conventions have been 
held annually since 1872. In that of 1875, steps 
were taken looking to the appointment of a 
State Secretary, and, in 1876, Charles M. Morton 
assumed the office. Much evangelistic work was 
done, and new associations formed, the total 
number reported at tlie Cliampaign Convention, 
in 1877, being sixty-two. After one year's work 
Mr. Morton resigned the secretaryship, the office 
remaining vacant for three years. Tlie question 
of the appointment of a successor was discussed 
at the Decatur Convention in 1879, and, in April, 
1880, I. B. Brown was made State Secretary, and 
has occupied the position to the present time 
(1899). At the date of his appointment the 
official figures showed si.xteen a.ssociations in Illi- 
nois, with a total membership of 2,443, and prop- 
erty valued at $126,500, including building funds, 
the associations at Chicago and Aurora owning 
buildings. Thirteen officers were employed, 
none of them being in Chicago. Since 1880 the 
work has steadily grown, so that five Assistant 
State Secretaries are now employed. In 1886, a 
plan for arranging the State work under depart- 
mental administration was devised, but not put 
in operation until 1890. The present six depart- 
n'lents of supervision are: General Supervision, 
in charge of the State Secretary and his Assist- 
ants; railroad and city work; counties and 
towns; work among students; corresponding 
membership department, and office work. The 

two last named are under one executive liead, 
but each of the others in charge of an Assistant 
Secretary, who is responsible for its development 
The entire work is under the sujiervision of a 
State Executive Committee of twenty -seven 
members, one-third of whom are elected annually. 
Willis H. Herrick of Chicago has been its chair- 
man for several years. This body is appointed 
by a State convention composed of delegates 
from the local Associations. Of these there were, 
in October, 1898, 116, with a membership of 
15,888. The value of the property owned was 
§2,500,000. Twentj'-two occupy their own build- 
ings, of which five are for railroad men and one 
for students. Weekly gatherings for young men 
numbered 248, and there are now representatives 
or correspondents in 065 communities where no 
organization has been effected. .Scientific phys- 
ical culture is made a feature by 40 associations, 
and educational work has been largely developed. 
The enrollment in evening classes, during 1898-99, 
was 978. The building of the Chicago branch 
(erected in 1893) is the finest of its in the 
world. Recently a successful association has 
been formed among coal miners, and another 
among the first grade boys of the Illinois State 
Reformatory, while an extensive work lias been 
conducted at the camps of the Illinois National 

ZANE, Charles S., lawyer and jurist, was born 
in Cumberland County, X. J., March 2, 1831, of 
English and New England stock. At the age of 
19 he emigrated to Sangamon County, 111., for a 
time working on a farm and at brick-making. 
From 1852 to "55 he attended McKendree College, 
but did not graduate, and, on leaving college, 
engaged in teaching, at the same time reading 
law. In 1857 he was admitted to the bar and 
commenced practice at Springfield. The follow- 
ing year he was elected City Attorney. He had 
for partners, at different times, William H. 
Herndon (once a partner of Abraham Lincoln) 
and Senator Shelby M. CuUom. In 1873 he was 
elected a Judge of the Circuit Court for the Fifth 
Judicial Circuit, and was re-elected in 1879. In 
1883 President Arthur appointed him Chief Jus- 
tice of Utah, where he has since resided, though 
superseded by the appointment of a successor by 
President Cleveland. At the first State elec- 
tion in Utah, held in November, 1895, he was 
chosen one of the Judges of the Supreme Court 
of the new Commonwealth, but was defeated 
for re-election, by his Democratic opponent, in 

SCENES IX sorni i \ 

The I'orist.vlo. AtimiuistnUion P.iiililiii:,'. Gmmau r.iiildins. 


The following matter, reeeiyed too late for insertion In the body of this worli, is added In the form of a supplement. 

COGHLAA', (Capt.) Joseph Bullock, naval 
officer, was born in Kentucky, and, at the age of 
15 years, came to Illinois, living on a farm for a 
time near Carlyle, in Clinton County. In 1860 he 
was appointed by his uncle, Hon. Philip B. 
Fouke — then a Representative in Congress from 
the Belleville District — to the Naval Academy at 
Annapolis, graduating in 1863, and being pro- 
moted through the successive grades of Ensign, 
Master, Lieutenant, Lieutenant-Commander, and 
Couuuander, and serving upon various vessels 
until Nov. 18, 1893, when he was commissioned 
Captain and, in 1897, assigned to the command 
af the battlesliip Raleigh, on the Asiatic Station 
He was thus connected with Admiral Dewey's 
squadron at the beginning of the Spanish-Ameri- 
can War, and took a conspicuous and brilliant part 
in the affair in Manila Bay, on May 1, 1898, which 
resulted in the destruction of the Spanish fleet 
Captain Coghlan's connection with subsequent 
events in the Philippines was in the highest 
degree creditable to himself and the country. 
His vessel (the Raleigh) was the first of Admiral 
Dewey's squadron to return home, coming by 
way of the Suez Canal, in the summer of 1899, he 
and his crew receiving an immense ovation on 
their arrival in New York harbor. 

CRANE, (Rer.) James Lyons, clergyman, 
army chaplain, was born at Mt. Eaton, Wayne 
County, Ohio, August 30, 1833, united with the 
Methodist Episcopal Church at Cincinnati in 
1&41, and, coming to Edgar County, Illinois, in 
1843, attended a seminary at Paris some three 
years. He joined the Illinois Conference in 1846, 
and was assigned to the Danville circuit, after- 
wards presiding over charges at Grandview, Hills- 
boro, Alton, Jacksonville, and Springfield— at the 
last two points being stationed two or more 
times, besides serving as Presiding Elder of the 
Paris. Danville, and Springfield Districts. The 
importance of the stations which he filled during 
his itinerant career served as evidence of his 
recognized ability and popularity as a preacher. 

In July, 1861, he was appointed Chaplain of the 
Twenty-first Regiment Illinois Volunteers, at 
that time commanded by Ulysses S. Grant as 
Colonel, and, although he remained with the 
regiment only a few months, the friendship then 
established between him and the futme com- 
mander of the armies of the Union lasted through 
their lives. This was shown by his appointment 
by President Grant in 1869, to the position of 
Postmaster of the city of Springfield, which came 
to him as a personal compliment, being re 
appointed four years afterwards and continuing 
in office eight years. After retiring from tho 
Springfield postoffice, he occupied charges at 
Island Grove and Shelby ville, his death occurring 
at the latter place, July 39, 1879, as the result of 
an attack of paralysis some two weeks previous. 
Mr. Crane was married in 1847 to Miss Elizabeth 
Mayo, daughter of CoL J Mayo— a prominent 
citizen of Edgar County, at an early day— his 
wife surviving him some twenty years. Rev 
Charles A. Crane and Rev. Frank Crane, pastors 
of prominent Methodist churches in Boston and 
Chicago, are sons of the subject of this sketch. 

DAWES, Charles Gates, Comptroller of the 
Treasury, was born at Marietta, Ohio, August 27, 
1865; graduated from Marietta College in 1884, 
and from the Cincinnati Law School in 1886; 
worked at civil engineering diu-ing his vacations, 
finally becoming Chief Engineer of the Toledo & 
Ohio Railroad. Between 1887 and 1894 he was 
engaged in the practice of law at Lincoln, Neb., 
but afterwards became interested in the gas busi- 
ness in various cities, including Evanston, IlL, 
which became his home. In 1896 he took a lead- 
ing part in securing instructions by the RepubU 
can State Convention at Springfield in favor of 
the nomination of Mr. McKinley for the Presi- 
dency, and during the succeeding campaign 
served as a member of the National Republican 
Committee for the State of Illinois Soon after 
the accession of President McKinley, he was 
appointed Comptroller of the Treasury, a position 



which he now holds. Mr. Dawes is tlie son of 
R. B. Dawes, a former Congressman from Ohio, 
and the great-grandson of Manasseh Cutler, who 
was an influential factor in the early history of 
the Nortliwest Territory, and has been credited 
with exerting a strong influence in shaping and 
securing the adoption of the Ordinance of 1787. 

DISTIJr, (Col.) William L., former Depart- 
ment Commander of Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic for the State of Illinois, was born at 
Cincinnati, Ohio, Feb. 9, 1843, his father being of 
English descent, while his maternal grandfather 
was a Colonel of the Polish Lancers in the army 
af the first Napoleon, who, after the exile of his 
leader, came to America, settling in Indiana. 
The father of the subject of this sketch settled at 
Keokuk, Iowa, where the son grew to manhood 
and in February, 1863, enlisted as a private in the 
Seventeenth Iowa Infantry, having been twice 
rejected previously on account of physical ail- 
ment. Soon after enlistment he was detailed for 
provost-marshal duty, but later took part with 
his regiment in the campaign in Alabama. He 
served for a time in the Fifteenth Army Corps, 
under Gen. John A. Logan, was subsequently 
detailed for duty on the Staff of General Raum, 
and participated in the battles of Resaca and 
Tilton, Ga. Having been captured in the latter, 
he was imprisoned successively at Jacksonville 
(Ga.), Montgomery, Savannah, and finally at 
Andersonville. From the latter he succeeded in 
effecting his escape, but was recaptured and 
returned to that famous prison-pen. Having 
escaped a second time by assuming tlie name of 
a dead man and bribing tlie guard, he was again 
captured and imprisoned at various points in Mis- 
sissippi until exchanged about the time of the 
assassination of President Lincoln. He was then 
so weakened by his long confinement and scanty 
fare that he had to be carried on board the 
steamer on a stretcher. At this time lie narrowly 
escaped being on board the steamer Sultana, 
which was blown up below Cairo, with 2,100 
soldiers on board, a large proportion of whom lost 
their lives. After being mustered out at Daven- 
port, Iowa. June 28, 186.), he was employed for a 
time on the Des Moines Valley Railroad, and as a 
messenger and route agent of the United States 
Express Company. In 1873 he established him- 
self in business in Quincy, 111., in which he 
proved very successful. Here he became prom- 
inent in local Grand Army circles, and, in 1890, 
was unanimously elected Commander of the 
Department of Illinois. Previous to this he had 
been an officer of the Illinois National Guard, and 

served as Aid-de-Camp, with the rank of 
Colonel, on the staff of Governors Hamilton, | 

Oglesby and Fifer. In 1897 Colonel Distin was i 

appointed by President McKinley Surveyor-Gen- [ 

eral for the Territory of Alaska, a position which i 

(1899) he still holds. I 

DUMMER, Henry E., lawyer, was born at j 

Hallowell, Maine, April 9, 1808, was educated in ' 

Bowdoin College, graduating there in the class of ' 

1827, after which he took a course in law at Cam- 1 

bridge Law School, and was soon after admitted 1 

to the bar. Then, having spent some two years 
in his native State, in 1832 he removed to Illinois, 
settling first in Springfield, where he remained six 
years, being for a part of the time a partner of 
John T. Stuart, who afterwards became the first 
partner in law of Abraliam Lincoln. Mr. Dum- 
mer had a brother, Richard William Dummer, 
who had preceded him to Illinois, living for a 
time in Jacksonville. In 1838 he removed to 
Beardstown, Cass County, which continued to be 
his home for more than a quarter of a century. 
During his residence there he served as Alder- 
man, City Attorney and Judge of Probate for 
Cass County ; also represented Cass County in the 
Constitutional Convention of 1847, and, in 1860, 
was elected State Senator in the Twenty-second 
General Assembly, serving four years. Mr. 
Dummer was an earnest Republican, and served 
that party as a delegate for the State-at-large to 
the Convention of 1864, at Baltimore, which 
nominated Abraham Lincoln for the Presidency a 
second time. In 1864 he removed to Jackson- 
ville, and for the next year was the law partner 
of David A. Smith, until the death of the latter 
in 1865. In the summer of 1878 Mr. Dummer 
went to Mackinac, Mich., in search of health, but 
died tliere August 12 of that year. 

ECKELS, Jaines H., ex-Comptroller of the 
Currency, was born of Scotch-Irish parentage at 
Princeton, 111., Nov. 22, 1858, was educated in 
the common schools and the high school of his 
native town, graduated from the Law School at 
Albany, N. Y., in 1881, and the following year 
began practice at Ottawa, 111. Here he con- 
tinued in active practice until 1893, when he was 
appointed by President Cleveland Comptroller of 
the Currency, serving until May 1, 1898, when lie 
resigned to accept the presidency of the Com- 
mercial National Bank of Cliicago. Mr. Eckels 
manifested such distinguished ability in the dis- 
charge of his duties as Comptroller that he 
received the notable compliment of being 
retained in office by a Republican administration 
more than a year after the retirement of Presi- 


dent Cleveland, while his selection for a place at 
the head of one of the leading banking institu- 
tions of Chicago was a no less marked recognition 
of his abilities as a financier. He was a Delegate 
from the Eleventh District to the National 
Democratic Convention at Chicago in 1892, and 
repiesented the same district in the Gold Demo- 
cratic Convention at Indianapolis in 1896, and 
assisted in framing the platform there adopted — 
which indicated his views on the financial ques- 
tions involved in the campaign of that year. 

FIELD, Daniel, early merchant, was born in 
Jefferson County, Kentucky, Nov. 30, 1790, and 
settled at Golconda, 111., in 1818, dying there in 
1855. He was a man of great enterprise, engaged 
in merchandising, and became a large land- 
holder, farmer and stock-gi-ower, and an extensive 
shipper of stock and produce to lower Mississippi 
markets. He married Elizabeth Dailey of 
Charleston, Ind., and raised a large family of 
children, one of whom, Philip D., became Sheriff, 
while another, John, was County Judge of Pope 
County. His daughter, Maria, married Gen. 
Green B. Raum, who became prominent as a 
soldier during the Civil War and, later, as a mem- 
ber of Congress and Commissioner of Internal 
Revenue and Pension Commissioner in Wash- 

FIELD, Green B., member of a pioneer family, 
was born within the present limits of the State of 
Indiana in 1787, served as a Lieutenant in the 
War of 1813, was married in Bourbon County, 
Kentucky, to Miss Mary E. Cogswell, the 
daughter of Dr. Joseph Cogswell, a soldier of the 
Revolutionary War, and, in 1817, removed to 
Pope County, Illinois, where he laid off the town 
of Golconda, which became the county-seat. He 
served as a Representative from Pope County in 
the First General Assembly (1818-20), and was 
the father of Juliet C. Field, who became the 
wife of John Raum ; of Edna Field, the wife of 
Dr. Tarlton Dunn, and of Green B. Field, who 
was a Lieutenant in Third Regiment Illinois 
Volunteers during the Jlexican War. Mr. Field 
was the grandfather of Gen. Green B. Raum, 
mentioned in the preceding paragraph. He died 
of yellow fever in Louisiana in 1823. 

GALE, Stephen Francis, first Chicago book- 
seller and a railway promoter, was born at 
Exeter, N. H., March 8, 1812; at 15 years of age 
became clerk in a leading book-store in Boston ; 
came to Chicago in 183.i, and soon afterwards 
opened the first book and stationery establish- 
ment in that city, which, in after years, gained 
an extensive trade. In 1842 the firm of S. F. 

Gale & Co. was organized, but Mr. Gale, having 
become head of the Chicago Fire Department, 
retired from business in 1845 As early as 1846 
he was associated with W m. B. Ogden and John 
B. Turner in the steps then being taken to revive 
the Galena & Chicago Union Railroad (now a 
part of the Chicago & Northwestern), and, in 
conjunction with these gentlemen, became 
responsible for tlie means to purchase the charter 
and assets of the road from the Eastern bond- 
holders. Later, he engaged in the construction 
of the branch road from Turner Junction to 
Aurora, became President of the line and ex- 
tended it to Mendota to connect with the Illinois 
Central at that Point. These roads afterwards 
became a part of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy line. A number of years ago Mr. Gale 
returned to his old home in New Hampshire, 
where he has since resided. 

HAY, John, early settler, came to the region of 
Kaskaskia between 1790 and 1800, and became a 
prominent citizen of St. Clair County. He was 
selected as a member of the First Legislative 
Council of Indiana Territory for St. Clair County 
in 1805. In 1809 he was appointed Clerk of the 
Common Pleas Court of St. Clair County, and 
was continued in office after the organization of 
the State Government, serving until his death at 
Belleville in 1845. 

HAYS, John, pioneer settler of Northwest Ter- 
ritory, was a native of New York, who came to 
Cahokia, in the "Illinois Country," in 1793, and 
lived there the remainder of his life. His early 
life had been spent in the fur-trade about Macki- 
nac, in the Lake of the Woods region and about 
the sources of the Mississippi. During the War 
of 1813 he was able to furnish Governor Edwards 
valuable information in reference to the Indians 
in the Northwest. He filled the office of Post- 
master at Cahokia for a number of years, and was 
Sheriff of St. Clair County from 1798 to 1818. 

MOULTOX, (Col.) George M., soldier and 
building contractor, was born at Readsburg, Vt., 
March 15, 1851, came early in life to Chicago, and 
was educated in the schools of that citj-. By pro- 
fession he is a contractor and builder, the firm of 
which he is a member having been connected 
with the construction of a number of large build- 
ings, including some exten.sive grain elevators. 
Colonel Moulton became a member of the Second 
Regiment IlHnois National Guard in June, 1884, 
being elected to the office of Major, which he 
retained until January, 1893, when he was 
appointed Inspector of Rifle Practice on the staff 
of General Wheeler. A j-ear later he was com 




missioned Colonel of the regiment, a position 
which lie occupied at the time of the call by tlie 
Presiilent for troops to serve in the Spanish- 
American War in April, 181)8. He promptly 
answered the call, and was sworn into the United 
States service at the head of his regiment early 
in May. The regiment was almost immediately 
ordered to Jacksonville, Fla., remaining there 
and at Savannah, Ga., vintil early in December, 
when it was transferred to Havana, Cuba. Here 
he was soon after appointed Chief of Police for 
the city of Havana, remaining in office until the 
middle of January, 1899, when he returned to his 
regiment, then stationed at Camp Columbia, near 
the city of Havana. In the latter part of March 
lie returned with his regiment to Augusta, Ga., 
where it was mustered out, April 26, 1899, one 
year from the date of its arrival at Springfield. 
.Vfter leaving the service Colonel Moulton 
resumed his business as a contractor. 

SHERMAN, Lawrence Y., legislator and 
Speaker of the Forty-first General Assembly, was 
born in Miami County, Ohio, Nov. 6, 1858 ; at 3 
years of age came to Illinois, his parents settling 
at Industry, McDonough County. When he liad 
reached the age of 10 years he went to Jasper 
County, where he grew to manhood, received his 
education in the common schools and in the law 

department of McKendree College, graduating 
from the latter, and, in 1881, located at Macomb, 
McDonough County. Here he began his career 
bj- driving a team upon the street in order to 
accumulate means enabling him to devote his 
entire attention to his chosen profession of law. 
He soon took an active interest in jxilitics, was 
elected County Judge in 1886, and, at the expira 
tion of his term, formed a partnership with 
George D. Tunnicliffe and D. G. TunnicHfife, 
ex-Justice of the Supreme Court. In 1894 he was 
a candidate for the Republican nomination for 
Representative in the General Assembly, but 
withdrew to prevent a split in the party; was 
nominated and elected in 1896, and re-elected in 
1898, and, at the succeeding session of I'.ie 
Forty-first General A.ssembly, was nominated 
by the Republican caucus and elected .Speaker, 
as he was again of the Forty -second in 1901. 

VINYARD, Philip, early legislator, was born 
in Pennsylvania in 1800, came to Illinois at an 
early day, and settled in Pope County, which he 
represented in the lower branch of the Thirteenth 
and Fourteenth General Assemblies. He married 
Miss Matilda McCoy, the daughter of a prominent 
Illinois pioneer, and served as Sheriff of Pope 
County for a number of years. Died, at Gol- 
conda, in 1863, 


BLACK HAWK WAR, THE. The episode 
known in history under the name of "The Black 
Hawk War," was the most formidable conflict 
between the whites and Indians, as well as the 
most far-reaching in its results, that ever oc- 
curred upon the soil of Illinois. It takes its 
name from the Indian Chief, of the Sac tribe, 
Black Hawk (Indian name, Makatai Meshekia- 
kiak, meaning "Black Sparrow Hawk"), who 
was the leader of the hostile Indian band and a 
principal factor in the struggle. Black Hawk 
had been an ally of the British during the War 
of 1812 15, served with Tecuinseh when the lat- 
ter fell at the battle of the Tliames in 1813, and, 
after the war, continued to maintain friendly re- 
lations with his "British father." Tlie outbreak 

in Illinois had its origin in the construction 
put upon the treaty negotiated by Gen. William 
Henry Harrison with the Sac and Fox Indians 
on behalf of the United States Government, No- 
vember 3, 1804, under which the Indians trans- 
ferred to the Government nearly 15,000,000 acres 
of land comprising the region lying between the 
Wisconsin River on the north, Fox River of Illi- 
nois on the east and southeast, and the Mississippi 
on the west, for which the Government agreed to 
pay to the confederated tribes less than $2, .500 in 
goods and the insignificant sum of §1,000 per an- 
num in perpetuity. While the validity of the 
treaty was denied on the part of the Indians on the 
ground that it had originally been entered into by 
their chiefs under duress, while held as prisoners 



under a charge of murder at Jefferson Barracks, 
during which they had been kept iu a state of con- 
stant intoxication, it had been repeatedly reaf- 
firmed by parts or all of the tribe, especially in 
1815, iu 1816, in 1822 and in 1823, and finally recog- 
nized by Black Hawk himself in i831. The part of 
the treaty of 1804 which was the immediate cause 
of the disagreement was that which stipulated 
that, so long as the lands ceded under it remained 
the property of the United States (that is, should 
not be transferred to private owners), ' 'the Indians 
belonging to the said tribes shall enjoy the priv- 
ilege of living or hunting upon them." Al- 
though these lands had not been put upon the 
market, or even surveyed, as "squatters'" multi- 
plied in this region little respect was paid to the 
treaty rights of the Indians, particularly with 
reference to those localities where, by reason of 
fertility of the soil or some other natural advan- 
tage, the Indians had established something like 
permanent homes and introduced a sort of crude 
cultivation. This was especially the case with 
reference to the Sac village of "Saukenuk" on 
the north bank of Rock River near its mouth, 
where the Indians, when not absent on the chase, 
had lived for over a century, had cultivated 
fields of corn and vegetables and had buried their 
dead. In the early part of the last century, it is 
estimated that some five hundred families had 
been accustomed to congregate here, making it 
the largest Indian village in the West. As early 
as 1823 the encroachments of squatters on the 
rights claimed by the Indians under the treaty 
of 180-t began ; their fields were taken possession 
of by the intruders, their lodges uurned and their 
women and children whipped and driven away 
during the absence of the men on their annual 
hunts. Tlie dangers resulting from these con- 
flicts led Governor Edwards, as early as 1828, to 
demand of the General Government the expul- 
sion of the Indians from Illinois, which resulted 
in an order from President Jackson in 1829 for 
their removal west of the Mississippi. On appli- 
cation of Col. George Davenport, a trader of 
much influence with the Indians, the time was 
extended to April 1, 1830. During the preceding 
year Colonel Davenport and the firm of Davenport 
and Farnham bought from the United States Gov- 
ernment most of the lands on Rock River occupied 
by Black Hawk"s band, with the intention, as has 
been claimed, of permitting the Indians to remain. 
This was not so imderstood by Black Hawk, who 
was greatly incensed, although Davenport ofi^ered 
to take other lands from the Government in ex- 
change or cancel the sale — an arrangement to 

which President Jackson would not consent. On 
their return in the spring of 1830, the Indians 
found whites in possession of their village. Pre- 
vented from cultivating their fields, and their 
annual hunt proving unsuccessful the following 
winter proved for them one of great hardship. 
Black Hawk, having made a visit to his " British 
father"' (the British Agent) at Maiden, Canada, 
claimed to have received words of sympathy and 
encouragement, which induced him to determine 
to regain possession of their fields. In this he 
was encouraged by Neapope, his second in com- 
mand, and by assurance of support from White 
Cloud, a half Sac and half Winnebago — known 
also as " The Prophet "" — whose village (Prophet"s 
Town) was some forty miles from the mouth 
of Rock River, and through whom Black Hawk 
claimed to have leceived promises of aid in guns, 
ammunition and provisions from the British. 
The reappearance of Black Hawk's band in the 
vicinity of his old haunts, in the spring of 1831, 
produced a wild panic among the frontier settlers. 
Messages were hurried to Governor Reynolds, 
who had succeeded Governor Edwards in De- 
cember previous., appealing for protection against 
the savages. The Governor issued a call for 700 
volunteers " to remove the band of Sac Indians " 
at Rock Island beyond the Mississippi. Al 
though Gen. E. P. Gaines of the regular army, 
commanding the military district, thought the 
regulars sufficiently strong to cope with the situa- 
tion, the Governor's proclamation was respondea 
to by more than twice the number called for 
The volunteers assembled early in June, 1831, at 
Beardstown, the place of rendezvous named in 
the call, and having been organized into two regi- 
ments under command of Col. James D. Henrj and 
Col. Daniel Lieb, with a spy battalion under Gen. 
Joseph Duncan, marched across the country and, 
after effecting a junction with General Gaines' 
regulars, appeared before Black Hawk's village on 
the 2.5th of June. In the meantime General 
Gaines, having learned that the Pottawatomies, 
Winnebagos and Kickapoos had promised to join 
the Sacs in their uprising, asked the assistance of 
the battalion of mounted men previously offered 
by Governor Reynolds. The combined armies 
amounted to 2,. 500 men, while the fighting force 
of the Indians was 300. Finding himself over- 
whelmingly outnumbered. Black Hawk withdrew 
under cover of night to the west side of the Missis- 
sippi After burning the village, General Gaines 
notified Black Hawk of his intention to pursue 
and attack his band, which had the effect to 
bring the fugitive chief to the General's head- 



quarters, where, on June 30, a new treatj- was 
entered into by which lie bound himself and his 
people to remain west of the Mississippi unless 
permitted to return by the United States. This 
ended the campaign, and the volunteers returned 
to their homes, although the affair had produced 
an intense excitement along the whole frontier, 
and involved a heavy expense. 

The next winter was spent by Black Hawk and 
his band on the site of old Fort Madison, in tlie 
present State of Iowa. Dissatisfied and humil- 
iated by his repulse of the previous year, in disre- 
gard of his pledge to General Games, on April 6, 
1882, at the head of 500 warriors and their fam- 
ilies, he again crossed the Mississippi at Yel- 
low Banks about the site of the present city of 
Oquawka, fifty miles below Rock Island, with the 
intention, as claimed, if not permitted to stop at 
his old village, to proceed to the Prophet's Town 
and raise a crop with the Winnebagoes. Here he 
was met by The Prophet with renewed assurances 
of aid from the Winnebagoes, which was still 
further strengthened by promises from the Brit- 
ish Agent received through a visit by Neapope to 
Maiden the previous autumn. An incident of this 
Invasion was the effective warning given to the 
white settlers by Shabona, a friendly Ottawa 
chief, which probably had the effect to prevent 
a widespread massacre. Besides the towns of 
Galena and Chicago, the settlements in Illinois 
north of Fort Clark (Peoria) were limited to some 
thirty families on Bureau Creek with a few 
cabins at Hennepin, Peru, LaSalle. Ottawa. In- 
dian Creek, Dixon, Kellogg's Grove, Apple Creek, 
and a few other points. Gen. Henry Atkinson, 
commanding the regulars at Fort Armstrong 
(Rock Island), having learned of the arrival of 
Black Hawk a week after he crossed the Missis- 
sippi, at once took steps to notify Governor Rey- 
nolds of the situation with a requisition for an 
adequate force of militia to cooperate with the 
regulars. Under date of April 16, 1832, the Gov- 
ernor issued his call for "a strong detachment of 
militia " to meet by April 22, Beardstown again 
being named as a place of rendezvous. The call 
resulted in the assembling of a force which was 
organized into four regiments under command of 
Cols. John DeWitt, Jacob Fry, John Thomas and 
Samuel M. Thompson, together with a spy bat- 
talion under Maj James D. Henry, an odd bat- 
talion under Maj. Thomas James and a foot 
battalion under Maj. Thomas Long. To these were 
subsequently added two independent battalions 
of mounted men. under command of Majors 
Isaiah Stillman and David Bailey, which were 

finally consolidated as the Fifth Regiment under 
command of Col. James Johnson. The organiza- 
tion of the first four regiments at Beardstown 
was completed by April 27, and the force under 
command of Brigadier-General Whiteside (but 
accompanied by Governor Reynolds, who was 
allowed pay as Major General by the General 
Government) began its march to Fort Armstrong, 
arriving there May 7 and being mustered into the 
United States service. Among others accompany- 
ing the expedition who were then, or afterwards 
became, noted citizens of the State, were Vital 
Jarrot, Adjutant-General; Cyrus Edwards, Ord- 
nance Officer; Murray McConnel, Staff Officer, 
and Abraham Lincoln, Captain of a company of 
volunteers from Sangamon County in the Fourth 
Regiment. Col. Zachary Taylor, then commander 
of a regiment of regulars, arrived at Fort Arm- 
strong about the same time with reinforcements 
from Fort Leavenworth and Fort Crawford. The 
total force of militia amounted to 1,935 men, and 
of regulars about 1,000. An interesting story is 
told concerning a speech delivered to the volun- 
teers by Colonel Taylor about this time. After 
rendnding them of their duty to obey an order 
promptly, the future hero of the Mexican War 
added: "The safety of all depends upon the obe- 
dience and courage of all. You are citizen sol- 
diers; some of you may fill high offices, or even be 
Presidents some day — but not if you refuse to do 
your duty. Forward, march!" A curious com- 
mentary upon this speech is furnished in the fact 
that, while Taylor himself afterwards became 
President, at least one of his hearers — a volunteer 
who probably then had no aspiration to that dis- 
tinction (Abraham Lincoln) — reached the same 
position during the most dramatic period in the 
nation's history. 

Two days after the arrival at Fort Armstrong, 
the advance up Rock River began, the main force 
of the voliinteers proceeding by land under Gen- 
eral Whiteside, while General Atkinson, with 
400 regular and 300 volunteer foot soldiers, pro- 
ceeded by boat, carrying with him the artillery, 
provisions and bulk of the baggage. Whiteside, 
advancing by the east bank of the river, was the 
first to arrive at the Prophet's Town, which, 
finding deserted, he pushed on to Dixon's Ferry 
(now Dixon), where he arrived Slay 12. Here he 
found the independent battalions of Stillman and 
Bailey with ammunition and supplies of which 
Whiteside stood in need. The mounted battalions 
under command of Major Stillman. having been 
sent forward by Whiteside as a scouting party, 
left Dixon on the 13th and, on the afternoon of 



the next da}', went into camp in a strong position 
near the mouth of Sycamore Creek. As soon dis- 
covered, Black Hawk was in camp at the same 
time, as he afterwards claimed, with about forty 
of his braves, on Sycamore Creek, three miles 
distant, while the greater part of his band were en- 
camped with the more war-like faction of the Pot- 
tawatomies some seven miles farther north on the 
Kishwaukee River. As claimed by Black Hawk 
in his autobiography, having been disappointed in 
his expectation of forming an alliance with the 
Winnebagoes and the Pottawatomies, he had at 
this juncture determined to return to the west 
side of the Mississippi. Hearing of the arrival of 
Stilhnan's command in the vicinity, and taking 
it for granted that this was the whole of Atkin- 
son's command, he sent out three of his young 
men with a white flag, to arrange a parley and 
convey to Atkinson his offer to meet the latter in 
council. These were captured by some of Still- 
man's band regardless of their flag of truce, while 
a party of five other braves who followed to ob- 
serve the treatment received by the flagbearers, 
were attacked and two of their number killed, the 
the other three escaping to their camp. Black 
Hawk learning the fate of his truce party was 
aroused to the fiercest indignation. Tearing the 
flag to pieces with which he had intended to go 
into council with the whites, and appealing to his 
followers to avenge the murder oftheir comrades, 
he prepared for the attack. The rangers num- 
bered 27.5 men, while Black Hawk's band has been 
estimated at less than forty. As the rangers 
caught sight of the Indians, they rushed forward 
in pell-mell fashion. Retiring behind a fringe 
of bushes, the Indians awaited the attack. As 
the rangers approached, Black Hawk and his 
party rose up with a war whoop, at the same time 
opening fire on their assailants. The further 
history of the affair was as much of a disgrace to 
Stillman's command as had been their desecra- 
tion of the flag of truce. Thrown into panic by 
their reception by Black Hawk's little band, the 
rangers turned and, without firing a shot, began 
the retreat, dashing through their own camp and 
abandoning everything, which fell into the hands 
of the Indians. An attempt was made by one or 
two oflScers and a few of their men to check the 
retreat, but without success, the bulk of the fu- 
gitives continuing their mad rush for safety 
through the night until they reached Dixon, 
twenty-flve miles distant, while many never 
stopped until they reached their homes, forty 
or fifty miles distant. The casualties to the 
rangers amounted to eleven killed and two 

wounded, while the Indian loss consisted of two 
spies and one of the flag-bearers, treacherously 
killed near Stillman's camp. j.'iis ill-starred af- 
fair, which has passed into history is "Stillman's 
defeat," produced a general panic aloui the fron- 
tier by inducing an exaggerated estimate of tlie 
strength of the Indian force, while it led h'lack 
Hawk to form a poor opinion of the courage .: f 
the white troops at the same time that it led to 
an exalted estimate of the prowess of his own 
little band — thus becoming an important factor 
in prolonging the war and in the bloody massacres 
which followed. Whiteside, with his force of 
1,400 men, advanced to the scene of the defeat 
the next day and buried the dead, while on the 
19th, Atkinson, with his force of regulars, pro- 
ceeded up Rock River, leaving the remnant of 
Stillman's force to guard the wounded and sup- 
plies at Dixon. No sooner had he left than the 
demoralized fugitives of a few days before de- 
serted their post for their homes, compelling At- 
kinson to return for the protection of his base of 
supplies, while Whiteside was ordered to follow 
the trail of Black Hawk who had started up the 
Kishwaukee for the swamps about Lake Kosh- 
konong, nearly west of Milwaukee within the 
present State of Wisconsin. 

At this point the really active stage of the 
campaign began. Black Hawk, leaving the 
women and children of his band in the fastnesses 
of the swamps, divided his followers into two 
bands, retaining about 200 mider his own com- 
mand, while the notorious half-breed, MikeGirty, 
ledaband of one hundred renegadePottawatomies. 
Returning to the vicinity of Rock Island, he 
gathered some recruits from the Pottawatomies 
and Winnebagoes, and the work of rapine and 
massacre among the frontier settlers began. One 
of the most notable of these was the Indian 
Creek Massacre in LaSalle County, about twelve 
miles north of Ottawa, on May 21, when sixteen 
persons wei-e killed at the Home of William 
Davis, and two young girls — Sylvia and Rachel 
Hall, aged, respectively, 17 and 1-5 years— were 
carried away captives. The girls were subse- 
quently released, having been ransomed for $2,000 
in horses and trinkets through a Winnebago 
Chief and surrendered to sub-agent Henry 
Gratiot Great as was the emergency at this 
juncture, the volunteers began to manifest evi- 
dence of dissatisfaction and. claiming that they 
had served out their term of enlistment, refused 
to follow the Indians into the swamps of Wis 
cousin. As the result of a council of war. the 
volunteers were ordered to Ottawa, where thev 



were mustered out on Jlay 28. by Lieut. Robt. 
Anderson, afterwards General Anderson of Fort 
Sumter fame. Meanwhile Governor Reynolds had 
issued his call (with that of 1831 the third,) for 
2,000 men to serve during the war. Gen. 
Winfield Scott was also ordered from the East 
with 1,000 regulars although, owing to cholera 
breaking out among the troops, they did not 
arrive in time to take part in the campaign. The 
rank and file of volunteers responding under the 
new call was 3,148, with recruits and regulars 
then in Illinois making an army of 4,000. Pend- 
ing the arrival of the troops under the new call, 
and to meet an immediate emergency, 300 men 
were enlisted from the disbanded rangers for a 
period of twenty daj'S, and organized into a 
regiment under command of Col. Jacob Fry, 
with James D. Henry as Lieutenant Colonel and 
John Thomas as Iilajor. Among those who en- 
listed as privates in this regiment were Brig.- 
Gen. Whiteside and Capt. Abraham Lincoln. A 
regiment of five companies, numbering 195 men, 
from Putnam County under command of Col. 
John Strawn, and another of eight companies 
from Vermilion County under Col. Isaac R. 
Moore, were organized and assigned to guard 
duty for a period of twenty days. 

The new volunteers were rendezvoused at Fort 
Wilbourn, nearly ojiposite Peru. June 15, and 
organized into three brigades, each consisting of 
three regiments and a spy battalion. The First 
Brigade (915 strong) was placed under command 
of Brig. -Gen. Alexander Posey, the Second 
under Gen. Milton K. Alexander, and the third 
under Gen. James D. Henr^-. Others who served 
as officers in some of these several organizations, 
and afterwards became prominent in State his- 
tory, were Lieut. -Col. Gurdon S. Hubbard of the 
Vermilion County regiment ; John A. MoClem- 
and, on the staff of General Posey ; Maj. John 
Dement ; then State Treasurer ; Stinson H. Ander- 
son, afterwards Lieutenant-Governor; Lieut. - 
Gov. Zadoc Casey; Maj., William McHenry; 
Sidney Breese (afterwards Judge of the State 
Supreme Court and United States Senator) ; W. 
L. D. Ewing (as Major of a spy battalion, after- 
wards United States Senator and State Auditor) ; 
Alexander W. Jenkins (afterwards Lieutenant- 
Governor) ; James W. Semple (afterwards United 
States Senator) ; and William Weatherford (after- 
wards a Colonel in the Mexican War), and many 
more. Of the Illinois troops, Posey's brigade 
was assigned to the duty of dispersing the Indians 
between Galena and Rock River, Alexander's sent 
to intercept Black Hawk up the Rock River, 

while Henry's remained with Gen. Atkinson at 
Dixon. During the next two weeks engage- 
ments of a more or less serious charactei were 
had on the Pecatonica on the southern lx>rder of 
the present State of Wisconsin ; at Apple River 
Fort fourteen miles east of Galena, which was 
successfully defended against a force under Black 
Hawk himself, and at Kellogg's Grove the next 
day (June 25), when the same band ambushed 
Maj. Dement's spy battalion, and cam*! near in- 
flicting a defeat, which was prevented by 
Dement's coolness and the timely arrival of re- 
inforcements. In the latter engagement the 
whites lost five killed besides 47 horses which had 
been tethered outside their lines, the loss of the 
Indians being sixteen killed. Skirmishes also 
occurred with varying results, at Plum River 
Fort, Burr Oak Grove, Sinsiniwa and Blue 
Mounds — the last two within the present State of 

Believing the bulk of the Indians to be camped 
in the vicinity of Lake Koshkonong, General 
Atkinson left Dixon June 27 with a combined 
force of regulars and volunteers numbering 2,600 
men— .the volunteers being under the command 
of General Henry. They reached the outlet of the 
Lake July 2, but found no Indians, being joined 
two daj-s later by General Alexander'sbrigade.and 
on the 6th by Gen. Posey's. From here the com- 
mands of Generals Henry and Alexander were 
sent for supplies to Fort Winnebago, at the Port- 
age of the Wisconsin; Colonel Ewing, with the 
Second Regiment of Posey's brigade descending 
Rock River to Dixon, Posey with the remainder, 
going to Fort Hamilton for the protection of 
settlers in the lead-mining region, while Atkin- 
son, advancing with the regulars up Lake Koshko- 
nong, began the erection of temjx)rary fortifica- 
tions on Bark River near the site of the present 
village of Fort Atkinson. At Fort Winnebago 
Alexander and Henry obtained evidence of the 
actual location of Black Hawk's camp through 
Pierre Poquette, a half-breed scout and trader 
in the employ of the American Fur Company, 
whom they employed with a number of Winne 
bagos to act as guides. From this point Alex- 
ander's command returned to General Atkinson's 
headquarters, carrying with them twelve day's 
provisions for the main army, while General 
Henry's(600 strong), with Major Dodge's battalion 
numbering 150, with an equal quantity of supplies 
for themselves, started under the guidance of 
Poquette and his Winnebago aids to find Black 
Hawk's camp. Arriving on the 18tli at the 
Winnebago village on Rock River where Black 



Hawk and his band liad been located, their camp 
was found deserted, the Winnebagos insisting 
that they had gone to Cranberry ( now Horicon) 
Lake, a half-day's march up the river. Messen- 
gers were immediately dispatched to Atkinson's 
headquarters, thirt.y-five miles distant, to ap- 
prise him of this fact. When they had proceeded 
about half the distance, they struck a broad, 
fresh trail, which proved to be that of Black 
Hawk's band headed westward toward the iMis- 
sissippi. The guide having de.serted them in 
order to warn his tribesmen that further dis- 
sembling to deceive the whites as to 
the whereabouts of the Sacs was use- 
less, the messengers were compelled to follow 
him to General Henry's camp. The discovery pro- 
duced the wildest enthusiasm among the volun- 
teers, and from this time-events followed in rapid 
succession. Leaving as far as possible all incum- 
brances behind, the pursuit of the fTi^i,.ives was 
begun without delay, the troops wading through 
swamps sometimes in water to their armpits. 
Soon evidence of the character of the flight the 
Indians were making, in the shape of exhausted 
horses, blankets, and camp equipage cast aside 
along the trail, began to appear, and straggling 
bands of Winnebagos, who had now begun to 
desert Black Hawk, gave information that the 
Indians were only a few miles in advance. On 
the evening of the 20th of July Henry's forces 
encamped at "The Four Lakes," the present 
site of the city of Madison, Wis. , Black Hawk's 
force lying in ambush the same night seven or 
eight miles distant. During the next afternoon 
the rear-guard of the Indians under Xeapope was 
overtaken and skirmishing continued until the 
bluffs of the Wisconsin were reached. Black 
Hawk's avowed object was to protect the passage 
of the main body of his people across the stream. 
The loss of the Indians in these skirmishes has 
been estimated at 40 to 68, while Black Hawk 
claimed that it was only six killed, the loss of 
the whites being one killed and eight wounded. 
During the night Black Hawk succeeded in 
placing a considerable number of the women and 
children and old men on a raft and in canoes 
obtained from the Winnebagos, and sent them 
down the river, believing that, as non-combat- 
ants, they would be permitted by the regulars 
to pass Fort Crawford, at the mouth of the Wis- 
consin, undisturbed. In this he was mistaken. 
A force sent from the fort under Colonel Ritner to 
intercept them, fired mercilessly upon the help- 
less fugitives, killing fifteen of their number, 
while about fifty were drowned and thirty -two 

and children made prisoners. The re- 
mainder, escaping into the woods, with few ex- 
ceptions died from starvation and exposure, or 
■were massacred by their enemies, the Menomi- 
nees, acting under white officers. During the 
night after the battle of Wisconsin Heights, a 
loud, shrill voice of some one speaking in an un- 
known tongue was heard in the direction where 
Black Hawk's band was supposed to be. This 
caused something of a panic in Henry's camp, as 
it was supposed to come from some one giving 
orders for. un attack. It was afterwards learned 
that the speaker was Neapope speaking in the 
Winnebago language in the hope that he might 
be heard by Poquette and the Winnebago guides. 
He was describing the helpless condition of his 
people, claiming that the war had been forced 
upon them, that their women and children were 
starving, and that, if permitted peacefully to re- 
cross the Mississippi, they would give no further 
trouble. Unfortunately Poquette and the other 
guides had left for Fort Winnebago, so that no 
one was there to translate Neapope's appeal and 
it failed of its object. 

General Henry 's force having discovered that the 
Indians had escaped — Black Hawk heading with 
the bulk of his warriors towards the Mississippi — 
spent the next and day night on the field, but on 
the following day (July 23) started to meet General 
Atkinson, who had, in the meantime, been noti- 
fied of the pursuit. The head of their columns 
met at Blue Mounds, the same evening, a com- 
plete junction between the regulars and the 
volunteers being effected at Helena, a deserted 
village on the Wisconsin. Here by using the 
logs of the deserted cabins for rafts, the army 
crossed the river on the 3Tth and the 28th and the 
pursuit of black Hawk's fugitive band was re- 
newed. Evidence of their famishing condition 
■was found in the trees stripped of bark for food, 
the carcasses of dead ponies, with here and there 
the dead body of an Indian. 

On August 1, Black Hawk's depleted .and famish- 
ing band reached the Mississippi two miles below 
the mouth of the Bad Ax, an insignificant 
stream, and immediately began trying to cross 
the river ; but having only two or three canoes, 
the work was slow.- About the middle of the 
afternoon the steam transport, "Warrior," ap- 
peared on the scene, having on board a score of 
regulars and volunteers, returning from a visit 
to the village of the Sioux Chief, Wabasha, to 
notify him that his old enemies, the Sacs, were 
headed in that direction. Black Hawk raised the 
white flag in token of surrender but the officer 



in command claiming tliat he feared treacherj- or 
an ambush, demanded that Black Hawk should 
come on board. This lie was unable to do, as he 
had no canoe. After waiting a few minutes a 
murderous fire of canister and musketry was 
opened from the steamer on the few Indians on 
shore, who made such feeble resistance as they 
were able. The result was the killing of one 
white man and twenty -three Indians. After this 
exploit the "Warrior" proceeded to Prairie du 
Chien. twelve or fifteen miles distant, for fuel. 
During the night a few more of the Indians 
crossed the river, but Black Hawk, seeing the 
hopelessness of further resistance, accompanied 
by the Prophet, and taking with him a party of 
ten warriors and thirty-five squaws and children, 
fled in the direction of "the dells" of the Wis- 
consin. On the morningof the 2d General Atkinson 
arrived within four or five miles of the Sac 
position Disposing his forces with the regulars 
and Colonel Dodge's rangersin the center. the brig- 
ades of Posey and Alexander on the right and 
Henrys on the left, he began the pursuit, but 
was drawn by the Indian decoys up the river 
from the place where the main body of the 
Indians were trying to cross the stream. This 
had the effect of leaving General Henry in the rear 
pi'actically without orders, but it became the 
means of making his command the prime factors 
in the climax which followed. Some of the spies 
attached to Henry's command having accidental- 
ly- discovered the trail of the main body of the fu- 
gitives, he began the pursuit without waiting for 
orders and soon found himself engaged with some 
300 savages, a force nearly equal to his own. It 
was here that the only thing like a regular battle 
occurred. Tlie savages fought with the fury of 
despair, while Henry's force was no doubt nerved 
to greater deeds of courage by the insult which 
they conceived had been put upon them by Gen- 
eral Atkinson. Atkinson, hearing the battle in 
progress and discovering that he was being led 
off on a false scent, .soon joined Henry's force 
with his main army, and the steamer " WaiTior," 
arriving from Prairie du Chien, opened a fire of 
canister upon the pent-up Indians. The battle 
soon degenerated into a massacre. In the course 
of the three hours through wliich it lasted, it is es- 
timated that 150 Indians were killed by fire from 
the troops, an equal number of both sexes and 
all ages drowned while attempting to cross the 
river or by being driven into it, while about 50 
(chiefly women and children) were made prison- 
ers The loss of the whites was 20 killed and 13 
wounded. When the ■battle" was nearing its 

close it is said that Black Hawk, having repented 
the abandonment of liis people, returned within 
sight of the battle-ground, but seeing the slaugh- 
ter in progress which he was jx) werless to avert, he 
turned and, with a howl of rage and horror, fled 
into the forest. About 300 Indians (mostly non- 
combatants) succeeded in cros.sing the river in a 
condition of exhaustion from hunger and fatigue, 
but these were set upon by the Sioux under Chief 
Wabasha, through the suggestion and agency of 
General Atkinson, and nearly one-half their num- 
ber exterminated. Of the remainder many died 
from wounds and exhaustion, while still others 
perished while attempting to reach Keokuk's band 
who had refused to join in Black Hawk's desper- 
ate venture. Of one thousand who crossed to the 
east side of the river with Black Hawk in April, 
it is estimated that not more than 150 survived 
the tragic events of the next four months. 

General Scott, having arrived at Prairie du Chien 
earl}' in August, assumed command and, on 
August 15, mustered out the volunteers at Dixon. 
111. After witnessing the bloody climax at the 
Bad Axe of his ill-starred invasion. Black Hawk 
fled to the dells of the Wisconsin, where he and 
the Prophet surrendered themselves to the Win- 
nebagos, by whom they were delivered to the 
Indian Agent at Prairie du Chien. Having been 
taken to Fort Armstrong on September 21, he 
there signed a treaty of peace. Later he was 
taken to Jefferson Barracks (near St. Louis) in 
the custody of Jefferson Davis, then a Lieutenant 
in the regular army, where he was held a captive 
during the following winter. Tlie connection of 
Davis with the Black Hawk War, mentioned by 
many historians, seems to have been confined to 
this act. In April, 1833, with the Prophet and 
Xeapope, he was taken to Washington and then 
to Fortress Monroe, where the,v were detained as 
prisoners of war until June 4. when they were 
released. Black Hawk, after being taken to many 
principal cities in order to impress him %vith the 
strength of the American nation, was brought to 
Fort Armstrong, and there committed to the 
guardianship of his rival, Keokuk, but survived 
this humiliation only a few years, dying on a 
small reservation set apart for him in Davis 
County, Iowa. October 3, 1838. 

Such is the story of the Black Hawk War, the 
most notable struggle with the aborigines in Illi- 
nois history. At its beginning both the State 
and national authorities were grossly misled bv 
an exaggerated estimate of the strength of Black 
Hawk's force as to numbers and his plans for 
recovering the site of his old village, while 



Black Hawk had conceived a low estimate of the 
numbers and coui'age of his white enemies, es- 
pecially after the Stillman defeat. The cost of 
the war to the State and nation in money has been 
estimated at S'2, 000,000, and in sacrifice of life 
on both sides at not less than 1,200. The loss of 
life by the troops in irregular skirmishes, and in 
massacres of settlers by the Indians, aggregated 
about 250, while an equal number of regulars 
perished from a visitation of cholera at the 
various stations within tlie district affected bj- 
the war, especially at Detroit, Chicago, Foi-t 
Armstrong and Galena. Yet it is the judgment 
of later historians that nearly all this sacrifice of 
life and treasm-e might have been avoided, but 
for a series of blunders due to the blind or un- 
scrupulous policy of ofticials or interloping squat- 
ters upon lands which the Indians had occupied 
under the treaty of 1804. A conspicious blunder — 
to call it by no harsher name — was 
the violation by Stillman s command of the 
rules of civilized warfare in the attack made 
upon Black Hawk's messengers, sent under 
flag of truce to request a conference to settle 
terms under which he might return to the west 
side of the Mississippi — an act which resulted in 
a humiliating and disgraceful defeat for its 
authors and proved the first step in actual war. 
Another misfortune was the failure to understand 
Neapope's appeal for peace and permission for his 
people to pass beyond the Mississippi the night 
after the battle of Wisconsin Heights; and the 
thii-d and most inexcusable bhmder of all, was 
the refusal of the officer- in command of the 
"Warrior "' to respect Black Hawk's flag of truce 
and request for a conference just before the 
bloody massacre which has gone into history 
under the name of the " battle of the Bad Axe." 
Either of these events, properly availed of, would 
have prevented much of the butchery of that 
bloodj- episode which has left a stain upon the 
page of history, although this statement impUes 
no disposition to detract from the patriotism and 
courage of some of the leading actors upon whom 
the responsibility was placed of protecting the 
frontier settler from outrage and massacre. One 
of the features of the war was the bitter jealousy 
engendered by the unwise policy pursued by 
General Atkinson towards some of the volun- 
teers — especially the treatment of General James 
D. Henry, who, although subjected to repeated 
slights and insults, is regarded by Governor Ford 
and others as the real hero of the war. Too 
brave a soldier to shirk any responsibility and 
too modest to exploit Iiis own deeils. he felt 

deeply the studied purpose of his superior to 
ignore him in the conduct of the campaign— a 
purpose which, as in the affair at the Bad Axe, 
was defeated by accident or by General Henry's 
soldierly sagacity and attention to duty, although 
he gave out to the public no utterance of com- 
plaint. Broken in health by the hardships and 
exposures of the campaign, he went South soon 
after the war and died of consumption, unknown 
and almost alone, in the city of New Orleans, less 
two years later. 

Aside from contemporaneous newspaper ac- 
counts, monographs, and manuscripts on file 
in public libraries relating to this epoch in State 
history, the most comprehensive records of the 
Black Hawk War are to be foimd in the ' ' Life of 
Black Hawk," dictated by himself (1834) ; Wake- 
field's ' • History of the War between the United 
States and the Sac and Fox Nations" (1834); 
Drake's" Life of Black Hawk" (1854); Ford's 
"History of Illinois" (1854); Reynolds' "Pio- 
neer History of Illinois; and 'My Own Times": 
Davidson & Stuve's and Moses' Histories of Illi- 
nois; Blanchard's " The Northwest and Chicago" ; 
Armstrong's "The Sauks and the Black Hawk 
War," and Reuben G. Thwaite's "Story of the 
Black Hawk War " (1892.) 

CHICAGO HEIGHTS, a village in the southern 
part of Cook County, twenty -eight miles south of 
the central part of Chicago, on the Chicago & 
Eastern Illinois, the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern and 
the Michigan Central Railroads ; is located in an 
agricultural region, but has some manufactures 
as well as good schools — also has one newspaper. 
Population (1900), 5,100. 

GRANITE, a city of Madison Couuty, located 
five miles north of St. Louis on the lines of the 
Burlington; the Chicago & Alton; Cleveland, 
Cincinaati, Chicago & St. Louis; Chicago, Peoria 
& St. Louis (Illinois), and the Wabash Railways. 
It is adjacent to the Merchants' Terminal Bridge 
across the Mississippi and has considerable manu- 
facturing and grain-storage business; has two 
newspapers. Population (1900), 3,122. 

HARLEM, a village of Proviso Township, Cook 
County, and suburb of Chicago, on the line of the 
Chicago & Northwestern Railroad, nine miles 
west of the terminal station at Chicago. Harlem 
originally embraced the village of Oak Park, now 
a part of the city of Chicago, but, in 1884, was set 
oS and incorporated as a village. Considerable 
manufactm-ing is done here. Population (1900), 

HARVEY, a city of Cook County, and an im- 
portant manufacturing suburb of the city of Chi- 



cago. three miles of the southern city 
limits. It is on the line of the Illinois Central 
and the Chicago & Graml Trunk Railways, and 
has extensive manufactures of harvesting, street 
and steam railway machinery, gasoline stoves, 
enameled ware, etc. ; also has one newspaper and 
ample school facilities. Population (1900), 5,395. 

IOWA CENTRAL RAILWAY, a railway line 
having its principal termini at Peoria, 111., and 
Manly Junction, nine miles north of Mason City, 
Iowa, with several lateral branches making con- 
nections with Centerville, Newton, State Center, 
Story City, Algona and Northwood in the latter 
State. The total length of line owned, leased 
and operated by the Company, officially reported 
in 1899, was .'508.98 miles, of which 89.76 miles- 
including 3.5 miles trackage facilities on the 
Peoria & Pekin Union between Iowa Junction 
and Peoria — were in Illinois. The Illinois divi- 
sion extends from Keithsburg — where it enters 
the State at the crossing of the Mississippi — to 
Peoria. — (History.) The Iowa Central Railway 
Company was originally chartered as the Central 
Railroad Company of Iowa and the road com- 
pleted in October, 1871. In 1873 it passed into 
the hands of a receiver and, on June 4, 1879, was 
reorganized under the name of the Central Iowa 
Railway Company. In May, 1883, this company 
purchased the Peoria & Farmington Railroad, 
whicli was incorporated into the main line, but 
defaulted and passed into the hands of a receiver 
December 1, 18.86; the line was sold under fore- 
closure in 1887 and 1888, to the Iowa Central 
Railway Company, which had effected a new 
organization on tlie basis of §11,000,000 common 
stock, $6,000,000 preferred stock and $1,379,625 
temporary debt certificates convertible into pre- 
ferred stock, and $7,500,000 first mortgage bonds. 
The transaction was completed, the receiver dis- 
charged and the road turned over to the new 
company. May 15, 1889.— (Financial). The total 
capitalization of the road in 1899 was $21,337,5.58, 
of which $14,159,180 was in stock, $6,650,095 in 
bonds and $528, 283 in other forms of indebtedness. 
The total earnings and income of the line in Illi- 
nois for the same year were $.532,568, and the ex- 
penditures $566,333. 

SPARTA, a city of Randolph County, situated 
on the Centralia & Chester and the Mobile & 
Ohio Railroads, twenty miles northwest of Ches- 
ter and fifty miles southeast of St. Louis. It has 

a number of manufacturing establishments, in- 
cluding plow factories, a woolen mill, a cannery 
and creameries; also has natural gas. The first 
settler was James McCIurken, from South Caro- 
lina, who settled here in 1818. He was joined by 
James Armour a few years later, who bought 
land of McCIurken, and together they laid out 
a village, which first received the name of Co- 
lumbus. About the same time Robert G. Shan- 
non, who had been conducting a mercantile busi- 
ness in the vicinity, located in tlie town and 
became the first Postmaster. In 1839 the name 
of the town was changed to Sparta. Mr. McCIur- 
ken, its earliest settler, appears to have been a 
man of considerable enterprise, as he is credited 
with having built the first cotton gin in this vi- 
cinity, besides still later, erecting saw and flour 
mills and a woolen mill. Sparta was incorporated 
as a village in 1837 and in 1859 as a city. A col- 
ony of members of the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church (Covenanters or "Seceders") established 
at Eden, a beautiful site about a mile from 
Sparta, about 1822, cut an important figure in 
the history of the latter place, as it became the 
means of attracting here an industrious and 
thriving population. At a later period it became 
one of the most important stations of the "Under- 
ground Railroad" (so called) in IlUnois (which 
see). The population of Sparta (1890) was 1,979: 
(1900), 2,041. 

TOLUCA, a city of Marshall County situated 
on the line of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 
Railroad, 18 miles sonthwest of Streator. It is in 
the center of a rich agricultural district ; has the 
usual church and educational facilities of cities 
of its rank, and two newspapers. Population 
(1900). 2,629. 

WEST HAMMOND, a village situated in the 
northeast corner of Thornton Township, Cook 
County, adjacent to Hammond, Ind., from whicli 
it is separated by the Indiana State line. It is on 
the Michigan Central Railroad, one mile south of 
the Chicago City limits, and has convenient ac- to .several other lines, including the Chicago 
& Erie; New York, Chicago & St. Louis, and 
Western Indiana Railroads. Like its Indiana 
neighbor, it is a manufacturing center of much 
importance, was incorporated as a village in 
1892, and has grown rapidly within the last few 
years, having a population, according to the cen- 
sus of 1900, of 2,935. 


^'U.Jc^iKA.S U. Hif CiAJ:>.e^^Z(kAo ^ 













Boone Count}-, it is unnecessary to state, is 
part of the great prairie region of Illinois. Most 
of tlie early settlers, coming as tbey did from 
New York, Pennsylvania, and New England, 
were accustomed to hilly country and the sight 
of a farm which was perfectly level, or level 
enough to cultivate with ease at all parts, was 
new to them. By the time Boone County com- 
menced to build up, however, descriptions of the 
Rock River Valley and the Kishwaukee Country 
had been brought back by General Scott's sol- 
diers and others engaged in the Black Hawk War, 
as well as the earliest settlers, and the pioneers 
into this country had a very fair idea of what 
the land was to be. The very early settlers, 
however, in the southei-n part of the state, ex- 
press in the journals kept by them and after- 
wards printed, their astonishment at the mean- 
ing of the word prairies. They seem to have ex- 
pected them to be what we now call "plains." a 
vast, treeless, practically level country. To the 

contrary, the Illinois prairies are interspersed 
with beautiful groves and considerable woodland 
and Instead of being entirely level the land is 
diversified by gentle elevations and valleys in 
which small creeks run, and slopes in all direc- 
tions. The principal prairies in Boone County 
are South Prairie in Flora, Squaw Prairie lying 
north of Belvidere, Bonus Prairie in Bonus Town- 
ship, and Round Prairie and Long Prairie in Le- 
Roy, and East Prairie. Generally speaking, the 
four northei-n tOTs-nships are more hilly than the 
four southern. In the early days, in Caledonia 
and the adjoining region, there were large tracts 
covered with scrub oaks and other small timber 
called "barrens.'' There were, of course, in the 
county, many portions covered with trees which 
have since been put into farm land. 
Rivers and Creeks. 
The chief river in Boone County is the Kish- 
waukee, which rises In McHenry County and 
flows in what is, leaving out its crooks and 
turns, substantially an easterly and westerly di- 
rection across the county, leaving about one-third 
of the area of the county south of the river. 
Generally speaking its current is not swift, but 
in the spring freshets it rises very rapidly and 
spreads out to a considerable width. The name 
of the river is claimed to be from an Indian 
word meaning "place of the sycamores." although 
some have disputed this derivation and it has 
never been very positively settled. The Kish- 
waukee flows into the Rock River near the 
southern part of Winnebago County and that 
river in its turn finds its way to the Mississippi 



near Roc-k Island. Tbe next most important 
stream is tlie Piscasaw, which flows through the 
southern part of Boone Township and the wes- 
tern part of Bonus and meets the Kishwaukee a 
little east of Belvidere. The Little Thunder ilill 
depends on this stream for its water supply and 
the Big Thunder Mill has one end of its race- 
way in the Piscasaw. This stream was quite im- 
portant to the early settlers of Bonus. The third 
stream in importance is Beaver Creek, which 
rises in LeRoy Township and flows across that 
township, Boone, one corner of Caledonia, and 
Belvidere. and meets the Kishwaukee near the 
eastern edge of the county. The Beaver, while 
ordinarily a rather small and placid stream, 
often rises rapidly after a heavy rain and gives 
considerable trouble in keeping the roads and 
bridges in order. The other streams of any im- 
portance are Mosquito Creek and Coon Creek, 
which flow through Spring Township and into 
the Kishwaukee not far from the Methodist 
Camp Grounds, also Spring Brook which flows 
across the north Kockford road and into the 
Kishwaukee west of Belvidere. 

While Boone County must have been from an 
early time the home of many Indians, no very 
important villages appear to have been located 
here and no massacres are recorded in history 
as having occurred within its limits. Boone 
County seems to have been more or less on the 
boundary line of the territory held by various 
tribes. In the very early days it was possibly 
inhabited by the Illinois, which was the tribe 
that had possession of much of the territorj- to 
the south. It may also have been more or less 
visited by Winnebagos who occupied the terri- 
tory northwest of the Rock River. The principal 
tribe, however, connected with the history of 
Boone County, is the Pottawatomies. This ti-ibe 
was one of the three subdivisions of the Algon- 
quins. Its general characteristic was that the 
members were tall, fierce and haughty. They 
originated in Canada, or the northern part of 

Michigan and Wisconsin, and in course of time 
moved southward, finally octupyiug much of the 
northern part of Illinois. By a treaty made by 
the Pottawatomies and the United States Govern- 
ment, the tribe agreed to give up their lands and 
retire beyond the Mississippi. When the first 
settlers arrived in Boone County in 1835, the In- 
dians were getting ready, in a leisurely manner, 
to leave. Most of them disliked very much to go 
and Indian agents of considerable tact and ex- 
perience were employed to get them together and 
see to it that they did move. 

When the Towners and Dotys came there was 
a band of Indians encamped where the fair 
grounds now are located, on their way to Chi- 
cago prior to their removal beyond the Mis- 
sissippi. Mrs. Towner was of the opinion that 
the wife of one of the leading Indians was in 
reality a white woman, as she seemed to speak 
English quite well, but the squaw herself was 
very reticent. From the earlier "History of 
Boone County" we include the following incident 
concerning Mrs. Towner's bravery : 

At one time Mrs. Towner was left alone 
with her children in their house, which was sit- 
uated in the midst of the village. One of the 
Indians had become intoxicated, and in that 
condition entered tbe bouse, and declared he had 
come to kill her. She replied that she would 
kill him. One of their little girls, aged about 
ten years, said to her mother that a gun in tbe 
house was loaded. At this the Indian jerked a 
knife from his belt that looked, as Mrs. Towner 
e.xpressed it, as long as a sword. By some 
means, she ejected him from the house, and closed 
and barred the door with a long, heavy wooden 
bench, determined to "hold the fort." The door 
was made of basswood puncheons, and between 
the pieces there were cracks large enough to ad- 
mit a man's hand. Being ejected by a pale-faced 
squaw only added fury to the Indian's rage, and 
he made thrust after thrust through cracks of 
the door with his knife. Finding he could effect 
nothing that way, he next tried to gain admis- 
sion by climbing upon the roof :iud descending 



throuftb the mud and stick cbimney. But here 
again be was foiled by tlie brave woman witbin, 
wbo ripped open a straw bed, and tbrew part 
of tbe contents on tbe smouldering embers ou 
the bcartli. Tbis raised a smoke tbat drove 
the Indian to tbe ground. By this time tbe 
white men belonging to the house bad been 
alarmed, and came to her rescue. Tbe Indian 
was taken away, and soon after tbe whole tribe 
removed west of tbe "Mississippi." It is but 
due to tbe memorj' of tbe Pottawatomies then 
encamped here to say tbat they repudiated Mrs. 
Towner's drunken and savage visitor as a "bad 
Indian,"' and one who did not belong to their 
band — an interloper wbo bad fastened himself 
to them. 

Black Hawk War. 
Xear the point where tbe Rock River empties 
into the Mississippi was an Indian village, tbe 
principal seat of the Sac tribe, and bere in 1767, 
was born a child who was called Black Hawk. 
Although not a chief by birth, be soon became the 
natural leader of bis red skinned associates. He 
was a natural politician and demagogue, and 
soon became the recognized chief of bis tribe. 
In tbe War of 1812 be and his followers sided 
with England, but aftenvard settled down to a 
life of comparative ease, for an Indian, lasting 
until about 1830. At tbis time the white set- 
tlers in the vicinity of Rock Island began to 
encroach upon tbe lands occupied by Black 
Hawk's people. There was some question as to 
the ownership, both whites and Indians claiming 
title, and as tbe benign remedy of a court of 
chancery was not appreciated, the belligerents 
proceeded to fight it out in their own primitive 
way, without giving the lawyers a chance. Re- 
turning from an extended bunting expedition, 
Black Hawk found his town in possession of 
white squatters. After some preliminary skir- 
mishing, on April 6, 1832, Black Hawk and 
about five hundred warriors, with their squaws 
and children, crossed the Mississippi from the 
place where they had temporarily camped, and 

invaded Illinois. The Pottawatomies. restrained 
by Shaubena, remained neutral, but tbe Sacs 
and Foxes cast their lot with the leaders, aided 
secretly by the Winnebagos. Then followed a 
scattering but bloody warfare, extending through 
all tbe region of Northern Illinois and Southern 
Wisconsin. General Henry Atkinson was placed 
in command of the white forces, and sixteen 
hundred soldiers gathered, upon Governor 
Reynold's proclamation, at Beardstown, and 
from there proceeded to tbe seat of hostilities. 

Bloody engagements, or massacres, took place 
at Stillman's Grove; at Indian Creek, near Ot- 
tawa ; at Apple River and Kellogg's Grove, near 
Galena, and several other places. So far as is 
known, no important engagement took place in 
tbis county. As tbe fighting became more fierce 
and bloody, tbe authorities resolved upon more 
vigorous action. A new levy was made, consisting 
of about four thousand men, mostly volunteers, 
and General Winfield Scott was ordered by the 
federal government to proceed from tbe East, via 
the Great Lakes, with a regiment of regulars. 
Pending his arrival, however. General Atkinson — 
an excellent soldier — retained command, and was 
able to practically end tbe war before the ar- 
rival of the regulars. After a pureuit entailing 
terrible hardship. Black Hawk and bis warriors 
were brought to bay near Madison, Wis., and de- 
feated with great loss to them. Afterward, at 
Bad Axe River, near Prairie du Chien, Wis., the 
remnant of tbe Indian forces was almost ex- 
terminated, their chief and about one hundred 
and fifty of bis followers alone remaining. 

During these operations General Scott and his 
men had been sailing down tbe lakes toward 
Chicago, arriving July 10, 18.32. But a foe more 
deadly and appalling than the red men bad ap- 
peared. Tbe dreaded cholera was then raging 
through the lake region, and many of tbe soldiers, 
like so many of Chicago's settlers, fell its vic- 
tims. General Scott himself, with great bravery 
and skill, attended tbe sick and encouraged tbe 
survivors. It was thought wise to get into the 



higher anil k"ss infi-i-lca distriet inland, and thi- 
army hegaii its maroh by slow stages across the 

Scott's ^Vbsiy Tr.\il. 
The route taken by Sfcott's Army is a point 
about which there is considerable diversity of 
opinion. Authorities differ as to whether the 
soldiers marched through Boone County, and if so 
what route they took, where they crossed the 
rirer and where they went after they crossed. 
The records in the war department show that on 
July 29, 1S33, General Scott's headquarters were 
at Chicago, on August 1st and 2nd they were at 
Dixon's Ferry and on August 23d they were at 
Fort Armstrong near Rock Island. The army 
trail is reported in so many sections and in such 
diverse directions that it is probable either that 
some of the traditions are wrong, or that there 
were two or more different divisions of Scott's 
Army which followed different routes, or that 
one trail was the route of the volunteers. The 
writer was informed by an early settler of 
Du Page County that the amiy passed through 
that county in the vicinity of Wayne and crossed 
the Fox River near South Elgin. Mr. Jenner, 
who was a perfect storehouse of early history, 
stated that General Scott came through Belvi- 
dere on the stage in the fall of 1S38 and stopped 
at Towner's Hotel, on the site of which now 
stands D. Derthick's house. In the evening Mr. 
Jenner, who played the clarionet, Henry Greeu, 
who played the flute, Lovejoy, who played the 
fiddle, and John Sheldon, the drummer, went up 
to serenade the General. General Scott came out 
in front and, in talking about the war, he stated 
that when he crossed the bridge he could see the 
place where they forded the Kishwaukee with 
the army. He stated that the banks were still 
broken down where they took their artillery 
across. Other old settlers claim that the crossing 
must have been near the condensing factory, 
where the water is more shallow and the banks 
less steep. There is a street up in Fainiew 
calked Scott's Army, but the writer had under- 

stood that this name was given more to com- 
memorate the event than to locate the exact 
place where the army marched. Some of the 
early Scotch settlers in Caledonia claim that the 
Army marched north through that township, and 
that the marks made by the wheels of the wag- 
ons and artillery were visible for a long time in 
that vicinity. Mr. Thurston, in his book about 
early Kockford, gives a line of march across a 
part of Winnebago County. Another early writ- 
er of Bureau County tells where the army trail 
crossed that countj-. If the reader will take the 
map of Xorthcrn Illinois he will see how difficult 
it is to connect these different traditions, and the 
writer will not attempt to state definitely where 
Scott's Army did go. but merely to suggest that 
it is possible that one part of it went across 
Cook, Du Page, Kane. DeKalb, Lee. Bureau. 
Henry, and Roc-k Island Counties to Fort Arm- 
strong on the Mississippi, while another detach- 
ment or another army went a more northerly 
route through Belvidere to Prairie du Chien, or 
somewhere in that part of Wisc-onsin. 

Capt. Humphrey, who has given the subject a 
great deal of study, is of the opinion that the 
trail through Belvidere was made by the volun- 
teer army on its way to Wisconsin, and not by 
the regulai-s. 

Big TiirxnER. 
So much has been written about Big Thunder 
and his grave on the mound that the writer hesi- 
tates to rec-ord here any facts concerning the 
same, for fear they will be the mere repetition 
of an old story. However, in order to preserve 
them in print for the people who come after us, 
the facts will be briefly related. As to who Big 
Thunder was, or what he did in his life time, no 
one seems to know very much about. He was an 
Indian chief who must have lived in this region 
about the time of the Black Hawk War. The fact 
that most of the Indians here at that time were 
Pottawatomies would indicate that he belonged 
to that tribe, but a very early resident of Chicago 
tnld the author that he did not think that was 



the case. He may hare been a ^Vimlellago. Big 
Thunder's grave was on the Jlound near the 
court house, when the first settlei-s came here. 
The location was somewhere between where the 
present flag staff now stands and the court house 
steps. It consisted of a sort of pen or coop built 
of puncheon or split logs, and was. perhaps, some 
six or seven feet wide and about as long as an 
ordinary grave. luside the enclosure Big Thun- 
der was seated on a sort of a chair cut from a 
log or othei'o-ise constructed of wood. He was 
wrapped in his blanket and had about him va- 
rious weapons. Devillo Hale had a knife which 
he stated was Big Thunder's scalping knife, 
which Hale had taken when a small boy from 
the coop. The stage coach between Chicago and 
Galena used to stop at Doty's to change horses 
and mail, and often there was a delay of half an 
hour or more. The coop on the mound, with its 
bleached white sides, was very noticeable, as 
practically no house came between, and the pas- 
sengers often strolled up there to visit this curi- 
osity. One by one they carried the bones away 
for souvenirs and. according to Mr. Jenner, the 
young men of the town used to carry up loads of 
sheep and other bones to keep the travelers pro- 
vided with souvenirs. It is also claimed, as a 
joke on Mr. Dotj-, that iu times when chewing 
tobacco was scarce, he was accustomed to go up 
and borrow some from Big Thunder, which the 
chief's friends had placed there for his spirit to 
chew during the seven years which must elapse 
before it entered the Happy Hunting Grounds. 
Mr. Jenner stated to the writer that Pearson B. 
Crosby had taken Big Thunder's head before Jen- 
ner came to Belvidere in 18.38. and that Jlr. 
Crosby gave it to Dr. Goodhue, a physician of 
great ability who never lived here permanently, 
but was prominently identified In the early his- 
tory of Chicago. Belvidere, and Rockford. After- 
wards the skull came into the possession of a 
phrenologist, Tew. 

Devillo Hale stated to the writer that he came 
to Belvidere in 18.36 and that there were only 
three buildings there at that time : Doty's tavern. 

Towner's tavoni, and Alexander Xeely's store 
where Dempsey's Grocerj- now is. Jlr. Hale 
stated that Big Thunder's coop was made of 
split trees about six or eight inches in diameter, 
driven into the ground ; that it was about six 
feet high with no top, of circular shape and about 
six feet in diameter. Inside was a chair made 
of split ash splinters, with a back. In the chair 
was Big Thunder, looking somewhat like an 
Egyptian mummy. He was facing Squaw Prairie 
and a hole was cut in the coop on a level with 
his head, so that he could see when his ti-ibe had 
a great battle which was expected, when Big 
Thunder would come to life and take command 
again. Mr. Hale stated that the flag pole is now 
on the exact site of where Big Thunder sat. He 
said that the old chief had whiskey and tobacco 
in his lap and a bow and arrow near by ; that 
Big Thunder was a Winnebago chief and died 
before 18.36. and nobody seemed to know any- 
thing about what he was in his life time. 

Mr. Thurston, of Rockford. in his recollec-tions. 
states that he saw Big Thunder's coop in the 
summer of 1838; that the body sat on the 
ground facing south and was surrounded by pal- 
isades about six feet high. He stated that 
the head had been carried off by Dr. Goodlme, 
but the ribs, legs and arms were in position and 
portions of the flesh had dried and were of the 
color of jerked meat. 

A considerable number of arrow heads are 
found in the county while plowing. The writer 
has before him several donated to the Historical 
Society by Gus Peterson, who found them on the 
Scougall farm and the John Stapleton farm. 
They are of several different colors of flint, whit- 
ish, reddish, brownish, and gray. One of the 
prominent farmers west of town found a curious 
silver cross on the banks of the Kishwaukee, 
which may have been of Indian manufacture. 
\ number of stone axes are also turned up in 
the fields. Mr. Jenner stated that when he came 
to Belvidere there were the remains of an old 
cemetery on the river bank, back of where the 
Oi)era House now stands. By digging there, they 


fduiul a imiiilicr (if solid silvn- lii-ads wliirli Iwul 
on tlicHi the inakcrV iiainc liciiij; iiiatlf in New 






TIio early liistor.v of Booiio CouutT|- as a part 
of till- State of Illinois, and previous to the fiir- 
mation of tlie state, is full.v treated of in tbe fore- 
going volume and we will onl.v touch briefly on 
those matters. The territory now forming our 
county was first inclniled in an oru'anized county 
in ISdI. when practically all the northern three- 
fourths, or so, of the state was included in St. 
Clair County, as a part of the territory of In- 
diana. In 1813 the northern part of the state 
nearly as far south as the base line, was named 
Madison County, being a part of Illinois terri- 
tory. In 1814 Madison County was divided by a 
line running north and south about the center 
and this part of the state was included in Ed- 
wardv County. In isit; all the northern part of 
Kdw.inls County was named Crawford County. 
In IM'-i the northern of Crawford County 

St. lie north of the 
[■s was foriH<'d into 
limits of Tike Count, 

I'nlton County for legal purposes hut did not 
form the ].an of .-my i-onnty. In ISLT. all of the 
northeast part of the state, including Boone, was 
formed into Tutnam County. In 1831, this ter- 
ritory became again attached to another county 
for legal puiiioses, that county being LaSalle. On 
Januarj- 16, 183G, Winnebago County was formed, 
including all of what is now Boone and Winne- 
bago Counties and part of Stephenson County, 
and bounded as follows : 

"Commencing at the southeast corner of town- 
ship number 43, range number 4, east of the 
third principal meridian, and running thence 
west to the said meridian ; thence north along 
the line of said meridian to the southeast cor- 
ner of township number 40, in range number 11, 
east of the fourth principal meridian ; thence 
north along said dividing line to the northern 
boundary line of the state : thence east along 
said boundary line to the northeast comer of 
range number 4, east of the third principal me- 
ridian ; thence south to the place of beginning." 

On March 4, 1S37, an act was pas.sed cutting 
oft' the county of Boone and making its bounda- 
ries as follows : "Be it enacted by the people of 
the State of Illinois, represented in the General 
Assemlily: That all that tract of country l)e- 
ginning at the northeast corner of townshiji 46 
north, range 4 east; thence .south with the line 
dividing ranges 4 and 5 east, to the southwest 
corner of township 43 north ; thence west on 
said line to the southeast corner of Winnebago 
Count}-; thence north to the place of beginning 
on the north boundary of the state, shall fonu a 
county to be called Boone, in honor of Col. Dan- 
iel Boone, the first settler of the State of Ken- 
tucky." By following these boundaries on a 
map it will be .seen that there is a mistake in the 
description, whereby only a right angled triangle 
comixjsed of the southeasterly half of the pres- 
ent county, was included. The next winter an- 
other act was passed defining the boundaries of 

county .'IS folic 
•That theliounda 

■ County shall 




be as follows, to-wit : Beginning at the nortli- 
east corner of Winnebago County, and running 
thence east on the state line to the northeast 
corner of township 4G north, range 5, east of the 
third principal meridian; thence south on the 
range line to line dividing townships 42 and 43 
north; thence west on said line of "Winnebago to 
the place of beginning ; 'Provided, however, that 
if a majority of the legal voters residing within 
the limits of townships 43, 44, 45, and 46, north, 
of range 5 east of the third principal meridian, 
shall on the first Monday in August next, vote 
against the above named townships forming a 
part of the County of Boone, then the line divid- 
ing ranges 4 and 5 east shall continue to form 
the eastern boundary of Boone County. Ap- 
proved March 2, 1839." The voters in that part 
of the territory comprised in range 5, preferred 
to remain in McHenry County. Afterward the 
mile strip was taken from Winnebago and added 
to Boone, and our county then assumed the form 
it now bears. It consists of eight townships, be- 
ing arranged in four tiers of two townships each. 
The county is twenty-four miles from north to 
south and twelve miles from east to west. On 
the north the boundai-y is the state line between 
Illinois and Wisconsin, and the sections in that 
vicinity are fractional and quite irregular in 

During the first part of our histoi-j- the terri- 
tory now composing Boone County was a part 
of Winnebago County. The law creating Winne- 
bago County r«iuired that in order to create a 
county under It and hold an election for county 
officials, a majority of the voters must petition 
the circuit judge, and the proposed county must 
have in it not less than 3.50 white inhabitants. 
Dr. Daniel H. Whitney, of Belvidere, prepared 
the necessary papers and Judge Thomas H. Ford 
thereupon issued an order, dated July 15, 1836, 
for an election to be held at the house of Daniel 
S. Haight, at Rockford, on the first Monday of 
August, 1836. At this election two of the officers 
elected came from what is now Boone Countj-, 

Simon P. Doty being elected one of the three 
county commissioners, and Daniel H. Whitney, 
recorder. One hundred and twenty votes were 
cast at the election and among the Boone County 
names are the following: David Caswell, Geo. 
Caswell, Livingston Piobins, Alfred Shattuck, 
Ira Haskins, Simon P. Doty, Milton S. Mason, 
Timothy Caswell, Chas. H. Payne, Mason Sher- 
burne, John K. Towner, Oliver Robins, Jacob 
Keyt, Harlyn Shattuck, Daniel H. Whitney, E. 
A. Xi.xon, A. C. Gleason, and Chas. Sayres. 

At the first session of this court held August 
3, 1836, all of the present Boone County except 
Manchester To^Tiship, was formed into a pre- 
cinct called Belvidere and Manchester was made 
a part of the Rock River precinct, most of which 
was composed of land now in Winnebago 
County. At the first presidential election, 1836, 
Belvidere Township only polled 23 votes. 
The Mii.e Strip. 
As Boone County was first formed, all the 
sections forming a strip one mile in width run- 
ning up the western edge of the present county 
were a part of Winnebago County. On February 
28, 1843, an act was passed by the 'Legislature 
and approved by the Governor, providing that 
said mile strip should thereafter form a part of 
Boone County, providing that a majority of the 
legal voters residing in said strip were in favor 
of such annexation. On the fourth Monday of 
May, 1843, an election was held in the house of 
Samuel Keith in Newburgh. The judges were 
Benj. F. Hoyt and Samuel Keith and the clerk 
was A. W. Canfield. Great excitement was 
caused over the election. Naturally the people 
on the west side of Rockford, and the people of 
Boone County were in favor of the annexation. 
The people on the east side of Rockford wished 
the strip to continue in Winnebago Countj". When 
the -^ote was taken it was found that 51 votes 
were for annexation, and 44 against, a majority 
of seven in favor of an annexation. Some time 
afterward the legislature authorized the deeds 
and mortgages relating to the mile strip that had 



been recorded in Winnebngo Count}- to be tran- 
scribed into a bool< for tlie use of Boone County. 
This was done, and the booli now is called Book 
"AA" of Deeds in our county records. 



■KT Kecorus. 

After Boone County had been separated from 
Winnebago, an election was held for county otli- 
cers, and Simon P. Doty was elected sheriff. 
John Handy, coroner ; Seth S. Whitman, re- 
corder; Milton S. Mason, Cornelius Cline, and 
John Q. A. Rollins, county c-ommissioners ; S. P. 
Hyde, county surveyor. Tlie court organized 
May o, 18.S7 and consisted of Milton S. Mason, 
Cornelius Clino, and John Q. A. Rollins. The 
commissioners administered the oath to each 
other. Daniel H. Whitney was then appointed 
clerk. The commissioners divided the county 
into precincts. All of what are now the towns of 
Belvidere, Bonus. Flora, and Spring, and that 
part of the town of Boone south of the Piscasaw. 
constituted Belvidere precinct, and the remainder 
of the county constituted Ijambertsburg precinct. 

John K. Towner was appointed county treas- 
urer : BenJ. Sweet, school commissioner ; Wil- 
liam Dresser, John K. Towner, and Milton S. 
Mason were apiwinted judges of election for Bel- 
videre precinct. Road commissioners were ap- 
pointed for the four road districts into which 
the county was divided. 

The August election, 3S3T, in Belvidere pre- 
cinct was held at Simon P. Doty's house, and in 
Lambertsburg precinct at John Wright's house. 
James Lambert, John Wright, and Allen Car- ■ 
penter were appointed judges of elections in 
Lambertsburg precinct. 

Chas. F. H. Goodhugh presented a permit from 
the Winnebago County court authorizing him to 
sell goods at Belvidere one year from September 
20, 1836. Oliver Hale was appointed trustee for 
school lands in Belvidere Township at the June 
term, 1837. 

Considerable trouble was caused by various 
persons cutting timber on the school sections and 
the school commissioner was authorized to 

cute them. License was granted June 20, 1837, 
to Chas. F. H. Goodhugh and Simon P. Doty to 
retail "ardent spirits" by small measure. Alfred 
Shattuck, John Wright, and James B. Lambert 
were (iualitied as justices of the peace, Septem- 
ber, 1837. 

At the September term, 1837, the various 
county officers presented their bonds and took 
the oath of otfice. The clerk of the court was 
allowed $8.00 for books, purchased for himself 
and the recorder, and stationery. Orris Crosby, 
Stephen Blatchford, and Scofield Shattuck were 
appointed trustees of school lands in Township 

43, range 4. Tavern rates were fixed as follows : 
Per meal, 37%c; for horse to hay, lS%c; oats, 
per peck, .50c ; all kinds of liquors, per drink, 6c. 

Amount of money in treasury, September 4, 
1837: Collected on tines and licenses, $40.00, 
which constituted the countj-'s available means. 
Liability, $41.84. The county treasurer's duties 
must have consisted chiefly in "standing off" 

James B. Lambert and John Wright were qual- 
ified as justices of the peace, and Jlilton S. Jla- 
son probate judge, in October, 1837. 

The location of the court house was decided 
upon by James H. Woodworth, and John JI. Wil- 
son, commissioners appointed for that purpose 
under the act creating Boone County, approved 
March, 1837. After taking an oath as required 
by law. they proceeded on October 31, 1837, to 
locate it on the northeast quarter of Section 26, 

44, 3, where it still remains. Mr. Gardner ad- 
vanced $40.00 to pay expenses, and the commis- 
sioners stopped at Simon P. Doty's. The bill at 
Doty's amounted to $8.00, and the county as- 
sumed the same and issued a draft, but appar- 
ently had no money to pay it with. 

The county commissioners met October 13th, 
at Dotj''s Tavern, and took steps for the survey 
of the county quarter section. Daniel H. Whit- 
ney was apiMinted commissioner to sell the lots 
and blocks in the original town thus surveyed, 
and requested to attend during the whole survey. 

Alexander Neely was given a permit to retail 



merchandise at BelviJere for one year from No- 
vember S, 1S3T. Alfred Sbattuck was qualified 
as justice of the peace. November 19, 1S37, Setli 
S. Whitman was allowed $75.00 for a building 
on tlie county property. 

The clerk was authorized to procure a copy of 
the records of "SS'iunebago County, relating to 
that part of that county which now constitutes 
Boone County. Mr. \Yliitney apixjinted Joseph 
Brlggs to procure these records and from his re- 
port was gathered the following : Tine part of 
the State Road which runs through Boone County 
was laid out by J. Gifford, Josiah C. Goodhugh 
and Daniel Haight iu September, ISoO. In the 
report of the courses made by the road, "Belvi- 
dere Avenue" is mentioned. Just where that 
was located is not knov\^l, although it was some- 
where on the south side of the river, not far 
from the Genoa Road. Milton S. Mason and 
Cornelius Cline reported that as commissioners 
they had laid out a road commencing at Cros- 
by's store and running around the big bend of 
the Kishwaukee by the houses of Seth S. Whit- 
man, Chas. H. Payne, and Timothy Caswell, 
across the Piscasaw, then running about two 
miles, turning southerly to cross the Kishwaukee 
near the fording place, and joining the state 
road. December, 1836, E. Gregory and Joseph 
Briggs reported having laid out a road com- 
mencing at the angle of the state road a little 
east of the bridge at Belvidere, and running 
thence westerly near the Kishwaukee to the 
southwest corner of the company's field, thence 
on a line to correspond with the Kelso sun-ey 
southwest of Milton S. Mason's house, then wes- 
terly near the Kishwaukee to the bridge and 
crossing to Kishwaukee near Col. James Sayres'. 
This was evidently a road toward Newburg. 

December term, 1837. The Genoa Road was 
petitioned for November 29. 18.37. and Wm. Dres- 
ser, Jacob Fish and John Handy were appointed 
to locate it. The Blood's Point Road was located 
in November, 1837. Cornelius Cline and Simon 
P. Doty were the viewers. It was so called be- 
cause it ran south from Belvidere to the claim 

owned by members of the Blood family in Flora. 

Alfred E. Ames and Austin Wilder wore al- 
lowed pay for work done in laying out the county 
property. Pearson B. Crosby was paid $40.00 
for the Kishwaukee bridge on the state road. 
The range line road between ranges 3 and 4 was 
petitioned for November 23, 1837, by a large 
number of petitioners, and John Wright, Oliver 
Hale, and L. A. Doolittle were appointed viewers 
The Caledonia road was petitioned for at this 
term and J. Q. A. Rollins. Wm. T. Bulkey and 
Oliver Hale were appointed viewers. The peti- 
tion mentions Gardner's plowing, which was 
probably in the northwest quarter of Section 25, 
of Belvidere Township, at the north end of the 
Cepiias Gardner property. 

S. P. Hyde was the surveyor of the original 
town of Belvidere. and was paid $93..37 for the 
work, December 11. 1837. John Q. A. Rollins 
was allowed payment for work in surveying the 
count}- property and also for stakes. S. B. Ames 
was allowed for eleven days' work carrying 
chain. Allen Blood was allowed for stakes and 
for carrjing chain on the state road and survey- 
ing county property. 

The county property was advertised for sale 
in "Long John" Wentworth's paper, the Chicago 
Democrat, and the Chicago American. Aaron 
Whitney was allowed for hauling a load of stones 
for the county and Thos. O. Davis acted as clerk 
for the commissioner of sales. The sale of lots 
iu the county quarter section, or what is now 
known as the original town of Belvidere, was 
held November 27 to 30 (inclusive), 1837. On 
the first day only eleven lots were sold, all being 
in the blocks facing State street, immediately 
west of the public square. The amount received 
per lot ranged from $17.00 to .$55.50, and aver- 
aged about $.34.00. The commissioner recom- 
mended on the second day of the sale that it be 
adjourned without day. as the sales did not meet 
his expectation. lie sold a few more lots at pri- 
vate sale and added in his report "this is the 
best I could do, and the state of the funds of the 
county rendered this course expedient, if not ab- 



solutely nec-cssary." Daniel Hilton Whitney 
was commissioner of sales and had charge of the 

Matthew Molony was granted a merchant's 
license. Januarj- 1. 183S. Timothy Caswell was 
granted a permit to keep tavern on the same 
date. CaswelTs tavern was near Big Thunder 
Mill. William Ames was also granted a permit 
to keep tavern in Amesville (now Garden Prai- 
rie). The county road running from Mechanics 
street to Cline's Ford was petitioned for at the 
March term. l.'^.'iS. and John Q. A. Rollins, Abel 
Thurston, and John S. King were appointed view- 
ers. The road from Belvidere running up along 
the Piseasaw toward Russelville and Capron, 
was located by Joseph Briggs, James Shinn and 
John H. Herbert. 

March term, 1S38. Belvidere Prec-inet was 
divided into three precincts. Belivdere precinct 
was formed of what is now Belvidere and Flora 
townships and that part of Bonus west of the 
Piseasaw, and southwesterly of the Kishwaukee 
River aud Coon Creek. Ohio precinct was formed 
of all that part of what is now Spring Township 
south of Coon Creek. Deerfield precinct was 
composed of that part of Bonus and Spring not 
Included in the other precincts and that part of 
Boone Township south of the Piseasaw. 

The elections in the Ohio precinct were held in 
Alfred Shattuck's house, and John Handy, Wil- 
liam Dresser, and Z. C. Sawtell were appointed 
judges. The elections in Deerfield were held at 
Ames" Tavern and James Shinn, John Law- 
rence and S. P. Hyde were apiKiinted judges. 
The petit jurors for the first term of the circuit 
court were selected by the county commissioners 
court at the March term, 1838. Hiram 'Waterman 
was ajjpointed commissioner of sales, Mr. Whit- 
ney having resigned. J. D. Coles & Co. were 
given a tavern and merchant's license. 

Ordered that the court "have a recess until 
candle! ight." The court reconvened at :.''iO. 
S. S. Whitman was the first recorder, and among 
his early charges appear index book 25c, tran- 
script book STV'iC, chattel mortgage book, 50c. 

April, 1S.3S. it was ordered that sealed proposals 
should be received for the erection of a court 
house 40 by 30 feet. The basement story was 
to be stone and finished half for a jail, the other 
half into a room for a family. The first story 
was to be finished with three offices and a hall 
and one room for a family. The second story to 
be finished with a court room and two jury 
rooms and hall, the whole to cost from .$5,000 to 

June term, 1S38. In April, 1838, a road was 
laid out in Spring, commencing near Mr. Blach- 
ford's house and running southerly through the 
grove near Mr. Baxter's, thence to Mr. De Wolfe's 
to the edge of the grove, thence to Mr. Farr's in 
Section 22, thence southeasterly to the county 

Timothy Caswell was allowed .$73.75 for work 
on the Piseasaw Bridge. Ordered that the north 
room of S. P. Doty's Tavern should be used for 
county jail until otherwise ordered. Daniel H. 
Whitney was appointed agent for the county to 
negotiate a loan of §1,000.00, on the faith and 
credit of the county, at such rate of interest as 
it can be had for. At an election held August 
fi, 18.38, Houghton C. Walker was elected sheriff, 
John Handy, coroner, and Moses Blood, Orris 
Crosby, and John K. Towner were elected com- 

September term. 1838. Tavern rates were 
fixed as follows: Per meal, Sl^^c; night's lodg- 
ing. 12y^c; oats, per peck, 25c; span of horses 
to hay over night, 37i^c; good brandy, rum, gin, 
and wiue, 12140; poor ditto and whiskey, 614c; 
jier nieal for stage passengers, 50c. The polls of 
the August election were apparently taken to 
Galena, as required by law, and bill for stage 
fare was allowed each way, $9.00 and exi)enses 
and time, making in all .$37.25. The order au- 
thorizing the clerk to loan money on the faith 
of the count}- was rescinded, probably because he 
could not find anyone ready to make the loan, 
money being scarce. Among the charges of the 
court are for a bunch of quills. 37ijC. At this 
term, the court commissioners entered into a con- 



■tract with John K. Towner to do repairs on the 
Belvidere bridge, including planking and railings 
on each side, for $100.00. Tavern permits were 
issued to John K. To^-ner in Belvidere, Z. C. 
Sawtell in Ohio precinct, Cj-rus Avery in Deer- 
field precinct, and Alexander Neely in Belvidere. 
S. P. Hyde was allowed $8.00 for a town plat. 

At the December term, 18.38, the commission- 
ers discovered that Mr. Whitney's office was 
more than a quarter of a mile from the place of 
holding court and they declared the office vacant. 
Apparently, Mr. Whitney was not present at the 
meeting when this was done, but his deputy, 
Joseph Briggs, was, and proceeded to protest 
very vigorously. After declaring Mr. Whitney's 
office vacated, the commissioners proceeded to 
elect James Loop to fill the place. Mr. Loop was 
a relative of one of the commissioners and they 
probably thought a little politics would liven 
things up. Jlr. Briggs, thereupon, according to 
the record, did "contemptuously" take from the 
table the record and refused to deliver it to Mr. 
Loop, together with the other papers of the 
county. Mr. Briggs evidently proceeded to take 
the book off with him and vented his wrath by 
writing at the bottom of the order creating the 
vacancy in the office the following: "The clerk 
believing the above not true, and if true not suf- 
ficient for the removal of the clerk, demands an 
appeal to the circuit court of Boone County." 
When the commissioners secured the book back 
this part was ordered stricken out, as made with- 
out authority, and it is striclien out in the little 
booli now before the writer, with bold strokes of 
the pen, a mute witness of a small squabble 
which doubtless seemed quite serious then, but 
is only amusing now. The commissioners pro- 
ceeded to find Mr. Briggs guilty of flagrant con- 
tempt of the court and that he pay a fine of 
$25.00. A warrant and replevin writ were given 
to Mr. Doty, the sheriff. In the meanwhile, Mr. 
Loop, according to the entry made, was keeping 
the minutes on loose papers. The next morn- 
ing the sheriff turned over to the commissioners 
a large number of books, documents, and notes 

belonging to the c-ount.v, which he had secured by 
the replevin writ. The following day, Mr. Briggs' 
temper having apparently subsided, Mr. Doty 
appeared before the court and stated that Mr. 
Briggs confessed that he was too hasty in his 
action. The fine he was to pay was cut in half 
and paid, and the incident was closed. 

March 5, 1839, on the petition of a number of 
inhabitants, the name of Lambertsburg precinct 
was changed to Beaver precinct, and the place of 
election to Robert Hurd's. March 6, 1839, Simon 
P. Doty was allowed DOc per day for room rent 
for holding commissioners'' court from the organ- 
ization thereof to the end of December, 1838. 23 
days. This would indicate that the county com- 
missioners' court sessions were all held in Doty's 
Tavern. March 7, 1839. Hiram Waterman was 
appointed commissioner to build the court house, 
and it was ordered that it should be 30 feet wide, 
40 feet long. Posts 2.5 feet long, with entry for 
stairs on each side of front door. Hall 5 feet 
wide through lower story with back door and 
two rooms on either side of said hall. Uiiper 
room to be arched overhead for a court room. 

March term, 1839. Ordered that should a cir- 
cuit court be appointed in this county the clerk 
of this court is authorized to procure some con- 
venient room for holding same. 

April term, 1839. The jail was built by Simon 
P. Doty under a contract of June 5, 1838. and 
was accepted and the keys delivered to the 
sheriff, H. C. Walker. The sheriff was au- 
thorized to procure a set of shackles for hands 
and feet, and a ring, bolt and chain. 

June term, 1839. Met at John K. Towner's 
house. Township 43-4 was constituted as Ohio 
precinct, and the house of Z. C. Sawtell desig- 
nated for holding elections ; Township 45-3, Cal- 
edonia precinct and the house of David Drake 
designated for holding elections. The name of 
the precinct was then spelled "Caladonia." Abra- 
ham Drake, Michael Taplin, and Allen Carpenter 
were appointed judges. Jacob Fisk was allowed 
$1.00 for fixing the "meeting bouse" for holding 
courts. The contract for building the Belvidere 



Bridge was let ti> J. Q. A. UoUiiis, August ", 
1839. for !t!S4.50. 

September term. ls:;'.i. .Tnnics L. Loop was au- 
thorized to liorrow iiiouoy not to exceed .$200.00 
to pa.v lor tile (luarter-seitiou liouglit b.v the 
count.v and he was also autliorized to go to 
Galena and mal^e the neeessar.v entry and at- 
tend to the papers. The state road from Crystal- 
ville, in JIcHenry Countj-, to Mineral Point, Wis- 
consin, of which a portion is in this county, was 
located under Act of the Legislature in July, 
IS.".! I. 

William I'.. Page made a contract for the brick 
for the court house at -$4.00 per tliousand. Jlr. 
Page made the brick for the court house on Dr. 
Stone's farm. By collecting all they could from 
various parties. ;\Ir. Lon]i nian.-iged to get the 
.$229.00 necessarj- to pay tli<' land otfice expenses. 
Of this, .$ir,.5.00 was borrowed from Alexander 

December 2. 1.S3!). an election was held at 
which Benjamin F. Lawrence was elected sheriff 
and Staunton H. Loing, .justice of the peace, in 
Deerfield precinct. Manchester Township did not 
appear to have returned its poll books in time to 
be counted, a week afterwards. A contract was 
made with Pvohert B. Ilurd for fiu-nishing all 
materials, except the lirick, ,and for laying the 
walls of the new court house. Simon P. Dot}- 
was authorized to keep a ferrj' across the Kish- 
waukee at Belvidere. He was to give free pas- 
sage to all residents and their teams and be paid 
$50.00 per year. The ferry rates for non-resi- 
dents of the county were as follows : For each 
vehicle drawn by two horses or oxen, 25 
cents ; vehicle with one horse. 18% cents ; man 
on horseback, 12% cents ; person on foot, GVi 
cents; cattle, per head, 3 cents; and hogs and 
sheep. 1 cent. This was when the bridge had 
been carried away by freshets. 

"June term, 1S40. Township 43-.'> was formed 
Into a precinct called Fairfield. The school house 
was designated as the election plac-e. Daniel 
Bliss, James Shinn, and -Vbel K. Bkwd were ap- 
pointed judges. 

Itosiel D. Campbell apiHiiuted commis- 
sioner to take census for 1S40. The county con- 
tracted with John Bruce for stone for the foun- 
dation for the court house. The jail in Belvidere 
standing upon the grounds selected for the court 
house, it was ordered that the jail be removed 
to another site. 

August o. 1840, Albert Stone was elected sher- 
iff and Edward Hawley. coroner. 

September term, 1840. F. W. Crosliy making 
pre])aration to build a dam across the Kishwau- 
kee. John K. Towner was appointed to suiierin- 
tend the building of the court house. At the 
November election. 1840, the presidential electors, 
headed by Adam W. Snyder of St. Clair County, 
received lo votes in Beaver iirecinct, 14 in Deer- 
tield. 2.'1 in Caledonia, 123 in Belvidere, 13 in 
Man(■ll<■^ter. and 34 in Ohio. The ticket on which 
.Vbrahani Lincoln was one of the electors, re- 
ceived 30 in Beaver. 28 in Deerfield, 15 in Cale- 
donia. 110 in Belvidere. 15 in Manchester, and 
l(j in Ohio. Mr. Linc-oln's ticket was defeated by 
two votes in the c-ountj-. De<?ember. 1840. F. W. 
Crosby was allowed to build a dam, evidently 
about where the present dam is, and the record 
states that it was to be on or near the "site occu- 
pied by the present dam of Belvidere Mill." For 
the new court house contracts were made for 
lumber with P. B. Crosby, and for carpenter 
work with James Johnson. In March. 1841, a 
road was located, which commenced at the south- 
east quarter of Belvidere Township and ran diag- 
onally across what is now Jefferson Conger's 
farm and the northwest quarter of Section 36, 
striking the state road somewhere up near Bal- 
liets' comer. This road, as located, does not ex- 
ist at present. The state road north of Belvidere 
was re-located between the line of county prop- 
ertj- and Spring Brook, in April. 1841, by S. P. 
Doty and David Caswell. Previous to that time 
the bend, which is now about opposite General 
Fuller's house, appears to have been several 
blocks further south. The bridge over Sjjring 
Brook was just a little west of the center of Sec- 
tion 22, near the present Tobyne farm. What is 


known as the middle Caledonia road, now run- 
ning past the Scott and Greenlee farms, was 
located by Elias Congdon and W. S. Stewart, 
September, 1841, and was on or near the line of 
an old Indian trail. 

In the back of the county commissioners' rec- 
ord, appears a list of eertifieates for wolf scalps 
given out by Deputy Clerk Saston. which con- 
tains the following : 

November, 1840. 

John Lawrence, 1 wolf. 

Bradford Cunningham, 5 wolves. 

Heaton, 2 wolves. 

Milo Smith, 1 wolf. 

Covey, 1 wolf. 
%, 5 wolves. 

In 1841, January, Cyrus H. Avery, 8 prairie 
wolves. During the remainder of that year cer- 
tificates were also issued to N. K. Avery, 0. H. 
Payne, Chas. Johnson, S. E. Ames, G. T. Sasson, 
Alfred Strong, Chas. S. Whitman; also to John 
Barrett for 17 w-olves. The bounty was $1.00 
per wolf. 

CorxTY AND Township Names. 
Boone County was named after Daniel Boone. 
a noted pioneer of Kentucky and Southern Illi- 
nois. He was a contemporary with George Rog- 
ers Clark, Simon Kenton, and the fearless back- 
woodsmen of the early days. Belvidere is said 
by some to have been named by Ebenezer Peck 
from a town in Canada from which he came. Mr. 
Peck had considerable financial interest here, 
but resided in Chicago. Another account says 
that Belvidere was named by Simon P. Doty, who 
claimed that he received the suggestion from 
Mark Beaubien, an early French settler of Chi- 
cago, on account of its resemblance to Belvidere 
near Weimar, in Germany. The word means 
"beautiful to see." The derivation of the word 
"Kishwaukee" has been explained in several 
different ways. The first is that it means "Place 
of the Sycamores." Another has it as meaning 
"Free from Storms." and still another makes it 
mean "Arrow Water" or "Rushing Water." The 

name is undoubtedly Indian, but just what it 
means the writer has been unable to determine 
from any Indian vocabulary he has been privi- 
leged to consult. 

Bonus Township was formerly called Deerfield 
precinct, probably on account of some place in 
the east from which one or more prominent early 
settlers came. The present name is the Latin 
word for "good." Spring was formerly called 
Ohio Grove on account of the Shattucks and 
other prominent early settlers, who came from 
that state. Flora was possibly so named from 
the number of flowers that dotted its prairies. 
One of the most pleasing and noticeable things 
to the early settlers in this region was the num- 
ber of wild flowers, and they spoke of them very 
often in the letters and journals written at that 
time. Boone Township was formerly included 
in Beaver Precinct, which was doubtless named 
from that industrious animal. Le Roy was first 
called Lambertson Precinct from the early set- 
tlers. One who was present at the meeting 
when it received the name it now bears could 
not recollect the cause for so calling it, except 
that everyone present was trjing to have it 
named after his town in the east and this name 
finally prevailed. 











The majority of the early settlers of Boone 
Countj- came from New York State, or at least 
many more came from that state than from any 
other one location. The New Yorker of that 
time was a sort of westernized New Euglander. 
Their ancestors in the very early days of the 
history of the couutiy had emigrated, usuali> 
from England, and had located themselves upon 
the rocky hills of Massachusetts, Vermont, or 
New Hampshire, the rugged coast of Maine or 
among the valleys of Connecticut. By the time 
the Revolutionary War had been fought and the 
colonies had gained their freedom from the 
mother country, the rising generation found the 
old farm homes too crowded, and the fields too 
stony to raise good crops of grain, although it is 
admitted that they have never been excelled in 
raising first class men and women. Therefore, 
shortly after the Kevolution, the New England- 
ers pushed westward, into the fertile valleys of 
the Mohawk, the Hudson, the Genesee, and with 
the help of the sturdy Dutch settlers whom they 
found already there, they made the great state 
of New York. In the meantime Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey, and Delaware had filled up with 
settlers of equal ability and energy, and by 1836 
the same crowding and longing for a chance to 
expand was manifested among the settlers in 
these states as had been the case a few genera- 
tions before in the places from whence they 
came. It is to the younger generation of these 
states, together with some directly from New 
England, that Boone County looked for its first 
settlers. Most of them came by the way of Chi- 
cago and many of them had no definite location 
in mind, except that they expected to settle in 
Northern Illinois. At that time Chicago was a 
very uninviting place and many of those who 
expected to stay there pushed on westward. After 
the very first settlers, many of those who came 
were relatives or friends of those who were al- 
ready here. Often a man would come and locate 
and then go back after his family in the east. 
There are not many soutlu'rn families in Boone 
County. Among them have been Stephen llurl- 

but, one of the most noted of Boone County citi- 
zens, who was born in South Carolina, and Jo- 
seph Goodrich, who while not originally Southern, 
lived for a considerable time in the South. One 
of the most prosperous parts of the county is 
that known as the "Scotch Settlement.' which 
takes in a lai-ge part of the township of Cale- 
donia and extends westward into Winnebago 
County. The Scotch settled in that region in the 
first twenty years or so of the countj-'s history. 
Among the early settlers were the Greenlees, 
who came in 1830. Some of the other prominent 
Scotch families are those of Ralston, McEachran, 
McNair, Armour, Reid, and Kelley. The Scotch 
Settlement is noted for the neat appearance of 
its farms and farm buildings and general air of 
prosperity. In the northern part of the county, 
particularly Manchester, Boone and LeRoy, are 
a large number of Norwegian settlers, most of 
whom have been very successful and own large, 
well stocked farms. Among the prominent Nor- 
wegian families are those of Duxsted, Tillerson 
and Seaver. In Spring Township, particularly, 
as well as in other parts of the county, are a num- 
ber of Englishmen. Among the families which 
came from England at an early date, in Spring, 
were the Blaehfords. the Curtises, and the Smith- 
sous. At a little later date came the Davises, .John 
Rogers, Joseph Hoover, the Landers, William 
King, George Peters, and Robert Witfin. In 
Boone Township, and particularly in Caprou, are 
a number of citizens of Canadian descent, in- 
cluding the Cornells and the Julys, who came in 
the '40s. Some of the prominent people in Bel- 
videre also came from Canada. In the later years, 
we have a considerable number from Ireland, 
most of whom have settled in Belvidere or on 
farms in the vicinity of that city. An Irishman 
alw.iys possesses great executive ability and a 
number of important positions have been held 
by those of that descent. 

The history of Boone County, so far as any 
permanent white settlement is concenied, begins 
In lS3,"i. It is well known to all who have been 
interested in the history of tlie state that the 



first settlements were made in the southern part, 
such as Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and other places 
along the Mississippi River, and at Albion, Shaw- 
neetown, and other settlements in the southeast- 
em part of the state, along the Ohio and Wa- 
bash Rivers. In 1S35 Chicago was but a small 
town. Galena, in the northwestern part of the 
state, and some of the settlements in that vicinitj- 
had been started, but all the region of Northern 
Illinois between these places was practically 
uninhabited by white men, and consisted of beau- 
tiful prairie covered with long grass, interspersed 
with groves of trees and inhabited only by nu- 
merous wild game and the wandering tribes of 
Indians. The land had not yet been surveyed 
Into townships and was not open to government 
entries, as the Indian title had not yet been ex- 
tinguished. It is difficult to estimate with cer- 
tainty the names of the very first settlers. In 
the earlier county history, we are informed that 
the first settler was Livingston Hobbins. who 
came from Chautauqua County, N. Y. We 
have been able, through one of his nephews, to 
find out more concerning him. He received his 
first name from Dr. Livingston, the celebrated 
African explorer, who was his mother's brother. 
He and a partner took up a claim north of the 
river, probably somewhere near the present ojiera 
house, and stayed there for some time. Becoming 
lonely from their position, with no one but In- 
dians as neighbors, the partner decided to return 
to Chicago and did so. Mr. Robbins stood the in- 
creased loneliness for a short time and then re- 
turned to Chicago himself. After he had been 
there a day or two, he ran across another young 
man whom he told about their claim on the 
Kishwaukee, stating that if a man could go there 
and stick to it, the place was sure to become a 
desirable location. So the two finally agreed to 
return to the claim and after they had been there 
a short time, back came the first partner. When 
the three had lived together for some time a little 
friction arose as to who should include a certain 
piece of timber in his claim, and the first partner 
and the new comer took sides against Robbins. 

About this time John K. Towner and others came 
in and bought all three out. Jlr. Robbins took 
up a claim north of Newburgh in Section 19, ' 
which he afterwards sold to the Tobynes, and 
Livingston Robbins and his brother Oliver, who 
had come from the east by that time, moved 
over into Winnebago County, where their de- 
scendants still live. Livingston Robbins went to 
Stevens Point, Wis., where he died about 
1880, at an advanced age. He was a large man, 
very straight in stature, with black hair and 
beard. Our informant could not recall the name 
of either of Robbins's partners, but it is possible 
that they were Archibald Metcalf and David Dun- 
ham, who are mentioned in the former history 
of Boone County as occupying the claim when 
Mr Towner and others came to BelviJere. As 
this was before the written records, our ac- 
counts of the first few settlers must rest uiwn 

In June, 1835, John K. Towner, Cornelius 
Cllne, and Erastus A. Nixon arrived at the loca- 
tion which is now Belvidere. Mr. Towner, with 
his wife and eight children, had started in the 
early part of June from Steuben County, New 
York, to locate in Michigan, but not finding a lo- 
cation which suited them, Mr. Towner left his 
wife and children with relatives near Detroit 
and came by boat to Chicago. At the Tremont 
House, where he stopped, he met Cline and 
Nixon. At that time, as is well known to all 
who have read Chicago history, that city was 
very uninviting, many of the business and resi- 
dence sections of the city at the present time 
being then a sea of mud. So the three deter- 
mined to push on to Rockford, where Daniel S. 
Haight and Germanicus Kent had a small settle- 
ment. They traveled on foot and are said to 
have followed General Scott's army trail, but 
upon reaching the Kishwaukee they decided to 
settle there. Mr. Towner purchased part of the 
Metcalf & Dunham claim and took up some more 
land near the river. He arranged with Mr. Ciine 
for the erection of a log house and returned on 
foot and by the lake to Detroit. He bought sev- 



eral yoke of oxen and a (irairii' schooner at Chi- 
cago, and with these and a wagon that he liad 
brought from Xew York, Mr. Towner and family 
pushed on to the Kishwaukee. AiTiving about 
midnight, the last of July, 1S35, they camped that 
night alwut opiwsite the present Baltic Mills, 
and next morning moved into ttie Metcalf and 
Dunham cabin. Their own house was not com- 
pleted, but in the meantime Mr. Cline had built 
bis cabin, which was probably located somewhere 
out near the Bennett Creamery Comer and the 
O. J. Lincoln farni. Then Towner moved into 
this cabin while Mr. Cline went east for his own 
family, and the Towners soon afterwards moved 
into their own house, which was on the site of 
the present D. Derthick residence. 

Practically all the early settlers of Boone 
County caiiK' by the way of Chicago or from an 
easterly din-.-tion. A description of the many 
ways in wbic-li tlicy traveled., and the route over 
which they came will be in order. While some 
of the young men without families or household 
goods, were able to w^alk, those who brought 
their possessions with them found it necessary to 
come either by ox teams or with horses. The 
first few miles west of Chicago was low and 
swampy and made very hard pulling, so that 
sometimes six or eight yoke of oxen were re- 
quired to pull the wagons through. When this 
was done the different travelers would unite and. 
by hitching their teams together, would pull the 
wagons through, one by one. Lorenzo McDougal, 
who came in 183G, used to describe this very in- 
terestingly. The wagons were many of them the 
old fashioned "prairie schooner." but some of 
them were of the ordinaiy form of eastern wag- 
ons. There were very few houses. John H. 
Thurston, in his reminiscences of Rockford, 
states that from Chicago to the Fox River the 
cabins were alwut six miles apart, and that there 
was but one inhabited bouse between Elgin and 
Mr. Smith's cabin in Pleasant Grove, (near Ma- 
rengo). When Mr. Thurston came in 1S37, he 
states they stopped the first night at the Buck- 

bom Tavern about eighteen miles west of Chi- 
cago. The second night they stopped at Mr. 
Smith's Tavern, and after striking Garden 
Prairie they found a trail blazed through the 
timber to the ford of the Kishwaukee River near 
the present Big Thunder Mill, where the Potta- 
watomie trail from Chicago to Galena crossed. 
E. C. I>awrence, who arrived in 1837, states that 
there were sixteen bouses between Chicago and 
Belvidere, including Belvidere. It took the Law- 
rences five days to come from Chicago. They 
found a bridge over the Desplaines River and 
another at Salt Creek, in the northeasterly part 
of Du Page County. They found a house in 
Coral, which is a little south of Union. At Ma- 
rengo was Spencer's Tavern, and there was no 
house between Marengo and Garden Prairie. 

In the early pan of August, 1835, Simon P. 
Doty and Dr. Daniel Hilton Whitney arrived in 
Belvidere. They stopped for a short time with the 
Towners and both became verj' useful and promi- 
nent citizens of the community, and will be re- 
ferred to many times in this historj-. Simon P. 
Doty was born in Dutchess County, N. T., May 
It, ITltT. Before coming to Belvidere, he had been 
a sailor. Mr. Doty became proprietor of a tav- 
ern known as the Belvidere House, which stood 
with the other buildings belonging to it, on the 
block now occupied by the opera house, Bowley's, 
Longcor's drug store, and other stores. This was 
a verj- imiwrtant building in the history of the 
little community. According to Mr. Jenner, it 
c-onsisted of a one-story kitchen, then a larger 
portion containing a dining-room and sleeping 
apartments upstairs, then a one-story bar-room, 
then a store room which came on the corner 
where Mr. Bowley's store is. This building was 
painted. It was not a log cabin, being one of, 
if not the. first frame buildings made in the 
county. Mr. Doty was a prominent Whig and 
held several offlees, as will appear elsewhere in 
our narrative. JIany of the public meetings were 
held in this bntol. Dr. Whitney states in one of his 
articles that he liougbt some logs from Messrs. 



Payne and Wheeler, wlio resided on the Fox 
River, had them hauled to the place intended 
for the town plot and had them made into a 
double house and Mr. Doty was made landlord. 
The previous history of the county states that 
Mr. Doty continued to manage this hotel until 
the fall of 1836, when he moved into his own 
Tavern. As Mr. Jenner came in 1837, the Doty 
House that he describes must have been the 
second one that Mr. Doty kept. 

Dr. Daniel Hilton Whitney was one of the 
most able citizens of the early days in Belvidere, 
and had a great deal to do with shaping the his- 
tory of the county. lie was born in 1S07 and 
died February 17, ISCA. aged fifty -seven. He 
was a man of great energy, a ready talker, an 
able, although somewhat flowery, wi-iter, and a 
very enthusiastic Whig in politics. His stature 
was tall, his complexion dark, and his hair coal 
black. He married Sarah Caswell, December 
10, 1836, this being the first marriage solem- 
nized in what is now Boone County. His firs- 
wife, Elizabeth Hazzard, to whom he was mar- 
ried in New York, July 5, ]82S, died Sept. 7, 
1835. Mrs: W. S. Jones of Belvidere is Dr 
Whitney's daughter. Dr. Whitney will be men- 
tioned so often as we progress that further no 
tice here is unnecessary. 

The Belvidere Company. 
In all the communities which were springing 
up in Northern Illinois, land claims were the 
great article of commerce. According to the 
tales of the early travelers, whenever one stop- 
ped he was at once besieged by an eager crowd 
willing to sell claims. It is natural to suppose 
that a large number claimed a great deal more 
than they were entitled to. Usually when a 
man had decided upon a promising piece of land 
and commenced to locate there, he was visited by 
some one very soon, who stated that the tract was 
already claimed. Mr. Lawrence tells us of a 
relative of his who thought, after many trials of 
this kind, he would get into a part where no one 

had been, and struck up along the Indian trail 
near the Piseasaw. On the way he came across a 
bee-tree, and cut off the hollow portion filled 
with honey and took it with him. He found a 
suitable location and was preparing to make his 
claim, when he was visited by a Belvidere resi- 
dent and informed that the claim was already 
taken. This was too much and he informed his 
visitor that, unless he left immediately, the sec- 
tion of the bee-tree and its contents would be 
gently deposited, upside down, over his head. 
The gentleman left without much further argu- 

There had been no government survey made 
and it was not possible to tell, with any accu- 
racy, where the lines would run or what would 
constitute a quarter section. The claims, or at 
least the more substantial ones, were made by 
plowing a furrow around the land desired to be 
included. While there are no definite stories in 
this county, as in some surrounding counties, of 
serious fights over claims, claim jumping and the 
like, yet it is to be presumed that more or less 
friction of this sort did take place here also. 

In order to protect themselves from outsiders 
the settled citizens of the various communities 
usually formed what was kno^mi as a "company," 
an association to divide up certain land among 
themselves by agreement and stand by each other 
in holding it. Such a company was formed here 
and called the "Belvidere Company." From an 
affidavit by Daniel H. Whitney in a law-suit con- 
cerning the southwest quarter of Section 26, we 
are able to judge quite accurately as to who 
constituted this company and the time the differ- 
ent members entered it. Mr. Whitney states that 
he held the claim in 1835 in common with J. C. 
Goodhugh and E. Peck. About 1836 he sold his 
claim as to said quarter section to Goodhugh, 
Peck, and Nathan Crosby. He understood that 
in the spring and summer of 1836, they sold an 
interest to John S. King, Jacob Whitman. Pear- 
son B. Crosby, and others : that said claimant, 
were generally known as the "Belvidere Com- 



pany" and in 1S3G they built on said quarter- 
section a saw mill and did some cultivation, and 
in the next season J. S. King built a grist mill, 
and that in the latter pa.-t of 1S3T. Daniel Shel- 
don leased the mill. These were near the present 
Baltic Mills. 

It was impossible to j-'ivi- with any degree of 
clearness the location of the various claims prior 
to the government entries. The Belvidere Com- 
pany claim evidently took in most of the north 
side which lies west of a line running north 
from about where the Presbyterian Church now 
stands. Seth S. Whitman's claim was in the 
northwest quarter of Section 25, easterly of the 
Belvidere Company's claim. 

Early Days and Ways. 

The method of making a log cabin is described 
by an early Rockford settler, Mr. Thurston, as 
follows : 

"The body of the house, about eighteen feet 
square, was of oak logs with the bark on, the 
comers can-ied up by notch and saddle, the roof 
of shakes rived out from oak timber. The logs 
for the gable ends were fastened together with 
wooden pins. A pole was then laid lengthways 
of the structure, two feet from the eaves, the 
shakes laid in two or more courses, and a pole 
put on top to hold them down. This process was 
repeated to the ridge pole. Short sticks were 
placed between the poles to keep them from slid- 
ing down. The cabin had a puncheon floor, two 
■windows, one door of puncheon stuff. Most of 
them had a fireplace at one end built of wood, 
and outside ; the fireplace of puncheons lined on 
the inside with clay, and the chimney of split 
sticks laid up with mud. Such a house may be 
built with an axe and an auger, and is a warm 
and comfortable dwelling." 

From Mr. Thurston's recollections we also 
gather the following as to Boone County. 

The summer of 1837 was very wet and the 
crops were good. 

In January, 1838, there was a vacant cabin 

about two miles west of Belvidere, near the river. 
The Newburgh flats were under water and could 
not be crossed by teams for several weeks. The 
water in 1S44 was very high all over the Missis- 
sippi Valley. 

After the conclusion of the presidential cam- 
paign in ISIO both Whigs and Democrats gave 
public balls at Rockford. The Harrison Ball was 
held February, 1841, at the Washington House. 
The representatives of Boone Count>' on the Board 
of Managers were D. JI. Bristol of Belvidere 
•and J. C. Waterman of Xewburgh. The Van- 
Buren Ball was held at the Rockford House, 
March 3, 1841. The representatives of Boone 
County were R. S. JIalony, L. A. Doolittle, H. 
Waterman, and B. I"'. Lawrence of Belvidere; 
George F. Ames and S. P. Hyde of Amesville 
(now Garden Prairie), Orris Crosby and H. 
Shattuek of Ohio Gro^e (now the township of 
Spring), and B. F. Hoyt and John Steel of Xew- 
burgh. Dr. OiTis Crosby, the oldest Democrat 
present, with a handsome young partner, opened 
the Democratic Ball with the Virginia Reel. Mr. 
Thurston describes him .is being spare in build, 
six feet or more in height, and clad in a blue 
broadcloth, swallow tail coat, with brass buttons 
in the style of the '20s, an immense rolling 
collar, trousers four inches shorter than now 
worn, red stockings and calfskin pumps. Mr. 
Thurston states that General Scott's Army Trail 
passed through the first ward of Rockford. Ste- 
phen Mack, an Indian trader, was the guide. 
This trail met the river bank above the town at 
the dry run now in Xorth Second Street, fol- 
lowed the east bank of the river to the first creek 
above the town, across the bluff and met the In- 
dian Trail near the railroad track at the foot 
of the Big Bottom. 

In order to give some idea of what constituted 
the household goods in the early days, we give 
the appraisement in the estate of a lady belong- 
ing to one of the prominent families, and who 
died in 1841. Besides the items mentioned, 
there was quite a list of books. 



One stove and pipe, $10.00 ; 1 pair of shovel and 
tongs, 50c; carpet, $5.00; 1 arm chair, 50c; 1 
ketUe, 50c; 2 quilts, $13.00; 1 feather bed and 
bedding, $15.00; 2 blanliets, $3.00; 9 sheets, 
$1.50; 1 trundle bedstead, $1.50; 1 pitcher and 
basin, $1.50; 1 tin pail, 50e; 1 dipper, 13c; 1 
white earthern tub, $1.50 ; 1 soap dish, 25c ; 2 
wooden tubs, 50c; 2 plated goblets, $1.00; 1 
plated sugar dish, $1.00; 2 willow baskets, 75c; 
1 band box, 2oc ; 1 portfolio, $1.00 ; 1 pair brass 
candle sticks. 50c: 1 pair of sntiffers, 13c; 1 
snuffer tray, 25c; 1 gold watch, $25.00; 4 carpet 
bags, $1.00; 1 cut glass bottle, $1.00; 1 table, 
$1.50; 1 looking glass, $1.00. 

The First Bbiuges. 

The first bridge across the Kishwaukee at 
State street was built in 1830. It was formed 
of stringers lying close to the water and covered 
with logs. In March, 1840, this bridge was car- 
ried away by the greatest freshet that ever came 
down the Kishwaukee, when the water rose to 
a point three or four rods south of the present 
pumping station and the bark on the trees on 
Gooseberry Island was ground away by the ice 
twentj- feet from their bases. Until the comple- 
tion of the next bridge, the same year, Simon P. 
Doty ran a ferrj' across the open space. The 
second bridge lasted until 1845, when it. too. 
was carried away by a freshet. This was a low 
frame structure, fastened by bents. The third 
bridge was constructed in 1845. It was wide 
enough for two roadways and was originally cov- 
ered over, but in a few years the cover was re- 
moved. This bridge was shorter and nearer the 
water than the present one and reached by un- 
covered approaches. William H. Gilman was 
contractor for this bridge and Cornelius Cline, 
constructor. Mr. Cline died on the lakes in the 
first cholera epidemic that visited this region. 
In 1867 it was decided to build a new structure. 
E. L. Truesdell of Massachusetts, a relative of 
E. E. P. Truesdell, of Belvidere, was then con- 
structing bridges of latticed iron work, after a 
plan known as the Truesdell patent, and the 

contract was awarded to him. The bridge was 
completed in November, 1867, at a cost of $15,- 
115. The present State Street bridge, the fifth, 
was erected in 1SS9. The contractors were the 
Clinton Bridge & Iron Company, of Clinton, Iowa. 
The contract provided that the structure should 
carry any load and at any rate of speed that 
ordinarily travels the streets. Previous to this, 
teams were obliged to cross at a walk, and Mr. 
Jenner told of one Presbyterian divine who was 
seized by minions of the law and fined for racing 
his buggy across at full speed, in order that a 
guest might not miss a train. The Main street 
bridge was a wooden structure of three spans. 
In the spring of the present year (1908) it had 
become very insecure and preparations were be- 
ing made to replace it, but the water in the river 
rose veiT rapidly and as the ice went out it car- 
ried the two southern spans of the bridge with it. 

The State Street bridge is now being repaired 
(1008), and it is thought it will stand for a num- 
ber of years to come. It was proposed to put in. 
a new iron or cement bridge, but the proposition 
was not carried out on account of the expense. 
Early Postoffices. 

The first postmaster was Prof. Seth S. ^Yhit- 
man, who was one of Belvidere's most prominent 
early citizens and of whom more will be said in 
other parts of this history. Prof. Whitman lived 
about where W. S. Brown now lives, on East 
Lincoln Avenue. The postoffiee boxes were the 
holes between the rafters of his house, the ceil- 
ing not being ."^o high but what it could be easily 
reached. At that time, the postage was some- 
thing like 25c for a letter and Mr. Jenner averred 
that about the only letters which were prepaid 
were love letters and those containing requests 
to pay bills. In the very early da.vs each piece 
of paper constituted a letter and postage had to 
be paid on each piece at the legal rate. In look- 
ing over the old legal documents, we often find 
that when two or more were prepared by out- 
side lawyers and sent here by mail, they would 
make them one long sheet and then cut them 



apart, all but one narrow mari-'in and thereby 
the two or three documents could be mailed for 
the price of one letter. Mr. Jenner stated that 
there was considerable controversy as to whether 
the small diamond sheets of paper called "wa- 
fers." which were then used as part of the seal, 
would be an extra sheet of paper, so as to re- 
quire extra postage. After a short time the post- 
office was moved to Doty's dining room and the 
letters were kept in a cupboard. Mr. Whitman 
had been postmaster about six years, when, on 
account of being a Whig, he was removed and 
another postmaster was appointed. Mr. Jenner 
came here in 18.38 and about the middle of that 
year took charge of the postoffice. The mail 
came three times a week, by the Frink & Walker 
stage line. The stage arrived in Belvidere at 
night and the mail came in a big leather bag 
that held eight or ten bushels. 


In the very early days the inhabitants buried 
theif dead in the north edge of the town. The 
Belvidere Cemetery Association was incorporated 
in 18-17, by John K. Towner, Asher E. Jenner, 
and William T. Burgess and secured that part 
of the original town lying between Marshall 
Street on the south, Webster Street on the west 
and the north line of the town on the north. 
Since that time considerable land has been se- 
cured from the Dunton estate and additions 
made. The cemetery is surrounded by an iron 
fence and laid out with roadways and walks. 
In 1907, through the generosity of Mrs. Emma 
Pettit, a very tasty chapel building was erected 
in the west part of the grounds, in memory of 
her husband, Dr. Pettit. The two Foote obelisks 
of gray Barre granite are the largest and most 
beautiful in the cemetery. There are also a 
large number of other vcrj- fine stones and 
within the bounds of this quiet spot have been 
laid most of Belvidere's dead. 

The Saint James Catholic Cemetery is on West 
Lincoln .\venue, near the Fair Grounds and here. 

under the anus of a great cross, lie those of 
the Catholic faith, who have passed to the 
Great Beyond. 







The following in reference to conditions in 
Boone Count}-, soon after the date of first set- 
tlement, is taken from "Peck's Gazetteer of Illi- 
nois," issued in 1837: 

"Most of the land in this and adjoining coun- 
ties is as yet unsurveyed and thus has not been 
offered for sale by the general government. It 
is. nctwithstanding. rapidly settling up with an 
enterprising population. The soil is fertile and 
well adapted to raising all the different kinds 
of agricultural products common to this part of 
the state. The surface is mostly rich, undulating 
prairie, with a considerable quantity of timber 
scattered over the countrj-, principally iu groves 
and oak oi>enings, of which the chief of the 
former is Norwegian Grove. 

"Boone Couuty is for judicial purposes at- 
tached to Jo Daviess County. Its county seat 
is not yet laid out. 

"The only town iu the county is Belvidere. a 
small settlement on the stage road from Chi- 
cago to Galena. It is in the western part of the 
countj- on Squaw Prairie and has a delightful 
appearance. Near the town site is a mound 50 
rods long and about 30 rods wide, elevated 70 
feet above the Ixittoni land of the river. On the 
top of this mound is the cemetery of an Indian 



called Big Thunder. He died about tlae time of 
the Sauls War in 1831 or '32 and was placed in 
a sitting posture on a flag mat, wrapped in a 
blanket, his scalping knife by his side to cut the 
plugs of tobacco, whiskey, etc. 

"The citizens of this region are about to erect 
a college edifice on this spot, in the vault of 
which the bones of Big Thunder will repose 
unmolested. A charter was granted for the 
purpose in the recent session of the Legislature." 


As can be imagined, it was a very difHcult task 
to make the surveys in order to divide off the 
land into sections, quarter sections, and SO-acre 
tracts. The third principal meridian was first 
run through north and south, and then the town- 
ships, six miles square, were put in, being di- 
vided into sections one mile square. These sec- 
tions were then divided into quarter sections and 
these quarter sections were divided, by running a 
line north and south, into two 80-acre tracts. When 
the land was sold by the government, all the farms 
had their greatest length north and south, but by 
further dividing and selling, a large proportion 
of them now run east and west, as can be seen 
by reference to the map. Some of the sections on 
the edge of each township contain considerably 
more or less than G40 acres and were not divided 
into quarter sections, but into "lots." Section IG 
of each township was reserved by law for the 
school section and sold by the school commission- 
ers. The patents for the school lands are from 
the governor of the State of Illinois instead of 
from the president. The school sections were 
surveyed into small "lots," sometimes only 20 
acres, and sold in that manner. The townships 
in range three in Boone County were surveyed 
by Don Alonzo Spaulding of Rockford about 1837. 
Le Roy was surveyed by T. Sprigg in 1839. 



Most of the land in Boone County was taken 
up from the government under an act of Con- 

gress, approved April 24, 1820, entitled "An Act 
making further provision for the sale of the pub- 
lic lands." Under this act the smallest subdi- 
vision was a half quarter section, or SO acres, 
and the line dividing the quarter section into 
half ran north and south. The price was $1.2.j 
an acre. Under a former act of Congress any 
person who had actually inhabited and cultivated 
a tract of land, not more than a quarter section, 
was allowed a preference in bidding the same in. 
For this reason claims were bought and sold by 
persons who had no actual title to the same, but 
a mere right derived from pre-emption. The re- 
sult was that, although the government sales 
were supposed to be public to the highest bidder, 
the land generally went to the person who had 
lived on it and improved it. Although the writer 
has not been informed that such was the case in 
c-onnection with the entering of Boone County 
lands, yet the history of other counties plainly 
indicates that there generally were enough 
friends of the actual settler attending the sale to 
see to it that no outside party bid over him. As 
is well known to the reader, all the lands in this 
part of the United States are divided into town- 
ships six miles square. The third principal me- 
ridian was established by the government sur- 
veyors so as to run north from the intersection 
of the Jlississippi and Ohio Rivers. In the 
northern part of the state, it runs a little west 
of Rockford. The base line was established at 
an early date at what was then the southern 
limits of the Indian lands. From these two 
lines other lines six miles apart were drawn. 
Each strip running up and down the state is a 
range and each strip running across the state 
east and west constitutes a line of townships. 
Boone County includes the four northern town- 
ships of Range three and four east of the third 
principal meridian. Most of the entries in range 
four were made at the land office at Chicago, 
while most of those in range three were made at 
Galena or Dixon. The government authorities 
decided the boundaries of the land office districts 



from time to time. The person wisliing to enter 
government land paid his $1.25 an acre at the 
land otHce and received what is called a "receiv- 
er's certificate." After waiting two years, if no 
person showed a hotter right, he would receive 
his patent, which was made on parchment or 
sheepskin. Perhaps the majority of the patents 
in this countj' were signed for President Polk 
by his Secretary. Many of the earlier entries 
were made in October and November, 1839, par- 
ticularly so far as Belvidore Township was con- 
cerned, and there were other entries running as 
late as 1850 or even later. Belvidere city is sit- 
uated In Sections 25, 2G, 35 and 3G of Belvidere 
Township. The northeast quarter of Section 26 
was entered by the County Commissioners and 
very soon afterward was platted into lots and 
blocks, leaving, in about the center, the public 
square. The southeast quarter of Section 20 
was entered, the east half by Joel Walker and 
the west half by William H. Gilman, his son-in- 
law. Mr. Walker platted a portion of that part 
which was easterly of State Street into "Joel 
Walker's Addition," which includes the easterly 
side of State Street north of the river, as far as 
Madison Street and includes Lincoln Avenue as 
far as Mr. John C. Foote's residence. Mr. Walker 
also platted part of his land south of the river, 
including Locust Street around Dr. Swift's pres- 
ent residence, and called it Walker's Second Ad- 
dition. Mr. Gilman did not plat his SO acres on 
the north side of the river, but sold it to Frederick 
W. Crosby, who also purchased part of Mr. Wal- 
ker's land. Mr. Crosby put in a number of sub- 
divisions in the vicinity of Lincoln Avenue and 
Hurlbut Avenue, at an early date. The Crosby's 
•were prominent among the early settlers. Among 
the other early additions lying between West 
Lincoln Avenue and the river and westerly of 
State Street, was Simon P. Doty's, which took in 
the whole block fronting on State Street. Wil- 
liam B. Ogden, one of the early mayors of Chi- 
cago, subdivided the land on both sides of Ogden 
Street, and William T. Burgess, a very able law- 

yer of the early times, subdivided the land on 
both sides of Burgess Street. The southwest 
quarter of Section 20 was entered by John S. 
King, who ran the grist mill. The part south of 
Lincoln Avenue has never been subdivided. The 
easterly part along Lincoln Avenue, running as 
far west as the bend in Perry and Boone Streets, 
was subdivided by Enos Tompkins, while the 
part west of that was subdivided by Mrs. Matilda 
Whitman, widow of Rov. S. S. Whitman. The 
northwest quarter of Section 20 was originally 
divided into long narrow lots fronting on the 
north Rockford road out beyond General Fuller's, 
and much of this is still unsubdivided. Frye's 
Resurvey, Cronk and Frye's Subdivision, some 
of the Bennett Additions and "Meadow Lawn" 
are in this quarter section. The northwest quar- 
ter of Section 25, which takes in East Lincoln 
Avenue, from about Deacon Avery's corner to 
the bend around the river and runs northerly to 
aliout where the green houses are, was origin- 
ally entered by Seth S. Whitman, Cephas Gard- 
ner, and Ann Nicholas, who was Seth S. Whit- 
man's mother-in-law. Soon after obtaining their 
title they deeded about 40 acres, lying just wes- 
terly of the present railroad tracks and north 
yards to Alexander Neely. This tract was after- 
ward held by Slosson & Williams and by Baker 
Ames, and is now the Mary A. Wheeler property. 
The long narrow strip lying westerly of Mr. 
Neely's tract and running as far as Gardner 
Street, was taken by Mr. Gardner as his share of 
the quarter section, and afterwards the south 
half of it was divided by his daughter, Pamelia 
Moulton, while the north part was subdivided by 
G. W. Campbell, who was an early settler. The 
part of the quarter section westerly of Gardner 
Street was taken by Seth S. Whitman and part 
of it was subdivided by him. The part between 
Lincoln Avenue and the river contains many fine 
old residences, with splendid lawns running back 
a considerable distance to the river, most of 
which have been in the families of the present 
owners for many years. All of this quarter sec- 



tion, whicli lies east of wliere the railroad now 
is, was taken by Ann Nicholas. The title has 
since been in the Bennett and Dunton families, 
and much of it was subdivided by the Lincoln 
Avenue Land Association and called "Fairview." 
Probably the most important quarter section in 
Belvidere is the southwest quarter of Section 25. 
This was entered by Joseph Briggs. Mr. Briggs 
was apparently a young man and a friend of 
Daniel Hilton Whitney, and does not appear to 
have remained in Belvidere or to have left de- 
scendants here. The part of the quarter which 
lies southwest of Whitney Street was subdivided 
by Aaron Whitney, brother of Daniel H.. and 
takes in most of the business houses on South 
State Street, between the National Factory and 
the bend at Logan Avenue. Almost all of the 
quarter section which lies easterly of Whitney 
Street, including the railroad depot, part of the 
National Plant, and part of Borden's plant, was 
owned and platted by William H. Oilman, who 
was probably the most extensive land owner in 
Belvidere, the next three being probably (so far 
as the number of transactions are concerned), 
Alexander Neely, F. W. Crosby, and S. S. Whit- 
man and his estate. The northwest quarter of 
Section 36 was entered, the east half by Otis 
Caswell and the west half by Horace R. Green. 
Mr. Caswell subdivided the part lying between 
Caswell and Prairie Streets and extending from 
Logan Avenue, south to a little beyond Fourth 
Street. The rest became the property of the 
Rowan family and was subdivided into various 
additions. The west half of the quarter section 
was sold out in tracts of about twenty acres and 
subdivided at an early date by Cohoon & Allen, 
and by Loop, Babcock & Carpenter, and by Bain- 
bridge N. Dean, father of Judge C. B. Dean. 
This quarter section now constitute? a fine resi- 
dence portion of the south side. The southwest 
quarter of Section 36 was mostly purchased by a 
syndicate composed of Judge Fuller, D. D. Sabin, 
John C. Foote and John L. Witbeck, and is known 
as "Highland," and its various additions. It is a 

flue, high location. The platted portion of Sec- 
tion 35, lying along the westerly side of Pearl 
Street about as far as south as Sixth Street, was 
subdivided by Nijah Hotchkiss. Frank W. Starr 
subdivided most of the southern part of the sub- 
divided portion of this section, at a later date, 
into Starr's various additions. The northeast 
quarter of Section 36 was entered by Albert 
Neely and that north of Logan Avenue, so far as 
platted, was subdivided by the Gray brothers, 
John and William. The platted portion, south- 
erly of Logan Avenue, was subdivided by Am- 
brose B. Turner. 

The records of the countj- are kept in a fire 
proof record office on Main Street, southerly of 
the court house. There are about sixty-six books 
of deeds and fortj'-five of mortgages, together 
with a large number of miscellaneous records. 
A. C. Fassett has been the efficient and popular 
circuit clerk and recorder for many years, and 
Mrs. Clara Lampert is deputy. Mrs. Lampert's 
writing, for neatness and legibility, has never been 
excelled on the records of the county. Some of 
the WTiting in the early records, before the war, 
is very illegible and would try the patience of a 
saint, — to say nothing of that of a lawyer or 
abstractor. Most of the records, however, were 
very well kept since the very start. 

The probate records are kept on the upper floor 
of the record building under the custody of the 
county clerk, William Bowley, whose name is a 
synonym all over the county for courteous treat- 
ment. The abstractors of the county are : The 
Boone Abstract Company, which has a Tract 
Index made in 190i, and of which Richard V. 
Carpenter is Secretary, J. R. Jaffi'ay, and the 
circuit clerk, Mr. Fassett. 

Eablt Transfers. 

Among the early transfers in Boone County 
lands were the following. Some of them were 
made before the land was patented from the 
government. On August 23, 1837, David Cas- 
well, D. H. Whitney and A. Whitney quitclaimed 



to Seth S. Whitman all Interest in tbe northwest 
14 section 25. acquired by cultivation. Aaron 
Whitney resen-ed the right to farm that part of 
the quarter south of the river (being the land 
where the Borden factory now stands) until it 
came into the market. March 14. 1837. Charles 
H. Payne quitclaimed to Lewis A. Doolittle all 
interest in the north half of section 25. August 
3, 1837, Chas. F. H. Goodhue, Jr., conveyed to 
Alexander Neely all interest in the store and lot 
in Belvidere which Goodhue then occupied, Mr. 
Goodhue also deeded to Mr. Neely the claim pur- 
chased from A. Nixon, which, although the 
boundaries are somewhat hard to locate, was 
apparently either what afterwards became "Orig- 
inal Belvidere" or somewhat to the east of that. 
As Mr. Neely afterwards was deeded 40 acres in 
the northwest Vi of section 25 by Whitman. 
Gardner and Mrs. Nicholass. it is likely that 
some agreement was made whereby his claim 
should be recognized in this way and that Messrs. 
Nixon and Goodhue both located early on the 
northwest % of section 25. October 24, 1838, 
Thomas O. Davis quitclaimed to Alexander 
Neely all interest in the northeast % of section 
36, on which said Davis then resided. This is 
the land which includes Turner's Hill and the 
Roach Stock Farm. 

Thomas O. Davis had a log house on Turner's 
Hill, which was practically the only house in that 
part of the south side at a very early day. Mr. 
Davis afterward went to Chicago and started 
the old "Chicago American." 






In the original town of Belvidere, Harrison, 
Marshall, Jackson, Boone. Perry, Madison, Van 
Buren, Webster, Hancock, and Wayne Streets 
were all named after prominent soldiers, jurists, 
or statesmen in American history. Kishwaukee 
was named after the river. State Street evidently 
because it was the State Road, and Main Street 
because it was intended for a prominence which 
it was destined never to attain. Main. Boone, 
and State Streets are each six rods wide, while 
the other streets in the original town are four 
rods wide. The vacant space in the central part 
of the town plat was called the "'Public Square." 
Main Street has been continued across the Square, 
dividing it into an easterly and westerly half, 
but in the early days Main Street was not con- 
tinued as such but ended at the northerly and 
southerly edges of the Square. On the part of 
the Public Square easterly of Main Street are 
the court house, sheriff's residence, and record 
office, and the part near Perry Street was sold 
to the North Side School trustees and is used 
for the Main Street building of their school sys- 
tem. The part of the Public Square westerly of 
Main has been leased by the county to the City 
of Belvidere for 50 years for the purpose of a 
park. West and East Streets derived their names 
from their relative position on the plat, but it 
is impossible to imagine why the street at the 
northwesterly corner of the quarter section was 
called South Street. East Street is now called 
Hurlbut Avenue, after General Stephen A. Hurl- 
but, whose fine residence was on that street. The 
street now called Baker Street, which has been 
closed up part of its length, was first called Pearl 
Street, which name is now given to a street in 
somewhat the same relative position on the 

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south side. Ogdeu Street was named after 
William B. Ogden, an early mayor of Chicago, 
wlio made a sub-division in that locality, and 
Burgess Street was named after William T. 
Burgess, a prominent lawyer here, who also made 
a sub-division near the river. Goodrich Street 
was evidently named from Joseph Goodrich, 
who owned a great deal of property in that local- 
ity. On the south side. Meadow Street was 
evidently so called because it ran across the 
meadows on the south bank of the river. Locust 
and Pleasant Streets have an obvious derivation. 
Buchanan Street was apparently named from 
President Buchanan, Julien Street from the Jul- 
ian House, Church Street evidently from the 
Catholic Church, and Whitney, Caswell, Gilman, 
and Coleman Streets from prominent early set- 
tlers. Lincoln Avenue, on the north side, was 
formerly Mechanic's Street. Logan Avenue, was 
formerly the State Road. Most of the south side 
streets are numbered from First to Ninth. In 
Gray's Addition, Gray Street and Nettie Street 
are from members of the Gray family. In Ful- 
ler and Foote's Sub-division, "Rowland" evi- 
dently marks Mr. Foote's interest in the May- 
flower passengers. Trenton Avenue and Parker 
Avenue in Columbia Sub-division show that Ben- 
jamin Fry had something to do with the naming. 
Columbia Avenue, on which the corset factory 
is located, took its name from the Columbia 
Heating Company. West Locust Street was 
formerly known as the River Road, as it still is 
further west. Starr Street was named after 
Frank W. Starr, and Ruby Street, and Dalbigne 
Street were named after members of the Cronk 
family. Bennett Street in Fairview was named 
from the Bennett family, who formerly owned 
land there, and Gardner Street is named after 
Cephas Gardner, being on the west line of the 
part which Mr. Gardner took of the quarter sec- 
tion entered by him in conjunction with Rev. 
Whitman and Mrs. Xicholass. Scott's Army 
Trail in Fairview was named more in commem- 
oration of Scott's Army than as the exact place 

where they marched, because the place where 
they crossed the river has not yet been definitely 

Early Belvidere Recollections. 

When Lorenzo McDougal arrived with his 
father in 183G, he found the little community on 
the ground now covered by Belvidere, located 
about as follows : The State Road on the north 
side of the river was in the location of the pres- 
ent State Street. Crossing this was the County 
Road now known as Lincoln Avenue. Doty's 
Tavern stood as has already been stated and 
down by the river back of Doty's lived Mr. 
Schenck. Altiertus Nixon lived in a cabin be- 
tween the present Lincoln Avenue, and the river, 
out near the Moulton house. Chas. Payne lived 
around the bend and Timothy and David Cas- 
well lived out near the present Big Thunder 

It appears from the early records that Lin- 
coln Avenue, near State Street, was called "Me- 
chanics Street," probably as a compliment to 
such artisans as might be induced to locate 
in Belvidere. 

West Lincoln Avenue ran out past where the 
Catholic Cemetery is now located and then 
turned southerly across the river and, except that 
part near State Street, was called Cline's Ford 
Road from Cornelius Cline, who lived in that 
locality. East Lincoln Avenue was usually 
called "the country road running along the north 
side of the Kishwaukee past Austin Gardner's 
residence." It is said that the present corner 
at Lincoln Avenue and State Street was laid out 
with a carpenter's square, probably by Simon P. 
Doty and Frederick W. Crosby, whose land cor- 
nered there. 

B. C. Meade came from Niagara County, N. Y., 
in 1844, with three of his brothers, two sisters 
and his parents. They came in two covered 
wagons, by way of Canada. Previous to that 
he had made the trip to this region to look around, 
coming mostly by foot. When ho came. Big 


Thunder's mummy was all gone and only one or 
two of the posts of his pen remained. He says 
Dr. Malony got the head. The stores were Smith 
& Walker, where the hardware store stands, and 
Bristol on the south-east corner of State and Me- 
chanic. The American House was where the 
stage stopped. Dotj-'s and Towner's were still 
there. The most traveled road to Rockford was 
the North Rockford Road, but the stage usually 
■went across at Cline's Ford and out the River 
Road, which was there even at that time. The 
State Road came south across the river about 
where it is now, to the railroad track, and then 
ran off through where the business blocks are 
to the easterly. Most of the travel came in on 
the north side oC the river, around the bend to 
the east of town. At that time Xewburgh had 
three stores and Belvidere only two. Col. Sayre, 
who ran the mills, was an elderly man and liked 
to tell of Newburgh's coming greatness. Benja- 
min Hoyt was a large man with a very strong 
voice which could be heard at a great distance, 
particularly when he called his negro servant. 
At such times the neighbors would say, "There 
is Hoyt whi-spering again." He started to Cali- 
fornia, but died on the way. Benjamin F. Hoyt, 
his sou. was usually called "Frank." He was 
shot through the neck by a man in Newburgh 
but, strange to say, was very little injured, while 
the one who did the shooting, and was otherwise 
a young man of good reputation, is said to have 
died from worrying over the occurrence. When 
Mr. Meade came in '44, it was one of the wettest 
seasons ever had here. The flats near the river 
in Belvidere were covered with water up to the 
wagon boxes. Mr. Meade and his brothers pur- 
chased a cabin on the Beaver. About the time 
they arrived, Mr. Mulford, of Winnebago Countj', 
had been robbed and was doing a little detective 
work on his own hook. As there were five of 
the robbers and five in Mr. Meade's party, and 
the latter brought with thorn a team of good 
horses. Mr. Mulford came to the caliin. stayed 
there over night and pretended he wished to buy 

the horses. After seeing the horses and talking 
with the members of the party, he became con- 
vinced that his suspicions were wholly un- 
founded and talked with them freely concerning 
the whole affair. The robbery of Mr. Mulford 
was a very bold affair and caused much excite- 
ment at the time. It has been related very fully 
in histories of Winnebago County but as it was 
outside the limits of Boone County it will not 
be reported here. 

M. K. Avery's Recollections. 

M. K. Avery (now of Portland, Iowa), in a 
letter to C. E. Sackett, writes as follows; 

"My father moved from Auburn, Pa., to Il- 
linois in 1S3S.. and landed at Amesville, July 9, 
1S3S. We stayed that night at George Ames' log 
tavern, a double log house. If I remember right, we 
made arrangements to move to your father's house 
the next day. and stayed with your folks until 
some time in September. Tour folks had a new- 
log house and had lived in it but a short time. 
In the meantime, my father bought a claim of 
Loudy Stevenson for, I believe, $250.00. That 
summer we Ixiught enough poplar trees In Ste- 
venson's woods, north of the river, for a set of 
house logs and had them hewed both sides, and 
ill September had a 'raising.' When the frame 
was nearly up. a covered wagon drawn by a 
couple of black horees and containing a number 
of small children, with their parents and a 
niece of Mr. Thomas W. Porter, stopped to talk 
with the men at work on the house. These 
men persuaded Mr. Porter to turn around and 
drive back to Loudy Stevenson's and stay all 
night. Stevenson had a double log house. The 
next day James Otis persuaded Porter to go 
over the river and buy his claim. There was 
no house on the land, so Mr. Porter made ar- 
rangements to stay with 'Uncle Loudy,' as he 
was familiarly called, until they could erect a 
small house. They fared pretty hard that win- 
ter, living mostly on turniiis. potatoes and salt. 
I will give the number and location of the houses 



on our prairie at tlae time we first crossed it 
from Marengo to George Ames". Tlie first sign 
of a house was a body without a roof, near where 
Wash Sears lived afterward. I thinlc it was 
the one that David Barron moved into some 
time after. If my memory serves me right, there 
was a log house started up where the Renwieks 
lived afterward. There was a small field 
fenced where Wash Sears built his house after- 
ward, but no house. We brought a nice bull dog 
with us from Pennsylvania. We stopped at a 
tavern in Marengo to feed our horses (three of 
them), but when we hitched up, the dog must 
have been asleep and we did not miss him until 
we got to this field. Father started back on 
foot to find the dog. He did not have to go far 
before he met the dog coming. It was a hot day 
and the dog was about used up, so father put 
him over the fence in the shade. The nest day 
father went back and found him dead. The 
house on the hill (White) was owned by Fran- 
cis Barren, the next was Loudy Stevenson's 
house (Sears), the next was Mr. Sackett's house 
(in Garden Prairie), the next was the Alfred 
Ames' house, the next was George Ames' tavern. 
I think that John Spinknable, or as we pro- 
nounced it, Sponable, had a house north of the 
road In a grove near the river where the Boom- 
ers lived before they built the frame house near 
the road. Thomas Heaton and Putnam Morse 
helped Captain Boomer build the frame house. 
I believe it was the first frame house built on 
the prairie. S. P. Hyde and George T. Kasson 
had a small cabin north of the river, close to the 
old Indian ford ; they lived on their claim and 
kept 'bachelor's hall.' They had a fine large 
cow and I used to go over there in order to get 
a rich bowl of mush and milk. Old Uncle Benn 
Heaton bought them out and lived there till he 
died. There were no other houses over the river 
until you crossed Rush Creek. There was a 
piece of prairie broken and some sod-corn on the 
place that Joseph Gray bought and settled upon 
some time after we came to Amesville. I think 

a man by the name of Wilder took the claim and 
broke the land that Gray got Wilder planted 
some muskmelons and I used to go down there 
occasionally, and often the muskmelons, some of 
them, would go with me the same as the goose 
'went with' the soldier who was trailing along 
a fish-hook baited with kernels of corn. I tell 
you, those muskmelons were the best that I ever 
tasted. I can almost smell them today. I be- 
lieve Nat Perry was in the country before we 
came to Illinois. Mr. White came after we 
came, but it could not have been more than two 
or three years later. He bought the Francis 
Barren place on the hill. The Searses came 
about the time Marcus White came. Mr. 
White moved in with us for awhile. The Sears 
boys also lived with us for awhile. They had 
fine guns and prairie chickens were thick, so we 
lived on chickens as long as they (the Searses, 
not the chickens), lived with us. Loudy Steven- 
son sold out to them and he took up another 
claim on Bonus. The McDougals came a year or 
so before we came. Morris Tates came later 
and took up a claim on this side of the river. He 
afterward sold out to Syril P. Hyde and took up 
a claim at the mouth of Coon Creek. Yates 
went to California and died there. When we 
came to Amesville there were a few settlers about 
Shattuck's Grove. Among them was John Bax- 
ter. He came in 183S. I have heard him say 
Indians were pretty plenty at that time. The 
pen made of shakes around Big Thunder's body, 
on the Mound, was standing. I have seen a por- 
tion of his body and blankets and willow baskets 
inside of the inclosure. His head bad been re- 
moved before we came.'' 

Reminiscences of Mr. Doty. 

Simon P. Doty celebrated his 80th birthday, 
Jlay 9, 1877, by giving a supper to a number of 
the old settlers. According to Mr. Doty's recol- 
lections as reported in the paper on this occa- 
sion, he had a little cabin some twenty or thirty 
rods northwest of where Union Hall was after- 



Wiird liuilt. It h;i]i[ieiK'U that :i ?r;uul Wliig 
nilly was li.-ld ami ruii.iK_isea cliR-lly of .Mr. Doty 
and Dr. Whitney. Dr. Wliitiu-y uruti- up the 
lueetiug and the various resolutions for the Chi- 
cago papers, and described it as "A large and en- 
thusiastic meeting held at the Belvldere Hotel," 
Mr. Doty was the lar^'e and Dr. Whitney the 
enthusia.stio part. Some time later two Chicago 
travelers stopped at a cabin on South Prairie, but 
the proprietor was not in shape to entertain 
them. They thereupon recollected the account 
as to "Belvidere Hotel" and made their way to 
that place. Mr. Doty's bill of fare happened to 
be confined to hulled corn, but he did his best to 
entertain his guests and started them next morn- 
ing on their journey fairly well satisfied and 
filled with nutritious hulled com. In that way 
Mr. Doty commenced in the hotel business. 

Mr. Doty once got up quite a reputation as the 
man who shaved by the blaze on a white o.ak 
tree. This happened in "40, when the great hard 
cider meeting was held at Springfield. Mr. Doty 
and a large number went down as delegates. 
WTien they arrived at Sangamon River, as it 
was to take a long time to cross the large party, 
they all began to "fix up" in order to make a 
respectable appearance, on their arrival in the 
city. When the rest began to pull out their lit- 
tle looking glasses, the Belvidere pioneer thought 
he would spruce up a little, like the otlyrs. So 
he took his axe and made a place on a big white 
oak tree and stood up before it and shaved off 
his beard. This was highly original and nobody 
had ever seen a man shave in this way before 
and hundreds witnessed it. It was a droll joke. 
It got into the papers and went the rounds. Mr. 
Doty could have filled a good sized book with 
stories connected with the early settlement of 
this section of countrj'. but the book could not 
give Doty's style of telling it. 

Margaret Fuli-eb in Belvidere. 

Margaret Fuller, the celebrated writer, visited 

Ki.shwaukec and Rock River Valleys in 1.S43, 

and added by her genius much interest to the 

places at which she stoi.ped. .Miss Fuller be- 
longed to the gifted circle of which Hawthorne, 
Emerson, and James Freeman Clarke were a 
part. She afterward married Count d'Ossoli, 
and was drowned in a shipwreck within sight 
of land, while returning from Italy to her native 
home. Miss Fuller took a triji from Chicago to 
Oregon and Dixon, 111., in lS4:j, and among the 
places connected with her name in that region 
are Hazelwood, Eagle's Xest and Ganymede 
Springs, all of which are along the Rock River. 
She told of her experiences in her book entitled 
"At Home and -\broad." The only reference to 
Belvidere in that book is the statement that she 
stopped here on her way to Chicago and found 
a very good hotel. This was probably the -Ameri- 
can House, which at that time was considered 
one of the best hotels between Chicago and 
Galena. Miss Fuller also states that Big Thun- 
der had been buried in Belvidere, but that his 
grave at that time had been despoiled. It is 
apparent that she was pleased with the location 
and prospect.s of Belvidere, because on October 
21, 1S43, Block 20 in the original town of Bel- 
videre was deeded to her brother, Arthur B. 
Fuller. It was purchased of John Walworth at 
a consideration of .?455.00, and the tradition is 
that Miss Fuller furnished the money. Mr. 
Fuller ran a school on said premises for a short 
time, but sold them March 29, 1845, and they 
afterwards came into the possession of Rev. 
Chas. Hill Roe. This is the block upon which 
Squire H. C. DeMunn lived for so long. The 
building was that used by the old "Xewton 
Academy" in the very early days. It does not 
appear that Miss Fuller herself ever stayed any 
considerable length of time in Belvidere. 

Moss Neighborhood. 

The Moss family occupied considerable land 
along the river road and have been prominent in 
the county's history. Asa Moss, Sr., was bom 
at Waterbury, Conn., 1779. He married Harriet 
Sherwood at Kingsbury, Washington County, 



N. Y.. in 1803. They had thirteen ohiUlren. 
They removed to Chautauqua County, N. Y., in 
1S21. In 1836, Andrew Moss and Edward E. 
Moss tooli passage in a sailing vessel from Dun- 
kirk, N. Y.,